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1.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397297

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased use of telemedicine in health care delivery. Telemedicine facilitates long-term clinical care for monitoring and prevention of complications of diabetes mellitus. GUIDELINES: Precise indications for teleconsultation, clinical care services which can be provided, and good clinical practices to be followed during teleconsultation are explained. Guidance on risk assessment and health education for diabetes risk factors, counselling for blood glucose monitoring, treatment compliance, and prevention of complications are described. CONCLUSION: The guidelines will help physicians in adopting teleconsultation for management of diabetes mellitus, facilitate access to diabetes care and improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Remote Consultation/standards , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Expert Testimony , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 645787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317220

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Evidence on new-onset endocrine dysfunction and identifying whether the degree of this dysfunction is associated with the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19 is scarce. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients enrolled at PGIMER Chandigarh were stratified on the basis of disease severity as group I (moderate-to-severe disease including oxygen saturation <94% on room air or those with comorbidities) (n= 35) and group II (mild disease, with oxygen saturation >94% and without comorbidities) (n=49). Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal, thyroid, gonadal axes, and lactotroph function were evaluated. Inflammatory and cell-injury markers were also analysed. Results: Patients in group I had higher prevalence of hypocortisolism (38.5 vs 6.8%, p=0.012), lower ACTH (16.3 vs 32.1pg/ml, p=0.234) and DHEAS (86.29 vs 117.8µg/dl, p= 0.086) as compared to group II. Low T3 syndrome was a universal finding, irrespective of disease severity. Sick euthyroid syndrome (apart from low T3 syndrome) (80.9 vs 73.1%, p= 0.046) and atypical thyroiditis (low T3, high T4, low or normal TSH) (14.3 vs 2.4%, p= 0.046) were more frequent in group I than group II. Male hypogonadism was also more prevalent in group I (75.6% vs 20.6%, p=0.006) than group II, with higher prevalence of both secondary (56.8 vs 15.3%, p=0.006) and primary (18.8 vs 5.3%, p=0.006) hypogonadism. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 42.4% of patients without significant difference between both groups. Conclusion: COVID-19 can involve multiple endocrine organs and axes, with a greater prevalence and degree of endocrine dysfunction in those with more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endocrine System Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Journal of the Endocrine Society ; 5(Supplement_1):A627-A628, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1221825

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Evidence pertaining to new-onset endocrine dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 is currently limited and extrapolated from prior SARS epidemics. Further, identifying whether the quantum of this dysfunction is associated with the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. We aimed to to comprehensively explore the prevalence, nature and degree of endocrine dysfunction stratified based on disease severity at a dedicated COVID care centre.

4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 193-196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often demonstrate impaired antibody response to influenza/hepatitis B vaccines. Hence, we compared anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in non-severe COVID-19 patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Records of non-severe COVID-19 patients admitted at our institution between April 10, 2020 and May 20, 2020 were retrieved. Qualitative detection of total (IgG + IgM) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was performed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay in plasma samples collected at least 14 days post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of diagnosis. RESULTS: Thirty-one non-severe COVID-19 patients were included. Nine patients (29%) had T2DM with mean HbA1c at admission of 8.3 ± 1.0%. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was estimated at a median of 16 (14-17) days post-PCR confirmation of COVID-19 diagnosis. Only three patients (10%) were seronegative, and all had T2DM. Patients with T2DM were more likely to have non-detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than those without DM (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with T2DM may not undergo seroconversion even after two weeks of diagnosis. Impaired seroconversion could theoretically increase the risk of reinfections in patients with DM. However, the finding requires validation in large-scale studies involving serial estimations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with and without DM.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/physiology , COVID-19 Testing/trends , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
5.
Postgrad Med J ; 2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has an immunomodulatory role but the effect of therapeutic vitamin D supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 infection is not known. AIM: Effect of high dose, oral cholecalciferol supplementation on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo-controlled. PARTICIPANTS: Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D<20 ng/ml) individuals. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to receive daily 60 000 IU of cholecalciferol (oral nano-liquid droplets) for 7 days with therapeutic target 25(OH)D>50 ng/ml (intervention group) or placebo (control group). Patients requiring invasive ventilation or with significant comorbidities were excluded. 25(OH)D levels were assessed at day 7, and cholecalciferol supplementation was continued for those with 25(OH)D <50 ng/ml in the intervention arm. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and inflammatory markers fibrinogen, D-dimer, procalcitonin and (CRP), ferritin were measured periodically. OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative before day-21 and change in inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Forty SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive individuals were randomised to intervention (n=16) or control (n=24) group. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was 8.6 (7.1 to 13.1) and 9.54 (8.1 to 12.5) ng/ml (p=0.730), in the intervention and control group, respectively. 10 out of 16 patients could achieve 25(OH)D>50 ng/ml by day-7 and another two by day-14 [day-14 25(OH)D levels 51.7 (48.9 to 59.5) ng/ml and 15.2 (12.7 to 19.5) ng/ml (p<0.001) in intervention and control group, respectively]. 10 (62.5%) participants in the intervention group and 5 (20.8%) participants in the control arm (p<0.018) became SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative. Fibrinogen levels significantly decreased with cholecalciferol supplementation (intergroup difference 0.70 ng/ml; P=0.007) unlike other inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Greater proportion of vitamin D-deficient individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection turned SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative with a significant decrease in fibrinogen on high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation. TRIAL REGISTER NUMBER: NCT04459247.

6.
Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887001

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: COVID-19 is likely to affect the lives of individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity and glycemic control in such individuals is not known. We studied the physical activity and glycemic control during lockdown in comparison to pre-lockdown parameters in individuals with long-standing type 2 diabetes. Methods: This prospective, observational study includes 2240 people with T2DM regularly attending diabetes clinic prior to lockdown. Glycemic record, HbA1c, and physical activity assessed with Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) as metabolic equivalents (MetS min/week) were obtained during lockdown (minimum duration of 3 months). Results: A total of 422 out of 750 participants (nest) responded. The median (IQR) for age was 58 (52 to 64) years, duration of diabetes 11 (6 to 16) years, prevalent foot complications in 59.7%, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in 21.3% of participants. There was a decrease in HbA1c from 7.8% (6.9 to 9.4) prior lockdown to 7.4% (6.6 to8.7) during lockdown [ΔHbA1c - 0.41 ± 0.27% (p = 0.005)] and postprandial blood glucose 200.0 mg/dl (152.0 to 252.0) to 158.0 (140.0 to 200.0) mg/dl (p < 0.001). The physical activity increased during lockdown from a GPAQ score 140 (0.0 to 1260) MetS to 840 (0.0 to 1680) MetS (p = 0.014). The improvement of glycemic control was observed in either gender and independent of the presence of foot complications or increase in physical activity. Conclusions: There is an overall improvement of glycemic control during COVID-19 lockdown independent of increase in physical activity in people with long duration of diabetes.

7.
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