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1.
Thorax ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769953

ABSTRACT

Given the large numbers of people infected and high rates of ongoing morbidity, research is clearly required to address the needs of adult survivors of COVID-19 living with ongoing symptoms (long COVID). To help direct resource and research efforts, we completed a research prioritisation process incorporating views from adults with ongoing symptoms of COVID-19, carers, clinicians and clinical researchers. The final top 10 research questions were agreed at an independently mediated workshop and included: identifying underlying mechanisms of long COVID, establishing diagnostic tools, understanding trajectory of recovery and evaluating the role of interventions both during the acute and persistent phases of the illness.

2.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330024

ABSTRACT

Background: Throughout the pandemic, research, public health, and policy emphasised prediction and surveillance of excess deaths, which have mostly occurred in older individuals with underlying conditions, highlighting importance of baseline mortality risk, infection rate (IR) and pandemic-related relative risk (RR). We now use national, pre- and post-pandemic electronic health records (EHR) to develop and validate a model incorporating these factors for prediction of excess deaths. Methods: In development (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) and validation (NHS Digital Trusted Research Environment) cohorts in primary and secondary care EHR in England, we included 3·8 million and 35·1 million individuals aged ≥30 years, respectively. For model development, we predicted excess deaths using baseline one-year all-cause mortality risk and assumed RR=3 and IR=10%. For model validation, we observed number of excess deaths from March 2020 to March 2021. We used baseline mortality risk, IR and RR (assumed and observed) to predict excess deaths related to COVID-19. Findings: Among individuals with at least one high-risk condition, baseline (pre-pandemic) 1-year mortality risk at one year was 4·46% (95% CI 4·41–4·51) and 3.55% (3.54-3.57) in development and validation cohorts, respectively. In our original published model, we predicted 73,498 COVID-19 deaths over 1 year for the population of England. From 1st March 2020 to 1st March 2021, there were 127,020 observed excess deaths. Observed RR was 4·34 (4·31-4·38, 95% CI) and IR was 6·27% (6·26-6·28, 95%CI). In the validation cohort, predicted excess deaths over one year were 100,338 compared with the observed 127,020 deaths with a ratio of predicted to observed excess deaths of 0.79. We found that vaccination had a negligible effect on overall RR or IR between 1st December 2020 and 1st March 2021, compared to the likely effect of under-reported COVID-19 cases from the pre-vaccination period. Interpretation: We show that a simple, parsimonious model incorporating baseline mortality risk, one-year infection rate and relative risk of the pandemic can be used to predict excess deaths. Our analyses show that EHR could inform pandemic planning and surveillance, despite limited use in emergency preparedness to-date. Although infection dynamics are important in prediction of morbidity and mortality, future models should take greater account of underlying conditions and their associated risks. Funding Information: The British Heart Foundation Data Science Centre (grant No SP/19/3/34678, awarded to Health Data Research (HDR) UK) funded co-development (with NHS Digital) of the trusted research environment, provision of linked datasets, data access, user software licences, computational usage, and data management and wrangling support, with additional contributions from the HDR UK data and connectivity component of the UK Government Chief Scientific Adviser’s National Core Studies programme to coordinate national Covid-19 priority research. Consortium partner organisations funded the time of contributing data analysts, biostatisticians, epidemiologists, and clinicians. AB, MAM, MHD and LP were supported by research funding from AstraZeneca. AB has received funding from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), British Medical Association, and UK Research and Innovation. AB, SD and HH are part of the BigData@Heart Consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative-2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 116074. K.K. is supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Applied Research Collaboration East Midlands (ARC EM) and NIHR Lifestyle BRC. Declaration of Interests: JBM and TM are employees of AstraZeneca. KK is chair of the ethnicity subgroup of the Independent Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) and director of the University of Leicester Centre for Black Minority Ethnic Health. KK and AB are trustees of the South Asian Health Foundation (SAHF). CS is Director of the BHF Data Science Centre. All other authors report no competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: Approval for the study in CPRD was granted by the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (20_074R) of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the UK in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The North East-Newcastle and North Tyneside 2 research ethics committee provided ethical approval for the CVD- COVID-UK research programme (REC No 20/NE/0161).

