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2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
3.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lots of research has been conducted to fight COVID-19 since the outbreak of the pandemic in 2020. The role of 'cytokine storm' in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 pneumonia is well known. Relationship between interleukins and depression is still subject matter of the research, but a correlation between interleukin-6 and depressive disorders is proven by now. The aim of this study is to verify differences among interleukin-6 blood levels of inpatients treated with SSRI and/or SNRI before and during hospitalization and of inpatients not treated with these drugs. METHODS: This is an observational study performed during the first wave of SARS Cov-2 pandemic in Italy for three months. The hospitalized patients of Internal Medicine wards and Infectious and Tropical Diseases ward of Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi of Florence for COVID-19 pneumonia have been divided into two subgroups (treated / not treated with antidepressants). Patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit previously have been excluded. Each patient has been evaluated concerning demographic, clinical and therapeutic features. The first dosage of interleukin-6 detected during hospitalization has been noticed. RESULTS: 8,5% (n=34 patients) of the entire sample (n=402) had been treated with an antidepressant of the two considered categories before admission until discharge from hospital. Significant lower levels of interleukin-6 of recovered patients of the treated subgroup have been highlighted as compared to recovered patients of not-treated subgroup (12,1 vs 25,4 p<0,001). These results have been pointed out in spite of higher mean age and more serious comorbidities of the treated subgroup. Nevertheless the incidence of severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is significantly lower in the subgroup of patients with antidepressant treatment (20,6% vs 43,2% p<0,02) as well as endotracheal intubation employment (0,0% vs 11,7% p<0,04). The rate of deceased patients of treated-subgroup is not significant lower than the rate of not-treated subgroup (23,5% vs 26,4% p=0,13). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 pneumonia, the production of interleukin-6 seems to be modulated in presence of antidepressant therapy. Further proofs and broader surveys are necessary.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 231-236, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the real-world accuracy of Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) detected by the rapid, point-of-care FebriDx test during the second-wave pandemic in Italy in patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) and a clinical suspicion of COVID-19. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective, observational, diagnostic accuracy study whereby hospitalized patients with ARI were consecutively enrolled in a single tertiary care center in Italy from August 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021. RESULTS: COVID-19 was diagnosed in 136/200 (68.0%) patients and Non-COVID-19 was diagnosed in 64/200 (32.0%) patients. COVID-19 patients were younger and had a lower Charlson comorbidity index compared to Non-COVID-19 patients (p < 0.001). Concordance between FebriDx, MxA and rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 (gold standard) was good (k 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99). Overall sensitivity and specificity were 97.8% [95% CI 93.7-99.5] and 95.3% [95% CI 86.9%-99.0%], respectively. FebriDx demonstrated a negative predictive value of 95.3% (95% CI 86.9-99.0) for an observed disease prevalence of 68%. CONCLUSIONS: FebriDx MxA showed high diagnostic accuracy to identify COVID-19 and could be considered as a real-time triage tool to streamline the management of suspected COVID-19 patients. FebriDx also detected bacterial etiology in Non-COVID-19 patients suggesting good performance to distinguish bacterial from viral respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Point-of-Care Testing , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Panminerva Med ; 62(4): 252-259, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strong epidemiologic evidence has highlighted the role of pollution, on top of adverse climate features, as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. However, mechanistic proof that reducing pollution may be beneficial to prevent atherothrombotic events is limited. We aimed at appraising the impact of temporary traffic bans in a large metropolitan area on the risk of acute