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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116243

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune blistering disease that involves the skin and mucous membranes and rarely occurs in pediatric age. METHODS: we present a case of childhood pemphigus in a 9-year-old patient from Burkina Faso, which initially manifested with erosive lesions symmetrically distributed in the oral cavity. After a few months, we also observed hyperchromic lesions of the back. Histopathological examination of skin samples showed intraepidermal acantholysis, while direct immunofluorescence showed deposits of complement (C3) and immunoglobulins G (IgG) in the epidermidis; an ELISA test highlighted the presence of circulating autoantibodies against desmoglein 3. RESULTS: the follow-up of this patient was made difficult by the advent of the COVID-19 outbreak. However, after about one year of combined therapy with systemic steroids and azathioprine the patient reached clinical remission.

2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 183, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a rare condition in pediatrics; LyP histological type D has been reported in only 7 children. The differential diagnosis of LyP in the spectrum of lymphoid proliferation remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old boy presented to Emergency Department with a 3-week history of an erythematous papulo-vesicular itchy eruption over the submandibular regions, trunk and extremities. History, symptoms and laboratory tests were unremarkable. SARS-CoV-2 antigen was negative. The clinical suspicion of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA) was posed, and topical steroids were introduced. One week after, he returned with an extensive painful scaly papulo-erythematous rash, with some ulcerated and necrotic lesions, and fever; therefore the child was hospitalized. Biochemical results were within reference limits, except for high level of C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase and bilirubin. Due to a persistently high fever, systemic corticosteroid treatment was administered, with a good clinical response and an improvement of the skin lesions. Anti-PVB-19 Immunoglobulin M was detected. Elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ were also recorded. Five days post-admission, most of the lesions had cleared, and the child was discharged. Methotrexate was started, with a positive response. At skin biopsy a "PLEVA-like" pattern was apparent, with a dense, wedge shaped lymphoid infiltrate featuring epidermotropism and morphologically comprising pleomorphic and blastic cells. The pattern of infiltration was highlighted by immunohistochemical stains, which prove the process to feature a CD8+/CD30 + phenotype, the latter being intense on larger cells, with antigenic loss. Polymerase chain reaction for T-cell receptor gamma (TCRG) chain clonality assessment documented a monoclonal peak. A diagnosis of LyP type D was favored. CONCLUSION: The reported case encompasses most of the critical features of two separated entities-PLEVA and LyP-thus providing further support to the concept of them representing declinations within a sole spectrum of disease. Studying the role of infectious agents as trigger potential in lymphoproliferative cutaneous disorders and detecting novel markers of disease, such as cytokines, could have a crucial impact on pathogenic disease mechanisms and perspective therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphomatoid Papulosis , Parvoviridae Infections , Pityriasis Lichenoides , Child , Humans , Male , Lymphomatoid Papulosis/diagnosis , Lymphomatoid Papulosis/pathology , Pityriasis Lichenoides/diagnosis , Pityriasis Lichenoides/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Proliferation
3.
Leukemia ; 36(7): 1720-1748, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972568

ABSTRACT

We herein present an overview of the upcoming 5th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Haematolymphoid Tumours focussing on lymphoid neoplasms. Myeloid and histiocytic neoplasms will be presented in a separate accompanying article. Besides listing the entities of the classification, we highlight and explain changes from the revised 4th edition. These include reorganization of entities by a hierarchical system as is adopted throughout the 5th edition of the WHO classification of tumours of all organ systems, modification of nomenclature for some entities, revision of diagnostic criteria or subtypes, deletion of certain entities, and introduction of new entities, as well as inclusion of tumour-like lesions, mesenchymal lesions specific to lymph node and spleen, and germline predisposition syndromes associated with the lymphoid neoplasms.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Neoplasms , Lymphoma , Humans , Lymphoma/pathology , World Health Organization
5.
Tumori ; 108(4): 394-396, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477149

ABSTRACT

As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, radiation therapies have been modulated to reduce the risk of infection during outpatient activities and hypofractionated regimens or radiotherapy delay for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were suggested. Hypofractionated radiotherapy not only may confer no disadvantage in regard to outcome when compared to a more protracted schedule but might also reduce the risk of infection. We report the experience of a dermatologic radiation therapy department concerning a group of patients with a diagnosis of NMSC selected for a radiation treatment plan aimed to minimize the number of their accesses to our department.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Pandemics , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Skin Neoplasms/radiotherapy
6.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 38(5): 1185-1190, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379597