3.
Eur Heart J ; 43(11): 1138-1140, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684597

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292404

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathophysiology and trajectory of multiorgan involvement in post-COVID-19 syndrome is uncertain. Methods: : A prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, cohort study involving post-COVID-19 patients enrolled in-hospital or early post-discharge (visit 1) and re-evaluated 28-60 days post-discharge (visit 2). Multisystem investigations included chest computed tomography with pulmonary and coronary angiography, cardiovascular and renal magnetic resonance imaging, digital electrocardiography, and multisystem biomarkers. The primary outcome was the adjudicated likelihood of myocarditis. Results: : 161 patients (mean age 55 years, 43% female) and 27 controls with similar age, sex, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors were enrolled from 22 May 2020 to 2 July 2021 and had a primary outcome evaluation. Compared to controls, at 28-60 days post-discharge, patients with COVID-19 had persisting evidence of cardio-renal involvement, systemic inflammation, and hemostasis pathway activation. Myocarditis was adjudicated as being not likely (n=17;10%), unlikely (n=56;35%), probable (n=67;42%) or very likely (n=21;13%). Acute kidney injury (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 3.40 (1.13, 11.84);p=0.038) and low hemoglobin A1c (0.26 (0.07, 0.87);p=0.035) were multivariable associates of adjudicated myocarditis. During convalescence, compared to controls, COVID-19 was associated with worse health-related quality of life (EQ5D-5L) (p<0.001), illness perception (p<0.001), anxiety and depression (p<0.001), physical activity (p<0.001) and predicted maximal oxygen utilization (ml/kg/min) (p<0.001). These measures were associated with adjudicated myocarditis. Conclusions: : The illness trajectory of COVID-19 includes persisting cardio-renal inflammation, lung damage and hemostasis activation. Adjudicated myocarditis occurred in one in eight hospitalized patients and was associated with impairments in health status, physical and psychological wellbeing during community convalescence. Public registration : ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT04403607.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2587-2597, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and thromboembolism including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-controlled case-series study was conducted covering the whole of Scotland's general population. The study population comprised individuals with confirmed (positive test) COVID-19 and at least one thromboembolic event between March 2018 and October 2020. Their incidence rates during the risk interval (5 days before to 56 days after the positive test) and the control interval (the remaining periods) were compared intrapersonally. RESULTS: Across Scotland, 1449 individuals tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced a thromboembolic event. The risk of thromboembolism was significantly elevated over the whole risk period but highest in the 7 days following the positive test (incidence rate ratio, 12.01; 95% CI, 9.91 to 14.56) in all included individuals. The association was also present in individuals not originally hospitalized for COVID-19 (incidence rate ratio, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.83 to 5.85). Risk of MI, stroke, PE, and DVT were all significantly higher in the week following a positive test. The risk of PE and DVT was particularly high and remained significantly elevated even 56 days following the test. CONCLUSION: Confirmed COVID-19 infection was associated with early elevations in risk with MI, ischemic stroke, and substantially stronger and prolonged elevations with DVT and PE both in hospital and community settings. Clinicians should consider thromboembolism, especially PE, among people with COVID-19 in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Scotland , Thromboembolism/diagnosis
6.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100186, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study sought to establish the long-term effects of Covid-19 following hospitalisation. METHODS: 327 hospitalised participants, with SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited into a prospective multicentre cohort study at least 3 months post-discharge. The primary outcome was self-reported recovery at least ninety days after initial Covid-19 symptom onset. Secondary outcomes included new symptoms, disability (Washington group short scale), breathlessness (MRC Dyspnoea scale) and quality of life (EQ5D-5L). FINDINGS: 55% of participants reported not feeling fully recovered. 93% reported persistent symptoms, with fatigue the most common (83%), followed by breathlessness (54%). 47% reported an increase in MRC dyspnoea scale of at least one grade. New or worse disability was reported by 24% of participants. The EQ5D-5L summary index was significantly worse following acute illness (median difference 0.1 points on a scale of 0 to 1, IQR: -0.2 to 0.0). Females under the age of 50 years were five times less likely to report feeling recovered (adjusted OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.64 to 15.74), were more likely to have greater disability (adjusted OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 15.94), twice as likely to report worse fatigue (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31) and seven times more likely to become more breathless (adjusted OR 7.15, 95% CI 2.24 to 22.83) than men of the same age. INTERPRETATION: Survivors of Covid-19 experienced long-term symptoms, new disability, increased breathlessness, and reduced quality of life. These findings were present in young, previously healthy working age adults, and were most common in younger females. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 2533-2538, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, life-threatening complication of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 risk-prediction models include a history of VTE. However, it is unclear whether remote history (>9 years previously) of VTE also confers increased risk of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible association between VTE and COVID-19 severity, independent of other risk factors. METHODS: Cohort study of UK Biobank participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. Baseline data, including history of VTE, were linked to COVID-19 test results, COVID-19-related hospital admissions, and COVID-19 deaths. The risk of COVID-19 hospitalization or death was compared for participants with a remote history VTE versus without. Poisson regression models were run univariately then adjusted stepwise for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbid covariates. RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders and comorbid conditions, remote history of VTE was associated with nonfatal community (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02-2.54, p = .039), nonfatal hospitalized (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06-2.17, p = .024) and severe (hospitalized or fatal) (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.89, p = .025) COVID-19. Associations with remote history of VTE were stronger among men (severe COVID-19: RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.42, p = .009) than for women (severe COVID-19: RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.66-1.74, p = .786). CONCLUSION: Our findings support inclusion of remote history of VTE in COVID-19 risk-prediction scores, and consideration of sex-specific risk scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
8.
CJC Open ; 3(10): 1257-1272, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272339

