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1.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(Suppl 4): 32-42, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025256

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, India ranks number 2 and 3 for COVID-19 burden and absolute transplant numbers, respectively. Here, we summarized our single and multicenter Indian studies on solid-organ transplant during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, solid-organ transplants declined 40% to 50%. The mortality rate in COVID-19-positive kidney transplant recipients (11.6%) was lower in India compared with the developed world during the first wave and lower compared with maintenance hemodialysis patients (13% to 38%) but significantly higher compared with the nonimmunosuppressed general population (1% to 3%) in India. We contributed to National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization transplant-related guidelines to increase safety and access to solid-organ transplant. We reported the safety and feasibility of remdesivir (n = 57) and convalescent plasma therapy (n = 10) in kidney transplant recipients. We reported 100% patient and graft survival without any complications related to COVID-19 in a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients who recovered from COVID-19 (n = 372) and a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients of living donors (n = 31) who recovered from COVID-19 without any change in induction and maintenance immunosuppression. COVID-19 disease severity and mortality in the second episode (reoccurring infection) was higher (46%) compared with the first episode (11.6%). There was 4.4% incidence of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis in kidney transplant recipients with mortality of 46% in the second wave. We reported COVID-19 vaccine safety with suboptimal efficacy in kidney transplant recipients and dialysis patients compared with the general population. Our report suggested that transplant with carefully selected COVID-19-recovered donors and patients may be feasible and safe, at least over the short term. Continued research is needed on vaccine efficacy, booster doses, and long-term follow up sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Living Donors , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
2.
Indian J Nephrol ; 32(4): 367-370, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988209

ABSTRACT

We hereby present a case of an atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) precipitated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A 26-year-old male was diagnosed with COVID-19 and acute kidney injury. His kidney biopsy was suggestive of thrombotic microangiopathy. Five sessions of plasmapheresis were done but were discontinued in view of nonrecovery of kidney function. He was then referred for a kidney transplant. On genetic analysis, he was found to have mutations in the complement system (CFHR1 and CFHR3), which suggested this was a case of aHUS precipitated by COVID-19. In view of the high risk of recurrence of the primary disease in live-related kidney donor transplantation, he was advised for simultaneous liver and kidney transplants.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 46: 101359, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828410

ABSTRACT

Background: There is an enormous knowledge gap on management strategies, clinical outcomes, and follow-up after kidney transplantation (KT) in recipients that have recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: We conducted a multi-center, retrospective analysis in 23 Indian transplant centres between June 26, 2020 to December 1, 2021 on KT recipients who recovered after COVID-19 infections. We analyzed clinical and biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (AR) incidence and used cox-proportional modeling to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for predictors of AR. We also performed competing risk analysis. Additional outcome measures included graft loss, all-cause mortality, waiting time from a positive real-time polymerase test (RT-PCR) to KT, laboratory parameters, and quality of life in follow-up. Findings: Among 372 KT which included 38(10·21%) ABO-incompatible, 12(3·22%) sensitized, 64(17·20%) coexisting donors with COVID-19 history and 20 (5·37%) recipients with residual radiographic abnormalities, the incidence of AR was 34 (9·1%) with 1(0·26%) death censored graft loss, and 4(1·07%) all-cause mortality over a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 241 (106-350) days. In our cox hazard proportional analysis, absence of oxygen requirement during COVID-19 compared to oxygen need [HR = 0·14(0·03-0·59); p-value = 0·0071], and use of thymoglobulin use compared to other induction strategies [HR = 0·17(0·03-0.95); p-value = 0·044] had a lower risk for AR. Degree of Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR mismatch had the highest risk of AR [HR = 10.2(1·74-65·83); p-value = 0·011]. With competing risk analysis, with death as a competing event, HLA DR mismatch, and oxygen requirement continued to be associated with AR. Age, gender, obesity, inflammatory markers, dialysis vintage, steroid use, sensitization and ABO-incompatibility have not been associated with a higher risk of AR. The median duration between COVID-19 real time polymerase test negativity to transplant was 88(40-145) days (overall), and ranged from 88(40-137), 65(42-120), 110(49-190), and 127(64-161) days in World Health Organization ordinal scale ≤ 3, 4, 5, and 6-7, respectively. There was no difference in quality of life, tacrolimus levels, blood counts, and mean serum creatinine assessed in patients with a past COVID-19 infection independent of severity. Interpretation: Our findings support that the outcomes of KT after COVID-19 recovery are excellent with absence of COVID-19 sequelae during follow-up. Additionally, there does not seem to be a need for changes in the induction/immunosuppression regimen based on the severity of COVID-19. Funding: Sanofi.

