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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(13)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775606

ABSTRACT

Since the first reports in summer 2020, SARS-CoV-2 reinfections have raised concerns about the immunogenicity of the virus, which will affect SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology and possibly the burden of COVID-19 on our societies in the future. This study provides data on the frequency and characteristics of possible reinfections, using the French national COVID-19 testing database. The Omicron variant had a large impact on the frequency of possible reinfections in France, which represented 3.8% of all confirmed COVID-19 cases since December 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Reinfection
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3025, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237997

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and extent of the COVID-19 epidemic. Here, we report estimated seroprevalence in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed neutralising antibodies at three points throughout the first epidemic wave. Testing 11,000 residual specimens for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralising antibodies, we find nationwide seroprevalence of 0.41% (95% CI: 0.05-0.88) mid-March, 4.14% (95% CI: 3.31-4.99) mid-April and 4.93% (95% CI: 4.02-5.89) mid-May 2020. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals have detectable neutralising antibodies. Infection fatality rate is 0.84% (95% CI: 0.70-1.03) and increases exponentially with age. These results confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission and that the vast majority of the French population remained susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 in May 2020. Our study shows the progression of the first epidemic wave and provides a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission continues globally.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epidemics , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
3.
Nature ; 590(7844): 134-139, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065896

ABSTRACT

As countries in Europe gradually relaxed lockdown restrictions after the first wave, test-trace-isolate strategies became critical to maintain the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at low levels1,2. Reviewing their shortcomings can provide elements to consider in light of the second wave that is currently underway in Europe. Here we estimate the rate of detection of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 in France after lockdown through the use of virological3 and participatory syndromic4 surveillance data coupled with mathematical transmission models calibrated to regional hospitalizations2. Our findings indicate that around 90,000 symptomatic infections, corresponding to 9 out 10 cases, were not ascertained by the surveillance system in the first 7 weeks after lockdown from 11 May to 28 June 2020, although the test positivity rate did not exceed the 5% recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO)5. The median detection rate increased from 7% (95% confidence interval, 6-8%) to 38% (35-44%) over time, with large regional variations, owing to a strengthening of the system as well as a decrease in epidemic activity. According to participatory surveillance data, only 31% of individuals with COVID-19-like symptoms consulted a doctor in the study period. This suggests that large numbers of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 did not seek medical advice despite recommendations, as confirmed by serological studies6,7. Encouraging awareness and same-day healthcare-seeking behaviour of suspected cases of COVID-19 is critical to improve detection. However, the capacity of the system remained insufficient even at the low epidemic activity achieved after lockdown, and was predicted to deteriorate rapidly with increasing incidence of COVID-19 cases. Substantially more aggressive, targeted and efficient testing with easier access is required to act as a tool to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The testing strategy will be critical to enable partial lifting of the current restrictive measures in Europe and to avoid a third wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carrier State/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/prevention & control , Carrier State/transmission , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization
4.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(5): 376-381, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 several countries implemented measures to reduce the number of contacts such as a national lockdown. We estimated the impact of the first lockdown on the burden of COVID-19 in the community in France. METHODS: Physicians participating in the French Sentinelles network reported the number of patients with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) seen in consultation and performed nasopharyngeal swabs in a sample of these patients (first patient of the week). The swabs were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical and virological data were combined to estimate ARI incidence attributable to SARS-CoV-2 from 17 March to 10 May 2020. RESULTS: The incidence of ARI attributable to COVID-19 decreased after the second week of the lockdown period from 142 (95%CI [101; 183]) to 41 (95%CI [21; 60]) per 100,000 population. A decrease was observed in all areas in metropolitan France. The youngest age groups (<15-years-old) were least affected with a cumulated incidence estimated to 14 per 100,000 population during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The data collected in primary care suggests that the first lockdown implemented in France during spring 2020 significantly reduced the incidence of acute respiratory infections including COVID-19 in France and limited the geographic spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/diagnosis , France/epidemiology , Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Euro Surveill ; 25(22)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525953

ABSTRACT

Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCF) are a vulnerable population group. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related deaths in LTCF residents represent 30-60% of all COVID-19 deaths in many European countries. This situation demands that countries implement local and national testing, infection prevention and control, and monitoring programmes for COVID-19 in LTCF in order to identify clusters early, decrease the spread within and between facilities and reduce the size and severity of outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
6.
Eurosurveillance ; 25(9):2000178, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-4442

ABSTRACT

A cluster of pneumonia of unknown origin was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [1]. On 12 January 2020, Chinese authorities shared the sequence of a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated from some clustered cases [2]. Since then, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As at 21 February 2020, the virus had spread rapidly mostly within China but also to 28 other countries, including in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region [3-5]. Here we describe the epidemiology of the first cases of COVID-19 in this region, excluding cases reported in the United Kingdom (UK), as at 21 February 2020. The study includes a comparison between cases detected among travellers from China and cases whose infection was acquired due to subsequent local transmission.%R doi:https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

7.
Euro Surveill ; 25(6)2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) causing a cluster of respiratory infections (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was identified on 7 January 2020. The epidemic quickly disseminated from Wuhan and as at 12 February 2020, 45,179 cases have been confirmed in 25 countries, including 1,116 deaths. Strengthened surveillance was implemented in France on 10 January 2020 in order to identify imported cases early and prevent secondary transmission. Three categories of risk exposure and follow-up procedure were defined for contacts. Three cases of COVID-19 were confirmed on 24 January, the first cases in Europe. Contact tracing was immediately initiated. Five contacts were evaluated as at low risk of exposure and 18 at moderate/high risk. As at 12 February 2020, two cases have been discharged and the third one remains symptomatic with a persistent cough, and no secondary transmission has been identified. Effective collaboration between all parties involved in the surveillance and response to emerging threats is required to detect imported cases early and to implement adequate control measures.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Viral , Population Surveillance , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
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