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2.
J Clin Med ; 10(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572518

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a severe ongoing global emergency. Despite high rates of asymptomatic patients, in many cases, the infection causes a rapid decline in pulmonary function due to an acute respiratory distress-like syndrome, leading to multi-organ failure and death. To date, recommendations about rehabilitation on COVID-19 are based on clinical data derived from other similar lung diseases. Rehabilitation literature lacks a standard taxonomy, limiting a proper evaluation of the most effective treatments for patients after COVID-19 infection. In this study, we assessed the clinical and rehabilitative associations and the geographical area involved in interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and in COVID-19, by a mathematical analysis based on graph theory. We performed a quantitative analysis of the literature in terms of lexical analysis and on how words are connected to each other. Despite a large difference in timeframe (throughout the last 23 years for ILD and in the last 1.5 years for COVID-19), the numbers of papers included in this study were similar. Our results show a clear discrepancy between rehabilitation proposed for COVID-19 and ILD. In ILD, the term "rehabilitation" and other related words such as "exercise" and "program" resulted in lower values of centrality and higher values of eccentricity, meaning relatively less importance of the training during the process of care in rehabilitation of patients with ILD. Conversely, "rehabilitation" was one of the most cited terms in COVID-19 literature, strongly associated with terms such as "exercise", "physical", and "program", entailing a multidimensional approach of the rehabilitation for these patients. This could also be due to the widespread studies conducted on rehabilitation on COVID-19, with Chinese and Italian researchers more involved. The assessment of the terms used for the description of the rehabilitation may help to program shared rehabilitation knowledge and avoid literature misunderstandings.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21136, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493228

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impressively challenging the healthcare system. Several prognostic models have been validated but few of them are implemented in daily practice. The objective of the study was to validate a machine-learning risk prediction model using easy-to-obtain parameters to help to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at higher risk of death. The training cohort included all patients admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli with COVID-19 from March 5, 2020, to November 5, 2020. Afterward, the model was tested on all patients admitted to the same hospital with COVID-19 from November 6, 2020, to February 5, 2021. The primary outcome was in-hospital case-fatality risk. The out-of-sample performance of the model was estimated from the training set in terms of Area under the Receiving Operator Curve (AUROC) and classification matrix statistics by averaging the results of fivefold cross validation repeated 3-times and comparing the results with those obtained on the test set. An explanation analysis of the model, based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), is also presented. To assess the subsequent time evolution, the change in paO2/FiO2 (P/F) at 48 h after the baseline measurement was plotted against its baseline value. Among the 921 patients included in the training cohort, 120 died (13%). Variables selected for the model were age, platelet count, SpO2, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, neutrophil count, and sodium. The results of the fivefold cross-validation repeated 3-times gave AUROC of 0.87, and statistics of the classification matrix to the Youden index as follows: sensitivity 0.840, specificity 0.774, negative predictive value 0.971. Then, the model was tested on a new population (n = 1463) in which the case-fatality rate was 22.6%. The test model showed AUROC 0.818, sensitivity 0.813, specificity 0.650, negative predictive value 0.922. Considering the first quartile of the predicted risk score (low-risk score group), the case-fatality rate was 1.6%, 17.8% in the second and third quartile (high-risk score group) and 53.5% in the fourth quartile (very high-risk score group). The three risk score groups showed good discrimination for the P/F value at admission, and a positive correlation was found for the low-risk class to P/F at 48 h after admission (adjusted R-squared = 0.48). We developed a predictive model of death for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection by including only easy-to-obtain variables (abnormal blood count, BUN, C-reactive protein, sodium and lower SpO2). It demonstrated good accuracy and high power of discrimination. The simplicity of the model makes the risk prediction applicable for patients in the Emergency Department, or during hospitalization. Although it is reasonable to assume that the model is also applicable in not-hospitalized persons, only appropriate studies can assess the accuracy of the model also for persons at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , Rome/epidemiology
4.
Brain Inj ; 35(10): 1134-1142, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397992

