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1.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(8)2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023992

ABSTRACT

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are known to offer a plethora of potential therapeutic benefits. However, challenges related to large-scale manufacturing, such as the difficulty of reproducing complex formulations and high manufacturing costs, hinder their clinical and commercial development. In this context, a reliable manufacturing technique suitable for the scale-up production of nanoformulations without altering efficacy and safety profiles is highly needed. In this paper, we develop an inline sonication process and adapt it to the industrial scale production of immunomodulating PLGA nanovaccines developed using a batch sonication method at the laboratory scale. The investigated formulations contain three distinct synthetic peptides derived from the carcinogenic antigen New York Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) together with an invariant natural killer T-cell (iNKT) activator, threitolceramide-6 (IMM60). Process parameters were optimized to obtain polymeric nanovaccine formulations with a mean diameter of 150 ± 50 nm and a polydispersity index <0.2. Formulation characteristics, including encapsulation efficiencies, release profiles and in vitro functional and toxicological profiles, are assessed and statistically compared for each formulation. Overall, scale-up formulations obtained by inline sonication method could replicate the colloidal and functional properties of the nanovaccines developed using batch sonication at the laboratory scale. Both types of formulations induced specific T-cell and iNKT cell responses in vitro without any toxicity, highlighting the suitability of the inline sonication method for the continuous scale-up of nanomedicine formulations in terms of efficacy and safety.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580658

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is potentially lifesaving for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but may be accompanied by serious adverse events, including intracranial hemorrhage (ICRH). We hypothesized that ICRH occurs more frequently in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with ARDS of other etiologies. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with venovenous (vv-) ECMO for ARDS between January 2011 and April 2021. Patients were included if they had received a cranial computed tomography (cCT) scan during vv-ECMO support or within 72 h after ECMO removal. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with ICRH. During the study period, we identified 204 patients with vv-ECMO for ARDS, for whom a cCT scan was available. We observed ICRH in 35.4% (n = 17/48) of patients with COVID-19 and in 16.7% (n = 26/156) of patients with ARDS attributable to factors other than COVID-19. COVID-19 (HR: 2.945; 95%; CI: 1.079-8.038; p = 0.035) and carboxyhemoglobin (HR: 0.330; 95%; CI: 0.135-0.806; p = 0.015) were associated with ICRH during vv-ECMO. In patients receiving vv-ECMO, the incidence of ICRH is doubled in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients suffering from ARDS attributable to other causes. More studies on the association between COVID-19 and ICRH during vv-ECMO are urgently needed to identify risk patterns and targets for potential therapeutic interventions.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524051

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a viable therapy option for patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, veno-venous (vv) ECMO is frequently used in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). VV-ECMO was also frequently utilised during the influenza pandemic and experience with this complex and invasive treatment has increased worldwide since. However, data on comparison of clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with COVID-19 and influenza-related severe ARDS treated with vv-ECMO are scarce. This is a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients treated with vv/(veno-arterial)va-ECMO between January 2009 and January 2021 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 or influenza were included. Patient characteristics, parameters related to ICU and vv/va-ECMO as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Mortality was assessed up to 90 days after vv/va-ECMO initiation. Overall, 113 patients were included, 52 (46%) with COVID-19 and 61 (54%) with influenza-related ARDS. Median age of patients with COVID-19 and influenza was 58 (IQR 53-64) and 52 (39-58) years (p < 0.001), 35% and 31% (p = 0.695) were female, respectively. Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3 (1-5) and 2 (0-5) points in the two groups (p = 0.309). Median SAPS II score pre-ECMO was 27 (24-36) vs. 32 (28-41) points (p = 0.009), and SOFA score was 13 (11-14) vs. 12 (8-15) points (p = 0.853), respectively. Median P/F ratio pre-ECMO was 64 (46-78) and 73 (56-104) (p = 0.089); pH was 7.20 (7.16-7.29) and 7.26 (7.18-7.33) (p = 0.166). Median days on vv/va-ECMO were 17 (7-27) and 11 (7-20) (p = 0.295), respectively. Seventy-one percent and sixty-nine percent had renal replacement therapy (p = 0.790). Ninety-four percent of patients with COVID-19 and seventy-seven percent with influenza experienced vv/va-ECMO-associated bleeding events (p = 0.004). Thirty-four percent and fifty-five percent were successfully weaned from ECMO (p = 0.025). Ninety-day mortality was 65% and 57% in patients with COVID-19 and influenza, respectively (p = 0.156). Median length of ICU stay was 24 (13-44) and 28 (16-14) days (p = 0.470), respectively. Despite similar disease severity, the use of vv/va-ECMO in ARDS related to COVID-19 and influenza resulted in similar outcomes at 90 days. A significant higher rate of bleeding complications and thrombosis was observed in patients with COVID-19.

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