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, represents the largest medical challenge in decades. It has exposed unexpected cardiovascular vulnerabilities at all stages of the disease (pre-infection, acute phase, and subsequent chronic phase). The major cardiometabolic drivers identified as having epidemiologic and mechanistic associations with COVID-19 are abnormal adiposity, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Hypertension is of particular interest, because components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which are critically involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension, are also implicated in COVID-19. Specifically, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a multifunctional protein of the RAS, which is part of the protective axis of the RAS, is also the receptor through which SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells, causing viral infection. Cardiovascular and cardiometabolic comorbidities not only predispose people to COVID-19, but also are complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that acute kidney injury is common in COVID-19, occurs early and in temporal association with respiratory failure, and is associated with poor prognosis, especially in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Here, we discuss cardiovascular and kidney disease in the context of COVID-19 and provide recent advances on putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, focusing on the RAS and ACE2, as well as the immune system and inflammation. We provide up-to-date information on the relationships among hypertension, diabetes, and COVID-19 and emphasize the major cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19. We also briefly discuss emerging cardiovascular complications associated with long COVID-19, notably postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).


La pandémie actuelle de COVID-19 causée par le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 (SRAS-CoV-2) est le plus grand enjeu médical des dernières décennies. Elle a mis en évidence des vulnérabilités cardiovasculaires imprévues à tous les stades de la COVID-19 (avant l'infection, pendant la phase aiguë et pendant la phase chronique subséquente). Les principaux facteurs cardiométaboliques dont les associations épidémiologiques et mécanistiques avec la COVID-19 ont été avérées comprennent l'adiposité anormale, la dysglycémie, la dyslipidémie et l'hypertension. L'hypertension suscite un intérêt particulier, car certaines composantes du système rénine-angiotensine (SRA), dont le rôle est crucial dans la physiopathologie de l'hypertension, sont également en cause dans la COVID-19. Plus précisément, l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine 2 (ECA2), une protéine multifonctionnelle du SRA faisant partie de l'axe protecteur du SRA, est également le récepteur permettant au virus SRAS-CoV-2 d'entrer dans les cellules hôtes et de provoquer une infection virale. Les affections cardiovasculaires et cardiométaboliques concomitantes ne font pas que prédisposer les personnes qui en sont atteintes à la COVID-19, elles constituent également des complications de l'infection à SRAS-CoV-2. En outre, de plus en plus de données probantes indiquent que l'atteinte rénale aiguë est fréquente en cas de COVID-19, qu'elle survient tôt et fait l'objet d'une association temporelle avec l'insuffisance respiratoire, et qu'elle est associée à un pronostic sombre, notamment en présence de facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires. Nous discutons ici des maladies cardiovasculaires et rénales dans le contexte de la COVID-19, et présentons les progrès récents sur les mécanismes physiopathologiques en cause dans le lien entre les maladies cardiovasculaires et la COVID-19 en nous attardant sur le SRA et l'ECA2, ainsi que sur le système immunitaire et l'inflammation. Nous présentons de l'information à jour sur les liens entre l'hypertension, le diabète et la COVID-19, et soulignons les principales maladies cardiovasculaires associées à la COVID-19. Nous analysons également brièvement les complications cardiovasculaires émergentes associées à la COVID-19 de longue durée, notamment le syndrome de tachycardie orthostatique posturale (STOP).

