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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 484, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis disease affects around 460,000 people each year. Currently recommended regimens are 9-24 months duration, have poor efficacy and carry significant toxicity. A shorter, less toxic and more efficacious regimen would improve outcomes for people with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: TB-PRACTECAL is an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase II/III non-inferiority trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of 24-week regimens containing bedaquiline and pretomanid to treat rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Conducted in Uzbekistan, South Africa and Belarus, patients aged 15 and above with rifampicin-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and requiring a new course of therapy were eligible for inclusion irrespective of HIV status. In the first stage, equivalent to a phase IIB trial, patients were randomly assigned one of four regimens, stratified by site. Investigational regimens include oral bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid. Additionally, two of the regimens also included moxifloxacin (arm 1) and clofazimine (arm 2) respectively. Treatment was administered under direct observation for 24 weeks in investigational arms and 36 to 96 weeks in the standard of care arm. The second stage of the study was equivalent to a phase III trial, investigating the safety and efficacy of the most promising regimen/s. The primary outcome was the percentage of unfavourable outcomes at 72 weeks post-randomisation. This was a composite of early treatment discontinuation, treatment failure, recurrence, lost-to-follow-up and death. The study is being conducted in accordance with ICH-GCP and full ethical approval was obtained from Médecins sans Frontières ethical review board, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine ethical review board as well as ERBs and regulatory authorities at each site. DISCUSSION: TB-PRACTECAL is an ambitious trial using adaptive design to accelerate regimen assessment and bring novel treatments that are effective and safe to patients quicker. The trial took a patient-centred approach, adapting to best practice guidelines throughout recruitment. The implementation faced significant challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic. The trial was terminated early for efficacy on the advice of the DSMB and will report on data collected up to the end of recruitment and, additionally, the planned final analysis at 72 weeks after the end of recruitment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02589782. Registered on 28 October 2015.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Diarylquinolines/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Diarylquinolines/pharmacology , Humans , Linezolid/pharmacology , Pandemics , Rifampin/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Young Adult
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1699, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773974

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that partly evade neutralizing antibodies raises concerns of reduced vaccine effectiveness and increased infection. We previously demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 (CoV2 preS dTM-AS03) elicits robust neutralizing antibody responses in naïve subjects. Here we show that, in macaques primed with mRNA or protein-based subunit vaccine candidates, one booster dose of CoV2 preS dTM-AS03 (monovalent D614 or B.1.351, or bivalent D614 + B.1.351 formulations), significantly boosts the pre-existing neutralizing antibodies against the parental strain from 177- to 370-fold. Importantly, the booster dose elicits high and persistent cross-neutralizing antibodies covering five former or current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron) and, unexpectedly, SARS-CoV-1. Interestingly, we show that the booster specifically increases the functional antibody responses as compared to the receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific responses. Our findings show that these vaccine candidates, when used as a booster, have the potential to offer cross-protection against a broad spectrum of variants. This has important implications for vaccine control of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and informs on the benefit of a booster with the vaccine candidates currently under evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Primates , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296547

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis disease affects around 460 000 people each year. Current recommended regimens are 9-24 months duration, have poor efficacy and carry significant toxicity. A shorter, less toxic and more efficacious regimen would improve outcomes for people with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. MethodsTB-PRACTECAL is an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase II/III non-inferiority trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of 24 week regimens containing bedaquiline and pretomanid to treat rifampicin resistant tuberculosis. Conducted in Uzbekistan, South Africa and Belarus, patients aged 15 and above with rifampicin resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and requiring a new course of therapy are eligible for inclusion irrespective of HIV status. In the first stage, equivalent to a phase IIB trial, patients are randomly assigned one of four regimens, stratified by site. Investigational regimens include oral bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid. Additionally, two of the regimens also include moxifloxacin (arm 1) and clofazimine (arm 2) respectively. Treatment is administered under direct observation for 24 weeks in investigational arms and 36 to 96 weeks in the standard of care arm. The second stage of the study is equivalent to a phase III trial, investigating the safety and efficacy of the most promising regimen/s. The primary outcome is the percentage of unfavourable outcomes at 72 weeks post randomisation. This is a composite of early treatment discontinuation, treatment failure, recurrence, lost to follow up and death. The study is conducted in accordance with ICH-GCP and full ethical approval was obtained from Médecins sans Frontières ethical review board, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine ethical review board as well as ERBs and regulatory authorities at each site. DiscussionTB-PRACTECAL is an ambitious trial using adaptive design to accelerate regimen assessment and bring novel regimens that are effective and safe to patients quicker. The trial took a patient-centred approach, adapting to best practice guidelines throughout recruitment. The implementation faced significant challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic. The trial was terminated early for efficacy on the advice of the DSMB and will report on data collected up to end of recruitment and additionally, the planned final analysis at 72 weeks after end of recruitment. Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT02589782

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(607)2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329034

ABSTRACT

Adjuvanted soluble protein vaccines have been used extensively in humans for protection against various viral infections based on their robust induction of antibody responses. Here, soluble prefusion-stabilized spike protein trimers (preS dTM) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were formulated with the adjuvant AS03 and administered twice to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Binding and functional neutralization assays and systems serology revealed that the vaccinated NHP developed AS03-dependent multifunctional humoral responses that targeted distinct domains of the spike protein and bound to a variety of Fc receptors mediating immune cell effector functions in vitro. The neutralizing 50% inhibitory concentration titers for pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 were higher than titers for a panel of human convalescent serum samples. NHPs were challenged intranasally and intratracheally with a high dose (3 × 106 plaque forming units) of SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020 isolate). Two days after challenge, vaccinated NHPs showed rapid control of viral replication in both the upper and lower airways. Vaccinated NHPs also had increased spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses in the lung as early as 2 days after challenge. Moreover, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to hamsters mediated protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data show that antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine were sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs and that rapid anamnestic antibody responses in the lung may be a key mechanism for protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cricetinae , Immunization, Passive , Lung , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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