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced hospitals to adopt tighter restrictions, the most impacting is no access to visitors. Disorder of consciousness (DOC) due to severe acquired brain injury is a condition needing neurorehabilitation and the role of relatives is essential, hence besides physical "disconnection" digital "re-connection" is crucial. We aimed to assess whether digital communication benefits in patients with DOC, considering the sensorial and emotional deprivation due to the COVID-19 emergency lock-down.Methods: For eleven consecutive patients with DOC admitted to our Intensive Neurorehabilitation Care (mean age: 45; females: 9), two observers registered neurobehavioral changes during a video-calls with their relatives. Heart-rate variability was measured before and during the calls. The video-call was performed by using two displays of different sizes: tablet (T-video-call) and large screen (LS-Video-call).Results: The video-calls impacted on the patients' vigilance and in the relationship with relatives. Moreover, positively impacted on their relatives. The current results showed significant greater impact on patients during the LS-video-call than when they are exposed to T-video-call.Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, besides the physical disconnection to stop the contagion spread, a "digital re-connection" is needed for all and especially for fragile population groups as patients with DOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consciousness , Communicable Disease Control , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Female , Heart Rate , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

Background: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. Methods: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. Findings: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. Interpretation: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

6.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101351, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220660

ABSTRACT

Untangling the interdependency of infections, immunity and frailty may help to clarify their roles in the maintenance of health in aging individuals, and the recent COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted such priority. In this scoping review we aimed to systematically collect the evidence on 1) the impact of common infections such as influenza, pneumonia and varicella zoster on frailty development, and 2) the role played by frailty in the response to immunization of older adults. Findings are discussed under a unifying framework to identify knowledge gaps and outline their clinical and public health implications to foster a healthier aging. Twenty-nine studies (113,863 participants) selected to answer the first question provided a moderately strong evidence of an association between infections and physical as well as cognitive decline - two essential dimensions of frailty. Thirteen studies (34,520 participants) investigating the second aim, showed that frailty was associated with an impaired immune response in older ages, likely due to immunosenescence. However, the paucity of studies, the absence of tools to predict vaccine efficacy, and the lack of studies investigating the efficacy of newer vaccines in presence of frailty, strongly limit the formulation of more personalized immunization strategies for older adults. The current evidence suggests that infections and frailty repeatedly cross each other pathophysiological paths and accelerate the aging process in a vicious circle. Such evidence opens to several considerations. First, the prevention of both conditions pass through a life course approach, which includes several individual and societal aspects. Second, the maintenance of a well-functioning immune system may be accomplished by preventing frailty, and vice versa. Third, increasing the adherence to immunization may delay the onset of frailty and maintain the immune system homeostasis, beyond preventing infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Healthy Aging , Aged , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(3): e38-e45, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether frailty and multimorbidity predict in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 beyond chronological age. METHOD: A total of 165 patients admitted from March 8th to April 17th, 2020, with COVID-19 in an acute geriatric ward in Italy were included. Predisease frailty was assessed with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Multimorbidity was defined as the co-occurrence of ≥2 diseases in the same patient. The hazard ratio (HR) of in-hospital mortality as a function of CFS score and number of chronic diseases in the whole population and in those aged 70+ years were calculated. RESULTS: Among the 165 patients, 112 were discharged, 11 were transferred to intensive care units, and 42 died. Patients who died were older (81.0 vs 65.2 years, p < .001), more frequently multimorbid (97.6 vs 52.8%; p < .001), and more likely frail (37.5 vs 4.1%; p < .001). Less than 2.0% of patients without multimorbidity and frailty, 28% of those with multimorbidity only, and 75% of those with both multimorbidity and frailty died. Each unitary increment in the CFS was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death in the whole sample (HR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.05-1.62) and in patients aged 70+ years (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04-1.62), whereas the number of chronic diseases was not significantly associated with higher risk of death. The CFS addition to age and sex increased mortality prediction by 9.4% in those aged 70+ years. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty identifies patients with COVID-19 at risk of in-hospital death independently of age. Multimorbidity contributes to prognosis because of the very low probability of death in its absence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 579842, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886812

