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J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(2): 393-401, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528399


OBJECTIVE(S): This prospective observational cohort study aimed to evaluate whether women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at higher risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes compared to negative patients. STUDY DESIGN: Seromolecular testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at 12, 16, 21 weeks, and at delivery; the cohort was then subdivided into a first-trimester SARS-CoV-2-positive (case) group and a SARS-CoV-2-negative (control) group. The primary outcome was a composite adverse obstetric outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion, preterm delivery, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth; and a composite measure of adverse neonatal events, including either 1- and 5-min Apgar score ≤ 7, neonatal intensive care unit admission and congenital birth defects. Maternal symptoms and antibody titer were secondarily assessed. RESULTS: A total of 17 of 164 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%) in the first trimester. One SARS-CoV-2-positive patient who gave birth at another hospital was excluded. Composite adverse obstetric outcome was observed in 6.2% (1/16) SARS-CoV-2-positive and 10.5% (11/105) SARS-CoV-2-negative women; composite adverse neonatal outcome in 12.5% (2/16) and 7.6% (8/105), respectively. In the newborns of women who had developed IgG antibodies, the same antibodies were detected in arterial cord blood and the nasopharyngeal swab tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. No maternal pneumonia or hospital admission due to coronavirus disease-19 were recorded. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic women during the first trimester of pregnancy did not experience significantly more adverse events than SARS-CoV-2-negative women.

COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115413


This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate whether women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at higher risk of noninvasive prenatal screening test alterations and/or of congenital fetal anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan. Maternal symptoms were secondly investigated. The study was carried out on 12-week pregnant women admitted for noninvasive prenatal testing (16 April and 22 June 2020). The cohort had seromolecular tests for SARS-CoV-2, after which they were divided into a positive case group and a negative control group. Both groups had 20-week ultrasound screening. Seventeen out of the 164 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%). There were no significant differences in mean nuchal translucency thickness or biochemical markers (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, unconjugated estriol) between cases and controls (p = 0.77, 0.63, 0.30, 0.40, 0.28) or in the fetal incidence of structural anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan (p = 0.21). No pneumonia or hospital admission due to COVID-19-related symptoms were observed. Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy did not predispose affected women to more fetal anomalies than unaffected women. COVID-19 had a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy in our healthy cohort.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 703, 2020 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934262


BACKGROUND: Trauma, natural and man-made catastrophic events can be predictors of postpartum psychological distress. In a public health response due to coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the Italian government imposed a lockdown from March 9 to May 3. This extraordinary situation may have been challenging for maternal psychological health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in women giving birth during the Covid-19 pandemic and its associations with quarantine measures, obstetrical factors, and relational attachment style. METHODS: Women who gave birth in a high-volume obstetric/gynaecological medical centre located in an epidemic area during the Covid-19 pandemic (March 8 to June 15) were asked to complete an online survey about their childbirth experience and the perceived effect of the pandemic. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) were administered to assess levels of postpartum depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and relational style of attachment, respectively. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify associations between quarantine measures, childbirth experience, attachment style, and EPDS and IES-R scores. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 163 women (response rate 60.8%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.2% (EPDS cut-off score ≥ 11) and the PTSS rate was 42.9% (IES-R cut-off score ≥ 24). Dismissive and fearful avoidant attachment styles were significantly associated with the risk of depression and PTSS, respectively. Perceived pain during birth was a risk factor for postpartum depression. Perceived support provided by healthcare staff was a protective factor against depression and PTSS. Another protective factor against PTSS was quiet on the ward due to the absence of hospital visitors. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of postpartum depressive and PTSS in women who gave birth during the Covid-19 pandemic. Postnatal psychological distress seemed to be associated more with the prenatal experience and other individual factors than with the pandemic hospital restrictions. Early detection during pregnancy of an insecure attachment style is fundamental to provide targeted preventive and therapeutic psychological interventions.

Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression, Postpartum , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parturition/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control