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1.
Physics of Fluids ; 34(6):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1978071

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel viral species that has been identified as a highly infectious disease. Scientists have endeavored to collect essential information to better characterize the behavior of this virus, including droplet transmission and airborne effects. However, it is not clear, thus far, whether temperature can substantially alter the pandemic trajectory. This present study, therefore, aims to investigate how temperature may affect virus transmission in peristaltic blood vessels and, furthermore, how virus density and particle diameter will affect the transmission of the virus from an infected person to a non-infected person. The modeling deployed assumes that coronavirus particles with a diameter of 120 mu m and a density of 1 g/cm(3) move in the direction of blood flow. The quantity of SARS-CoV-2 virions (entire virus particles) inside a microdroplet is calculated by considering the Kepler conjecture method, and the transmission percentage of the viral load is also computed. It is observed that the microdroplet carries a smaller amount of coronavirus particles, so an airborne ( D-P < 2 mu m ) infection is less harmful. Furthermore, computational simulations using the proposed model reveal some interesting insight into how rapidly the SARS-CoV-2 virus propagates in the circulatory system, and estimate the infection in blood and tissues. From these results, it is found that the small virion (d(p) < 100 nm) rapidly settles inside the bloodstream and infects tissues;however, the duration of infection is short due to the low viscosity of the blood. Furthermore, the closed packed structure of the virions is loosened in the blood vessel due to the temperature of the blood. Published under an exclusive license by AIP Publishing.

2.
6th International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Mining, ICCIDM 2021 ; 281:137-148, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872352

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic led to remote working and hence resulting in more video conferences among all sectors. Even important international conferences between different nations are being conducted on online video conferencing platforms. Hence, a methodology capable of performing real-time end-to-end speech translation has become a necessity. In this paper, we have proposed a complete pipeline methodology, wherein the real-time video conferencing will become interactive, and it can be used in the educational section for generating videos of instructors from just their images and textual notes. We are using automatic voice translation (AVT), text-to-stream machine translation (MT), and text-to-voice generator for voice cloning and translation in real time. For video generation, we use general adversarial networks (GANs), encoder-decoder, and various other previously implemented generative models. The proposed methodology has been implemented and tested with some raw data and is quite effective for the specified application. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

3.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):OC36-OC39, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1856273

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Infection and vaccination with the viral vector vaccine Covishield are both expected to produce immunity in the body against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Production of neutralising antibodies as a result of the humoral immune response plays a key role in defending against this deadly infection. A lack of virus-specific antibodies in the serum does not always imply a lack of immunological memory. The immune response mediated by T cells is also important. Aim: To check for the humoral immune response after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational research was carried out at Central Referral Hospital (CRH), a tertiary care hospital in Gangtok, Sikkim from May-June 2021. A total of 90 participants were divided into three equal groups;unvaccinated with a history of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the recent past, vaccinated but no infection, and history of vaccination and infection both, respectively. The test was performed with COVISCREEN. It's a double antigen sandwich immunoassay that can detect total antibodies (IgM+IgG+IgA) simultaneously to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0 for Windows, was used to analyse the data. Results: Overall, 30 (33.3%) participants showed positive antibody tests out of total 90. Participants with prior infection exhibited more antibody responses irrespective of the vaccination status as compared to vaccinated participants with no prior infection, this difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.165). Conclusion: Both B-cell, as well as T-cell immune responses following infection and vaccination, need to be evaluated to predict long term immunological memory and protective immunity against future infections with SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1663-1674, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-891731

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging novel coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has now rapidly spread to more than 215 countries and has killed nearly 0.75 million people out of more than 20 million confirmed cases as of 10th August, 2020. Apart from affecting respiratory system, the virus has shown multiple manifestations with neurological affections and damaging kidneys. SARS-CoV-2 transmission mainly occurs through close contact of COVID-19 affected person, however air-borne route is also now considered as dominant route of virus spread. The virus has been implicated to have originated from animals. Apart from bats, pangolins and others being investigates to play role in transmitting SARS-CoV-2 as intermediate hosts, the recent reports of this virus infection in other animals (cats, dogs, tigers, lions, mink) suggest one health approach implementation along with adopting appropriate mitigation strategies. Researchers are pacing to develop effective vaccines and drugs, few reached to clinical trials also, however these may take time to reach the mass population, and so till then adopting appropriate prevention and control is the best option to avoid SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article presents an overview on this pandemic virus and the disease it causes, with few recent concepts and advances.

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