9.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 77, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, myocardial injury is increasingly reported and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the pathophysiology, extent of myocardial injury and clinical significance remains unclear. METHODS: COVID-HEART is a UK, multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and elevated troponin (sex-specific > 99th centile). Baseline assessment will be whilst recovering in-hospital or recently discharged, and include cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, quality of life (QoL) assessments, electrocardiogram (ECG), serum biomarkers and genetics. Assessment at 6-months includes repeat CMR, QoL assessments and 6-min walk test (6MWT). The CMR protocol includes cine imaging, T1/T2 mapping, aortic distensibility, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in selected patients. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) characterise the extent and nature of myocardial involvement in COVID-19 patients with an elevated troponin, (2) assess how cardiac involvement and clinical outcome associate with recognised risk factors for mortality (age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidities) and genetic factors, (3) evaluate if differences in myocardial recovery at 6 months are dependent on demographics, genetics and comorbidities, (4) understand the impact of recovery status at 6 months on patient-reported QoL and functional capacity. DISCUSSION: COVID-HEART will provide detailed characterisation of cardiac involvement, and its repair and recovery in relation to comorbidity, genetics, patient-reported QoL measures and functional capacity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 58667920. Registered 04 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , Research Design , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Contrast Media , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Observation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , United Kingdom , Walk Test
11.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) and other mechanisms of nonthrombotic myocardial injury have an unmet therapeutic need. Eligibility for novel medical therapy is generally uncertain. METHODS: We predefined colchicine, eplerenone and ticagrelor as candidates for repurposing towards novel therapy for T2MI or myocardial injury. Considering eligibility for randomisation in a clinical trial, each drug was classified according to indications and contraindications for therapy and survival for at least 24 hours following admission. Eligibility criteria for prescription were evaluated against the Summary of Medical Product Characteristics. Consecutive hospital admissions were screened to identify patients with ≥1 high-sensitivity troponin-I value >99th percentile. Endotypes of myocardial injury were adjudicated according to the Fourth Universal Definition of MI. Patients' characteristics and medication were prospectively evaluated. RESULTS: During 1 March to 15 April 2020, 390 patients had a troponin I>URL. Reasons for exclusion: type 1 MI n=115, indeterminate diagnosis n=42, lack of capacity n=14, death <24 hours n=7, duplicates n=2. Therefore, 210 patients with T2MI/myocardial injury and 174 (82.8%) who survived to discharge were adjudicated for treatment eligibility. Patients who fulfilled eligibility criteria initially on admission and then at discharge were colchicine 25/210 (11.9%) and 23/174 (13.2%); eplerenone 57/210 (27.1%) and 45/174 (25.9%); ticagrelor 122/210 (58.1%) and 98/174 (56.3%). Forty-six (21.9%) and 38 (21.8%) patients were potentially eligible for all three drugs on admission and discharge, respectively. CONCLUSION: A reasonably high proportion of patients may be considered eligible for repurposing novel medical therapy in secondary prevention trials of type 2 MI/myocardial injury.