coronary syndromes. METHODS: Aggregate and anonymized data from 15 tertiary cardiac care centers were obtained detailing precoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) daily cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), including those treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Data on pollutants and climate were sought for the same days. Mixed level regression was used to compare the week before vs after the traffic ban (Fortnight analysis), the 3 days before vs. after (Weekly analysis) and the Sunday before vs. after (Sunday analysis). RESULTS: A total of 8 days of temporary traffic bans were included, occurring between 2017 and 2020, totaling 802 STEMI and 1196 NSTEMI in the Fortnight analysis, 382 STEMI and 585 in the Weekly analysis, and 148 STEMI and 210 NSTEMI in the Sunday analysis.Fortnight and Sunday analyses did not disclose a significant impact of traffic ban on STEMI or NSTEMI (all P>0.05). Conversely, Weekly analysis showed non-significant changes for STEMI, but a significant decrease in daily NSTEMI when comparing the 3 days before the traffic ban with the ban day (P=0.043), as well as the 3 days before vs. the 3 days after the ban (P=0.025). No statistically significant effect of traffic ban was found at Fortnight, Weekly or Sunday analyses for daily mean concentrations of benzene, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm or PM <10 µm (all P>0.05). However, minimum daily concentrations showed a significant reduction of ozone during the ban in comparison to the week preceding it (P=0.034), nitric oxide during the ban in comparison to the 3 days preceding it (P=0.046), and an increase in benzene during the ban in comparison to the Sunday before (P=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Temporary traffic ban may favorably reduce coronary atherothrombotic events, and in particular NSTEMI, even if not globally and immediately impacting on environmental pollution. Further controlled studies are required to confirm and expand this hypothesis-generating results.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 329: 251-259, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented change in the apparent epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the interplay between this disease, changes in pollution, climate, and aversion to activation of emergency medical services represents a challenging conundrum. We aimed at appraising the impact of COVID-19, weather, and environment features on the occurrence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in a large Italian region and metropolitan area. METHODS AND RESULTS: Italy was hit early on by COVID-19, such that state of emergency was declared on January 31, 2020, and national lockdown implemented on March 9, 2020, mainly because the accrual of cases in Northern Italy. In order to appraise the independent contribution on changes in STEMI and NSTEMI daily rates of COVID-19, climate and pollution, we collected data on these clinical events from tertiary care cardiovascular centers in the Lazio region and Rome metropolitan area. Multilevel Poisson modeling was used to appraise unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates for the daily incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI cases. The sample included 1448 STEMI and 2040 NSTEMI, with a total of 2882 PCI spanning 6 months. Significant reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI were evident already in early February 2020 (all p<0.05), concomitantly with COVID-19 spread and institution of national countermeasures. Changes in STEMI and NSTEMI were inversely associated with daily COVID-19 tests, cases, and/or death (p<0.05). In addition, STEMI and NSTEMI incidences were associated with daily NO2, PM10, and O3 concentrations, as well as temperature (p<0.05). Multi-stage and multiply adjusted models highlighted that reductions in STEMI were significantly associated with COVID-19 data (p<0.001), whereas changes in NSTEMI were significantly associated with both NO2 and COVID-19 data (both p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI in the COVID-19 pandemic may depend on different concomitant epidemiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms. In particular, recent changes in STEMI may depend on COVID-19 scare, leading to excess all-cause mortality, or effective reduced incidence, whereas reductions in NSTEMI may also be due to beneficial reductions in NO2 emissions in the lockdown phase.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Weather , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
European Heart Journal Supplements ; 22(Supplement_N):N81-N82, 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-979588