ABSTRACT

We observed ten children with a papular eruption with purpuric features during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Northern Italy (May-December 2020). Histological examination showed signs of SARS-CoV-2-related dermatosis. Evidence of nucleocapsid viral proteins using SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) nucleocapsid antibody revealed cuticular staining of the deep portion of the eccrine glands in all cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis , Purpura , Humans , Pandemics , Purpura/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 84(5): 1356-1363, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of skin manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations and explore the relationships among the 6 main cutaneous phenotypes and systemic findings. METHODS: Twenty-one Italian Dermatology Units were asked to collect the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic data of 200 patients with COVID-19-associated skin manifestations. The severity of COVID-19 was classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: A chilblain-like acral pattern was significantly associated with a younger age (P < .0001) and, after adjusting for age, significantly associated with less severe COVID-19 (P = .0009). However, the median duration of chilblain-like lesions was significantly longer than that of the other cutaneous manifestations taken together (P < .0001). Patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 were more represented than those with asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 among the patients with cutaneous manifestations other than chilblain-like lesions, but only the confluent erythematous/maculo-papular/morbilliform phenotype was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 (P = .015), and this significance disappeared after adjustment for age. LIMITATIONS: Laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 was not possible in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for age, there was no clear-cut spectrum of COVID-19 severity in patients with COVID-19-related skin manifestations, although chilblain-like acral lesions were more frequent in younger patients with asymptomatic/pauci-symptomatic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Chilblains/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Skin Diseases, Viral/pathology
8.
Cancer ; 127(7): 1091-1101, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are considered at high risk for the novel respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). General measures to keep COVID-19-free cancer divisions have been adopted worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of triage to identify COVID-19 among patients with cancer. METHODS: From March 20 to April 17, 2020, data were collected from patients who were treated or followed at the authors' institution in a prospective clinical trial. The primary endpoint was to estimate the cumulative incidence of COVID-19-positive patients who were identified using a triage process through the aid of medical and patient questionnaires. Based on a diagnostic algorithm, patients with suspect symptoms underwent an infectious disease specialist's evaluation and a COVID-19 swab. Serologic tests were proposed for patients who had symptoms or altered laboratory tests that did not fall into the diagnostic algorithm but were suspicious for COVID-19. RESULTS: Overall, 562 patients were enrolled. Six patients (1%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, of whom 4 (67%) had the disease detected through telehealth triage, and 2 patients (33%) without suspect symptoms at triage had the disease detected later. Seventy-one patients (13%) had suspect symptoms and/or altered laboratory tests that were not included in the diagnostic algorithm and, of these, 47 patients (73%) underwent testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody: 6 (13%) were positive for IgG (n = 5) or for both IgM and IgG (n = 1), and antibody tests were negative in the remaining 41 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The triage process had a positive effect on the detection of COVID-19 in patients with cancer. Telehealth triage was helpful in detecting suspect patients and to keep a COVID-19-free cancer center. The overall incidence of COVID-19 diagnosis (1%) and antibody positivity (13%) in patients with suspect symptoms was similar to that observed in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triage/methods
9.
Dermatology ; 237(1): 1-12, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic caused by the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), which was isolated for the first time in Wuhan (China) in December 2019. Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, dyspnea and hypogeusia/hyposmia. Among extrapulmonary signs associated with COVID-19, dermatological manifestations have been increasingly reported in the last few months. SUMMARY: The polymorphic nature of COVID-19-associated cutaneous manifestations led our group to propose a classification, which distinguishes the following six main clinical patterns: (i) urticarial rash, (ii) confluent erythematous/maculopapular/morbilliform rash, (iii) papulovesicular exanthem, (iv) chilblain-like acral pattern, (v) livedo reticularis/racemosa-like pattern, (vi) purpuric "vasculitic" pattern. This review summarizes the current knowledge on COVID-19-associated cutaneous manifestations, focusing on clinical features and therapeutic management of each category and attempting to give an overview of the hypothesized pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Acrodermatitis/virology , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/virology , Urticaria/virology , Acrodermatitis/pathology , Exanthema/pathology , Humans , Livedo Reticularis/pathology , Livedo Reticularis/virology , Patient Acuity , Purpura/pathology , Purpura/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/pathology
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