Subject(s)
Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Eplerenone/therapeutic use , Myocardium/metabolism , Patient Selection , Ticagrelor/therapeutic use , Troponin I/blood , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/blood , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use
12.
The FASEB Journal ; 35(S1), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1233989

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease associated with cardiovascular risk. SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19, uses ACE2, an important enzyme in the cardiovascular system that regulates the conversion of Ang II (deleterious/pro-hypertensive) to Ang 1-7 (protective/anti-hypertensive), as a receptor for host cell entry and infection. Considering the relationship between the viral S1-protein and the host's ACE2, it is unclear whether this interaction is merely a mechanism of infection or whether it also contributes to cardiovascular damage associated with COVID-19. We hypothesisedthat SARS-Cov-2-ACE2 interaction induces activation of vascular cell inflammatory responses that are influenced by ACE2 dependent and/or independent enzymatic Ang-(1-7) production. Methods Human microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) were used and stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 recombinant S1 protein (rS1p) (0.66 ?g/mL) at 10/30 min (acute) and 5/24h (chronic). Activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways (immunoblotting, real-time PCR), microparticle (MP) generation (NanoSight), and cytokine production (ELISA) were assessed. In some experiments, cells were pre-incubated with an ACE2 activator (DIZE ? 190 nM) and inhibitor (MLN-4760 ? 440 pM). Results rS1P increased NF?B activation (Control ?=0.99±0.06 vs. 1.38±0.19 AU;p<0.05) and MP formation (C=1.01±0.17 vs. 2.06±0.21, x109/mL;p<0.05), a marker of endothelial cell damage. mRA expression of IL-1? (C=1.07±0.13 vs. 50.04±4.63 2