ABSTRACT

Aims Strong epidemiologic evidence has highlighted the role of pollution, on top of adverse climate features, as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. However, mechanistic proof that reducing pollution may be beneficial to prevent atherothrombotic events is limited. We aimed at appraising the impact of temporary traffic bans in a large metropolitan area on the risk of acute coronary syndromes. Methods and results Aggregate and anonymized data from 15 tertiary cardiac care centers were obtained detailing pre-coronarivus disease 2019 (COVID-19) daily cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), including those treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Data on pollutants and climate were sought for the same days. Mixed level regression was used to compare the week before vs. after the traffic ban (Fortnight analysis), the 3 days before vs. after (Weekly analysis) and the Sunday before vs. after (Sunday analysis). A total of 8 days of temporary traffic bans were included, occurring between 2017 and 2020, totaling 802 STEMI and 1196 NSTEMI in the Fortnight analysis, 382 STEMI and 585 in the Weekly analysis, and 148 STEMI and 210 NSTEMI in the Sunday analysis. Fortnight and Sunday analysis did not disclose a significant impact of traffic ban on STEMI or NSTEMI (all P > 0.05). Conversely, Weekly analysis showed non-significant changes for STEMI but a significant decrease in daily NSTEMI when comparing the 3 days before the traffic ban with the ban day (P = 0.043), as well as the 3 days before vs. the 3 days after the ban (P = 0.025). No statistically significant effect of traffic ban was found at Fortnight, Weekly or Sunday analyses for daily mean concentrations of benzene, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm or PM < 10 µm (all P > 0.05). However, minimum daily concentrations showed a significant reduction of ozone during the ban in comparison to the week preceding it (P = 0.034), nitric oxide during the ban in comparison to the 3 days preceding it (P = 0.046), and an increase in benzene during the ban in comparison to the Sunday before (P = 0.039). Conclusion Temporary traffic bans may favorably reduce coronary atherothrombotic events, and in particular NSTEMI, even if not globally and immediately impacting on environmental pollution. Further controlled studies are required to confirm and expand this hypothesis-generating results.

9.
Leukemia ; 35(4): 1121-1133, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725732

ABSTRACT

Overwhelming inflammatory reactions contribute to respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19. Ruxolitinib is a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory properties. We report on a prospective, observational study in 34 patients with COVID-19 who received ruxolitinib on a compassionate-use protocol. Patients had severe pulmonary disease defined by pulmonary infiltrates on imaging and an oxygen saturation ≤ 93% in air and/or PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 300 mmHg. Median age was 80.5 years, and 85.3% had ≥ 2 comorbidities. Median exposure time to ruxolitinib was 13 days, median dose intensity was 20 mg/day. Overall survival by day 28 was 94.1%. Cumulative incidence of clinical improvement of ≥2 points in the ordinal scale was 82.4% (95% confidence interval, 71-93). Clinical improvement was not affected by low-flow versus high-flow oxygen support but was less frequent in patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg. The most frequent adverse events were anemia, urinary tract infections, and thrombocytopenia. Improvement of inflammatory cytokine profile and activated lymphocyte subsets was observed at day 14. In this prospective cohort of aged and high-risk comorbidity patients with severe COVID-19, compassionate-use ruxolitinib was safe and was associated with improvement of pulmonary function and discharge home in 85.3%. Controlled clinical trials are necessary to establish efficacy of ruxolitinib in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Compassionate Use Trials , Janus Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles , Prospective Studies , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(8): 2575-2581.e2, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early identification of patients at risk of clinical deterioration is of interest considering the timeline of COVID-19 after the onset of symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of testing serum IL-6 and other serological and clinical biomarkers, to predict a short-term negative clinical course of patients with noncritical COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 208 patients with noncritical COVID-19 pneumonia at admission were consecutively enrolled. Clinical and laboratory findings obtained on admission were analyzed by using survival analysis and stepwise logistic regression for variable selection. Three-day worsening as outcome in a logistic model to generate a prognostic score was used. RESULTS: Clinical worsening occurred in 63 patients (16 = died; 39 = transferred to intensive care unit; 8 worsening of respiratory failure). Forty-five of them worsened within 3 days after admission. The risk of clinical worsening was progressively enhanced along with increasing quartiles of IL-6 levels. Multivariate analysis showed that IL-6 (P = .005), C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = .003), and SaO2/FiO2 (P = .014) were the best predictors for clinical deterioration in the first 3 days after admission. The combined score yielded an area under the curve = 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-0.93). A nomogram predicting the probability of 3-day worsening was generated. The score also showed good performance for 7-day and 14- or 21-day worsening and in predicting death occurring during all the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Combining IL-6, CRP, and SaO2/FiO2 in a score may help clinicians to identify on admission those patients with COVID-19 who are at high risk for a further 3-day clinical deterioration.


Subject(s)
Clinical Deterioration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
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