ABSTRACT

Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia, such as anxiety, depression, agitation, and apathy, are complex, stressful, and costly aspects of care, and are associated to poor health outcomes and caregiver burden. A steep worsening of such symptoms has been reported during Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, their causes, their impact on everyday life, and treatment strategies have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a detailed description of behavioral and psychopathological alterations in subjects with dementia during COVID-19 pandemic and the associated management challenges. Methods: A PubMed search was performed focusing on studies reporting alterations in behavior and mood and treatment strategies for elderly patients with dementia, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. The following search strategy was utilized: (COVID* OR coronavirus OR "corona vir*" OR SARS-CoV-2) AND (dementia OR demented OR dement* OR alzheimer* OR "pick's disease" OR "lewy body" OR "mild cognitive" OR mild cognitive impairment OR MCI). Results: Apathy, anxiety and agitation are the most frequently NPS during the COVID-19 pandemic and are mainly triggered by protracted isolation. Most treatment strategies rely on pharmacotherapy; technology is increasingly utilized with mixed results. Conclusions: NPS of dementia during COVID-19 appear to arise from social restrictions occurring as a consequence of the pandemic. Implementation of caregiver support and the presence of skilled nursing home staff are required to restore social interaction and adjust technological support to the patients' needs.

11.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(1): 13-19, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778345

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As an emerging infectious disease, the clinical and virologic course of COVID-19 requires better investigation. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors associated with persistent positive nasopharyngeal swab real-time reverse transcription‒polymerase chain reaction tests in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: After the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic infection, the Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCSS of Rome established a post-acute care service for patients discharged from the hospital and recovered from COVID-19. Between April 21 and May 21, 2020, a total of 137 individuals who officially recovered from COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. All patients were tested for the SARS-CoV-2 virus with nucleic acid RT-PCR tests. Analysis was conducted in June 2020. RESULTS: Of the 131 patients who repeated the nasopharyngeal swab, 22 patients (16.7%) tested positive again. Some symptoms such as fatigue (51%), dyspnea (44%), and coughing (17%) were still present in a significant percentage of the patients, with no difference between patients with a negative test and those who tested positive. The likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher among participants with persistent sore throat (prevalence ratio=6.50, 95% CI=1.38, 30.6) and symptoms of rhinitis (prevalence ratio=3.72, 95% CI=1.10, 12.5). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide a given rate of patients (16.7%) who test positive on RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid after recovering from COVID-19. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 still could be potential carriers of the virus. In particular, if patients continue to have symptoms related to COVID-19, such as sore throat and rhinitis, it is reasonable to be cautious by avoiding close contact, wearing a face mask, and possibly repeating a nasopharyngeal swab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(7): 937-938, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108863

ABSTRACT

On February 20, 2020, a man living in the north of Italy was admitted to the emergency room with an atypical pneumonia that later proved to be COVID-19. This was the trigger of one of the most serious clusters of COVID-19 in the world, outside of China. Despite aggressive restraint and inhibition efforts, COVID-19 continues to increase, and the total number of infected patients in Italy is growing daily. After 6 weeks, the total number of patients reached 128,948 cases (April 5, 2020), with the higher case-fatality rate (15,887 deaths) dominated by old and very old patients. This sudden health emergency severely challenged the Italian Health System, in particular acute care hospitals and intensive care units. In 1 hospital, geriatric observation units were created, the experience of which can be extremely useful for European countries, the United States, and all countries that in the coming days will face a similar situation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Geriatricians/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Health Services for the Aged/organization & administration , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Physician's Role , Precision Medicine/methods , Risk Assessment
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