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(20): 2466-2476, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Published data suggest worse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to report the demographics, angiographic findings, and in-hospital outcomes of COVID-19 ACS patients and compare these with pre-COVID-19 cohorts. METHODS: From March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020, data from 55 international centers were entered into a prospective, COVID-ACS Registry. Patients were COVID-19 positive (or had a high index of clinical suspicion) and underwent invasive coronary angiography for suspected ACS. Outcomes were in-hospital major cardiovascular events (all-cause mortality, re-myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, unplanned revascularization, or stent thrombosis). Results were compared with national pre-COVID-19 databases (MINAP [Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project] 2019 and BCIS [British Cardiovascular Intervention Society] 2018 to 2019). RESULTS: In 144 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 121 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients, symptom-to-admission times were significantly prolonged (COVID-STEMI vs. BCIS: median 339.0 min vs. 173.0 min; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS vs. MINAP: 417.0 min vs. 295.0 min; p = 0.012). Mortality in COVID-ACS patients was significantly higher than BCIS/MINAP control subjects in both subgroups (COVID-STEMI: 22.9% vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS: 6.6% vs. 1.2%; p < 0.001), which remained following multivariate propensity analysis adjusting for comorbidities (STEMI subgroup odds ratio: 3.33 [95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 5.42]). Cardiogenic shock occurred in 20.1% of COVID-STEMI patients versus 8.7% of BCIS patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter international registry, COVID-19-positive ACS patients presented later and had increased in-hospital mortality compared with a pre-COVID-19 ACS population. Excessive rates of and mortality from cardiogenic shock were major contributors to the worse outcomes in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/complications , Registries , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Aged , Coronary Angiography , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(2): 305-313, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who would usually have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, cardiac surgery for coronary artery disease (CAD) was dramatically reduced during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many patients with "surgical disease" instead underwent PCI. METHODS: Between 1 March 2020 and 31 July 2020, 215 patients with recognized "surgical" CAD who underwent PCI were enrolled in the prospective UK-ReVasc Registry (ReVR). 30-day major cardiovascular event outcomes were collected. Findings in ReVR patients were directly compared to reference PCI and isolated CABG pre-COVID-19 data from British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) and National Cardiac Audit Programme (NCAP) databases. RESULTS: ReVR patients had higher incidence of diabetes (34.4% vs 26.4%, P = .008), multi-vessel disease with left main stem disease (51.4% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and left anterior descending artery involvement (94.8% vs 67.2%, P < .001) compared to BCIS data. SYNTAX Score in ReVR was high (mean 28.0). Increased use of transradial access (93.3% vs 88.6%, P = .03), intracoronary imaging (43.6% vs 14.4%, P < .001) and calcium modification (23.6% vs 3.5%, P < .001) was observed. No difference in in-hospital mortality was demonstrated compared to PCI and CABG data (ReVR 1.4% vs BCIS 0.7%, P = .19; vs NCAP 1.0%, P = .48). Inpatient stay was half compared to CABG (3.0 vs 6.0 days). Low-event rates in ReVR were maintained to 30-day follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: PCI undertaken using contemporary techniques produces excellent short-term results in patients who would be otherwise CABG candidates. Longer-term follow-up is essential to determine whether these outcomes are maintained over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Hirudins , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013879, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A small minority of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a severe illness, characterised by inflammation, microvascular damage and coagulopathy, potentially leading to myocardial injury, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial occlusive events. People with risk factors for or pre-existing cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities associated with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 in a variety of settings, including the community, care homes and hospitals. We also assessed the nature and rate of subsequent cardiovascular complications and clinical events in people with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted an electronic search from December 2019 to 24 July 2020 in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, covid-19.cochrane.org, ClinicalTrials.gov and EU Clinical Trial Register. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after, case-control and cross-sectional studies, and randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We analysed controlled trials as cohorts, disregarding treatment allocation. We only included peer-reviewed studies with 100 or more participants, and excluded articles not written in English or only published in pre-print servers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results and extracted data. Given substantial variation in study designs, reported outcomes and outcome metrics, we undertook a narrative synthesis of data, without conducting a meta-analysis. We critically appraised all included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist for prevalence studies and the JBI checklist for case series. MAIN RESULTS: We included 220 studies. Most of the studies originated from China (47.7%) or the USA (20.9%); 9.5% were from Italy. A large proportion of the studies were retrospective (89.5%), but three (1.4%) were RCTs and 20 (9.1%) were prospective. Using JBI's critical appraisal checklist tool for prevalence studies, 75 studies attained a full score of 9, 57 studies a score of 8, 31 studies a score of 7, 5 studies a score of 6, three studies a score of 5 and one a score of 3; using JBI's checklist tool for case series, 30 studies received a full score of 10, six studies a score of 9, 11 studies a score of 8, and one study a score of 5 We found that hypertension (189 studies, n = 174,414, weighted mean prevalence (WMP): 36.1%), diabetes (197 studies, n = 569,188, WMP: 22.1%) and ischaemic heart disease (94 studies, n = 100,765, WMP: 10.5%)  are highly prevalent in people hospitalised with COVID-19, and are associated with an increased risk of death. In those admitted to hospital, biomarkers of cardiac stress or injury are often abnormal, and the incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular complications is substantial, particularly arrhythmias (22 studies, n = 13,115, weighted mean incidence (WMI) 9.3%), heart failure (20 studies, n = 29,317, WMI: 6.8%) and thrombotic complications (VTE: 16 studies, n = 7700, WMI: 7.4%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic literature review indicates that cardiometabolic comorbidities are common in people who are hospitalised with a COVID-19 infection, and cardiovascular complications are frequent. We plan to update this review and to conduct a formal meta-analysis of outcomes based on a more homogeneous selected subsample of high-certainty studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Thrombosis/epidemiology
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e043887, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127585