5.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1423-1432, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited current knowledge on feasibility and safety of kidney transplantation in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) survivors. METHODS: We present a retrospective cohort study of 75 kidney transplants in patients who recovered from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 performed across 22 transplant centers in India from July 3, 2020, to January 31, 2021. We detail demographics, clinical manifestations, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients with a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 were accepted after documenting 2 negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 PCR tests, normal chest imaging with complete resolution of symptom for at least 28 d and significant social distancing for 14 d before surgery. RESULTS: Clinical severity in patients ranged from asymptomatic (n = 17, 22.7%), mild (n = 36.48%), moderate (n = 15.20%), and severe (n = 7.9.3%) disease. Median duration between PCR positive to transplant was 60 d (overall) and increased significantly from asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe disease (49, 57, 83, 94 d, P 0.019), respectively. All recipients and donors were asymptomatic with normal creatinine after surgery at a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 81 (56-117) d without any complications relating to surgery or COVID-19. Patient and graft survival was 100%, and acute rejection was reported in 6.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective kidney transplant recipients post-COVID-19 can be considered for transplantation after comprehensive donor and recipient screening before surgery using a combination of clinical, radiologic, and laboratory criteria, careful pretransplant evaluation, and individualized risk-benefit analysis. Further large-scale prospective studies with longer follow-up will better clarify our initial findings. To date, this remains the first and the largest study of kidney transplantation in COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Donor Selection/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , India , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1255, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is a recently emerging entity. There is a lack of reports of CAM in organ transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter (n = 18) retrospective research in India during November 2020 to July 2021. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical spectrum, outcome and risk factors for mortality of CAM in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). RESULTS: The incidence of CAM was 4.4% (61/1382 COVID-19-positive KTRs) with 26.2% mortality. The median age of the cohort was 45 (38-54) y. Twenty (32%) were not hospitalized and 14 (22.9%) were on room air during COVID-19. The proportion of postdischarge CAM was 59.1%, while concurrent CAM was reported in 40.9%. The presentation of CAM was 91.8% rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and 8.2% pulmonary with 19.6% and 100% mortality, respectively. In the univariable analysis, older age, obesity, difficulty of breathing, high-flow oxygen requirement, and delay in starting therapy were significantly associated with mortality. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients requiring high-flow oxygen therapy [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 9.3 (1.6-51); P = 0.01] and obesity [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 5.2 (1-28); P = 0.05] was associated with mortality. The median follow-up of the study was 60 (35-60) d. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the largest case series of CAM in KTRs. Morality in pulmonary CAM is extremely high. Severe COVID-19 pose extra risk for the development of CAM and associated mortality. Our report will help in better understanding the conundrum and management of CAM.

7.
Transplantation ; 105(4): 851-860, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the consequences of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infections in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) from emerging countries. METHODS: Here, we present a cohort study of 13 transplant centers in India including 250 KTR (226 living and 24 deceased donors) with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 positivity from March 23, 2020, until September 15, 2020. We detailed demographics, immunosuppression regimen, clinical profile, treatment, and outcomes. RESULTS: Median age of transplant recipients was 43 years, and recipients presented at a median of 3.5 years after transplant. Most common comorbidities (94%) included arterial hypertension (84%) and diabetes (32%); presenting symptoms at the time of COVID-19 included fever (88%), cough (72%), and sputum production (52%). Clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic (6%), mild (60%), and moderate (20%) to severe (14%). Strategies to modify immunosuppressants included discontinuation of antimetabolites without changes in calcineurin inhibitors and steroids (60%). Risk factors for mortality included older age; dyspnea; severe disease; obesity; allograft dysfunction before COVID-19 infection; acute kidney injury; higher levels of inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 level, and procalcitonin; chest X-ray abnormality, and intensive care unit/ventilator requirements. Overall patient mortality was 11.6% (29 of 250), 14.5% (29 of 200) in hospitalized patients, 47% (25 of 53) in intensive care unit patients, and 96.7% (29 of 30) in patients requiring ventilation. KTRs with mild COVID-19 symptoms (n = 50) were managed as outpatients to optimize the utilization of scarce resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates in COVID-19-positive KTR appear to be higher than those in nonimmunosuppressed patients, and high mortality was noted among those requiring intensive care and those on ventilator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , /methods , India/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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