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Very little is known about possible clinical sequelae that may persist after resolution of acute COVID-19. A recent longitudinal cohort from Italy including 143 patients followed up after hospitalisation with COVID-19 reported that 87% had at least one ongoing symptom at 60-day follow-up. Early indications suggest that patients with COVID-19 may need even more psychological support than typical intensive care unit patients. The assessment of risk factors for longer term consequences requires a longitudinal study linked to data on pre-existing conditions and care received during the acute phase of illness. The primary aim of this study is to characterise physical and psychosocial sequelae in patients post-COVID-19 hospital discharge. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is an international open-access prospective, observational multisite study. This protocol is linked with the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) and the WHO's Clinical Characterisation Protocol, which includes patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 during hospitalisation. This protocol will follow-up a subset of patients with confirmed COVID-19 using standardised surveys to measure longer term physical and psychosocial sequelae. The data will be linked with the acute phase data. Statistical analyses will be undertaken to characterise groups most likely to be affected by sequelae of COVID-19. The open-access follow-up survey can be used as a data collection tool by other follow-up studies, to facilitate data harmonisation and to identify subsets of patients for further in-depth follow-up. The outcomes of this study will inform strategies to prevent long-term consequences; inform clinical management, interventional studies, rehabilitation and public health management to reduce overall morbidity; and improve long-term outcomes of COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol and survey are open access to enable low-resourced sites to join the study to facilitate global standardised, longitudinal data collection. Ethical approval has been given by sites in Colombia, Ghana, Italy, Norway, Russia, the UK and South Africa. New sites are welcome to join this collaborative study at any time. Sites interested in adopting the protocol as it is or in an adapted version are responsible for ensuring that local sponsorship and ethical approvals in place as appropriate. The tools are available on the ISARIC website (www.isaric.org). PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: osf.io/c5rw3/ PROTOCOL VERSION: 3 August 2020 EUROQOL ID: 37035.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Colombia , Ghana , Humans , Italy , Longitudinal Studies , Norway , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Russia , South Africa , United Kingdom
17.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(3): 332-339, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as an associate of myocardial injury is controversial. HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 MI/Myocardial Injury are associated with worse outcomes if complicated by COVID-19. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study involved consecutive patients admitted to a large urban hospital. Myocardial injury was determined using laboratory records as ≥1 hs-TnI result >99th percentile (male: >34 ng/L; female: >16 ng/L). Endotypes were defined according to the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) and COVID-19 determined using PCR. Outcomes of patients with myocardial injury with and without COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: Of 346 hospitalized patients with elevated hs-TnI, 35 (10.1%) had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (median age [IQR]; 65 [59-74]; 64.8% male vs. COVID-19 negative: 74 [63-83] years; 43.7% male). Cardiac endotypes by COVID-19 status (yes vs. no) were: Type 1 MI (0 [0%] vs. 115 [100%]; p < .0005), Type 2 MI (13 [16.5%] vs. 66 [83.5%]; p = .045), and non-ischemic myocardial injury (cardiac: 4 [5.8%] vs. 65 [94.2%]; p = .191, non-cardiac:19 [22.9%] vs. 64 [77.%]; p < .0005). COVID-19 patients had less comorbidity (median [IQR] Charlson Comorbidity Index: 3.0 [3.0] vs. 5.0 [4.0]; p = .001), similar hs-TnI concentrations (median [IQR] initial: 46 [113] vs. 62 [138]; p = .199, peak: 122 [474] vs. 79 [220] ng/L; p = .564), longer admission (days) (median [IQR]: 14[19] vs. 6[12]; p = .001) and higher in-hospital mortality (63.9% vs. 11.3%; OR = 13.2; 95%CI: 5.90, 29.7). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac sequelae of COVID-19 typically manifest as Non-cardiac myocardial injury/Type 2MI in younger patients with less co-morbidity. Paradoxically, the admission duration and in-hospital mortality are increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042098, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 can cause severe acute respiratory failure requiring management in intensive care unit with invasive ventilation and a 40% mortality rate. Cardiovascular manifestations are common and studies have shown an increase in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction associated with mortality. These studies, however, comprise heterogeneous patient groups with few requiring invasive ventilation. This study will investigate the prevalence and prognostic significance of RV dysfunction in ventilated patients with COVID-19 which may lead to targeted interventions to improve patient outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective multicentre observational cohort study will perform transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 150 patients with COVID-19 requiring invasive ventilation for more than 48 hours. RV dysfunction will be defined as TTE evidence of RV dilatation along with the presence of septal flattening. Baseline demographics, disease severity data and clinical information relating to proposed aetiological mechanisms of RV dysfunction (acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), disordered coagulation, direct myocardial injury and ventilation) will be collected and analysed.Primary outcome measures include the prevalence of RV dysfunction and its association with 30-day mortality. Exploratory outcome measures will investigate the association of the proposed aetiological mechanisms of RV dysfunction to the primary outcomes.Prevalence of RV dysfunction will be determined along with 95% Clopper-Pearson CIs and 30-day survival will be analysed using logistic regression adjusting for patient demographics, phase of disease and baseline severity of illness. The role of potential aetiological factors (ARDS, disordered coagulation, direct myocardial injury and ventilation) in relation to the primary outcomes will be analysed using logistic regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval was gained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (REC reference 20/SS/0059). Findings will be disseminated by various methods including webinars, international presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Research Design , Respiration, Artificial , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland , Severity of Illness Index
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040402, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate demographic, lifestyle, socioeconomic and clinical risk factors for COVID-19, and compared them to risk factors for pneumonia and influenza in UK Biobank. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 49-83 year olds (in 2020) from a general population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Confirmed COVID-19 infection (positive SARS-CoV-2 test). Incident influenza and pneumonia were obtained from primary care data. Poisson regression was used to study the association of exposure variables with outcomes. RESULTS: Among 235 928 participants, 397 had confirmed COVID-19. After multivariable adjustment, modifiable risk factors were higher body mass index and higher glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) (RR 1.28 and RR 1.14 per SD increase, respectively), smoking (RR 1.39), slow walking pace as a proxy for physical fitness (RR 1.53), and use of blood pressure medications as a proxy for hypertension (RR 1.33). Higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were both associated with lower risk (RR 0.84 and RR 0.83 per SD increase, respectively). Non-modifiable risk factors included male sex (RR 1.72), black ethnicity (RR 2.00), socioeconomic deprivation (RR 1.17 per SD increase in Townsend Index), and high cystatin C (RR 1.13 per SD increase). The risk factors overlapped with pneumonia somewhat, less so for influenza. The associations with modifiable risk factors were generally stronger for COVID-19, than pneumonia or influenza. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that modification of lifestyle may help to reduce the risk of COVID-19 and could be a useful adjunct to other interventions, such as social distancing and shielding of high risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Specimen Banks , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/ethnology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Heart ; 106(24): 1890-1897, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To monitor hospital activity for presentation, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19) pandemic to inform on indirect effects. METHODS: Retrospective serial cross-sectional study in nine UK hospitals using hospital activity data from 28 October 2019 (pre-COVID-19) to 10 May 2020 (pre-easing of lockdown) and for the same weeks during 2018-2019. We analysed aggregate data for selected cardiovascular diseases before and during the epidemic. We produced an online visualisation tool to enable near real-time monitoring of trends. RESULTS: Across nine hospitals, total admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances decreased after lockdown (23 March 2020) by 57.9% (57.1%-58.6%) and 52.9% (52.2%-53.5%), respectively, compared with the previous year. Activity for cardiac, cerebrovascular and other vascular conditions started to decline 1-2 weeks before lockdown and fell by 31%-88% after lockdown, with the greatest reductions observed for coronary artery bypass grafts, carotid endarterectomy, aortic aneurysm repair and peripheral arterial disease procedures. Compared with before the first UK COVID-19 (31 January 2020), activity declined across diseases and specialties between the first case and lockdown (total ED attendances relative reduction (RR) 0.94, 0.93-0.95; total hospital admissions RR 0.96, 0.95-0.97) and after lockdown (attendances RR 0.63, 0.62-0.64; admissions RR 0.59, 0.57-0.60). There was limited recovery towards usual levels of some activities from mid-April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial reductions in total and cardiovascular activities are likely to contribute to a major burden of indirect effects of the pandemic, suggesting they should be monitored and mitigated urgently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Needs Assessment/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Humans , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , United Kingdom
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