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1.
Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias ; 94(4):e20210202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Role of Convalescent plasma (COPLA) to treat severe COVID-19 is under investigation. We compared efficacy and safety of COPLA with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: One group received COPLA with standard medical care (n = 14), and another group received random donor FFP, as control with standard medical care (n = 15) in severe COVID-19 disease. RESULTS: The proportion of patients free of ventilation at day seven were 78.5% in COPLA group, and 93.3 % in control group were not significant (p= 0.258). However, improved respiratory rate, O2 saturation, SOFA score, and Ct value were observed in the COPLA group. No serious adverse events were noticed by plasma transfusion in both groups.

2.
Psycho Oncology ; 08:08, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary outcome measures evaluated the financial toxicity and mental well-being of the oral cancer survivors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of oral cancer survivors who were disease-free for more than six months after treatment and visited the hospital for a routine follow-up is included in the study. Mental well-being and financial toxicity were evaluated using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale - 21 (DASS 21) and Comprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST- FACIT) questionnaires. A literature review was done to compare the results with financial toxicity and mental health in cancer patients from the pre-pandemic era. RESULTS: A total of seventy-nine oral cancer survivors were included in the study, predominantly males (M: F=10:1). The age ranged from 26 to 75 years (The median age is 49). The full-time employment dropped from 83.5% in the pre-treatment period to 21.5% post-treatment. Depression was observed in 58.2% and anxiety in 72.2%. Unemployed survivors were observed to have more depression (OR =1.3, 95% CI=0.3 -5.4, p=0.6), anxiety (OR= 3.5, 95% CI= 0.3 -21.2, p= 0.1) and stress (OR =1.6, 95% CI= 0.3 -6.6, p= 0.5) than rest of the cohort. On univariate analysis, unemployed survivors (M=11.8+/-3.8, p=0.01) had significantly poorer financial toxicity scores. Survivors with depression (M=16.4+/-7.1, p=0.06) and stress (M=14.4+/-6.8, p=0.002) had poor financial toxicity scores. On multifactorial analysis of variance, current employment (p=0.04) and treatment modality (p=0.05) were significant factors impacting the financial toxicity. CONCLUSION: There is a trend towards increased incidence of depression, anxiety, and stress among oral cancer survivors compared to the literature from the pre-COVID era. There is significant financial toxicity among either unemployed or part-time workers. This calls for urgent public/government intervention to prevent the long-term impact of financial toxicity on survival and quality of life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005642

ABSTRACT

Background: Digital health solutions (DHS) allow for enhanced remote communication between patients and clinical staff and the COVID-19 pandemic has brought these tools to the forefront of care delivery. Once adopted, barriers to adequate utilization still exist. Given the important need to decrease digital divides, and the diversity of patients and care settings across our clinic's 220 sites of service, we sought to understand how utilization of oncology DHS may be limited among certain populations. Methods: We investigated utilization among cancer patients who enrolled and engaged with a portfolio of DHS between March 1, 2019 and January 15, 2022. This portfolio includes three tools: (1) an electronic patient-reported outcomes (ePRO) remote monitoring program for tracking symptoms and oral adherence, (2) a patient portal (PP) for securely accessing patient health records, and (3) digital education (DE) for patients regarding disease and treatments. ePRO completion rate, average number of PP logins, and DE read rate were used as measures of utilization for each tool, respectively, and compared among patients with different age (< 65 and ≥65 years), language preference [English (EL) or Spanish (SL)], and distance from clinic (non-rural: < 20 miles OR rural: ≥20 miles). Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were used to compare continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Results: This study included a total of 77,347 unique patients representing 651,004 digital encounters. 9,938 patients engaged in ePRO, 49,771 patients in PP, and 12,044 patients in DE. Engagement across all DHS was high in patients of age group < 65 (ePRO: 72.7%, PP: 79.67% and PE 54.7%) as compared to ≥65 years, but the ePRO completion rate is high in ≥65 age group (59.0% vs 55.6%), whereas no significant difference was observed in the PP login activity and DE read rate. EL patients were significantly (p-value < 0.01) more engaged (ePRO 68% vs. 54%, PP: 80% vs. 62%, DE: 57% vs. 37%) and had higher digital utilization (ePRO completion rate: 57.31% vs 53.23%, average PP logins: 7.48 vs 7.14 and DE read rate: 96.2% vs 90.8%) than SL patients across the DHS. Patients living in rural areas comprised roughly 25% of the population and participated across tools similarly as patients living in non-rural areas (ePRO 67% vs. 69%, PP: 79% vs. 79%, DE: 56.9% vs. 56.8%). Utilization of the portfolio was variable based on rural vs non-rural status (ePRO completion rate: 56.3% vs. 57.4%, average PP logins: 7.9 vs. 7.3, DE read rate: 96.02.7% vs 96.3%). Conclusions: Despite variable engagement based on age, language, and rural status across the portfolio, patients within these populations continue to utilize the DHS. How we understand and explore enhancements to DHS remain under investigation for tool optimization for patient-specific barriers to care.

4.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(5):4787-4793, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939454

ABSTRACT

In addition to the loss of human life, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant influence on the economic climate of India, which has resulted in significant disruptions to economic activities. The coronavirus pandemic is the worst thing that has happened to the world in the past year, and India, along with the other nations of the world, is taking action against COVID-19 by enforcing a lockdown, which requires people to stay indoors and isolate themselves beginning March 25, 2020. The effects of the lockdown that India has been under for the past 53 days are being felt across the entire economy of India, albeit to various degrees of intensity and with unpredictable outcomes. The fact that the service sector is responsible for approximately half of India's GDP is notable, and it was particularly heavily impacted by the first wave of the COVID-19 attack. This paper is an attempt to determine the impact that COVID-19 will have on the retail sector of the Indian economy. This sector is playing a significant role in the contribution of GDP, and the contribution of the unorganized retail sector or the informal sector cannot be ignored because of the large number of workers who are engaged in casual work, which accounts for about a quarter of the total workforce in India. This paper is descriptive in nature and is based on data and sources that have been published previously. India is currently experiencing significant trade deficits as a result of the widespread outbreak of the Coronavirus and the ensuing lockdown. As a result of the ongoing huge lock-down triggered by covid-19, over 10 crore workers in the unorganized and informal sector have been forced out of their jobs. It is anticipated that India's trade epidemic might be worth approximately US$ 348 million. Undoubtedly, the government has established a number of programs designed to stimulate growth in the retail sector;but, in order for retailers to be successful in their fight against covid-19, they must also adjust their business plans to account for shifting market conditions.

5.
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics ; 14(4):413-432, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928305

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the working of almost all the organisations from physical to online mode, due to its social distancing norms. Working in online mode requires a collaboration platform for sharing documents, audio and video in real time. However, due to poor privacy barriers and ignorance of participants, pranksters, fraudsters and cyber criminals are able to breach the privacy in these collaborations. The present work highlights the privacy features of the popular collaboration tools and their implications for the users. Major privacy breach incidences have been presented along with the associated technological glitches. A privacy enhancement framework has been proposed with six significant pillars as: 1) user centric privacy design;2) compliance to privacy laws;3) access control;4) transparency;5) awareness and education;6) ethical contact tracing. The privacy framework will be able to take-up the privacy challenges in online collaboration, if properly implemented. Also, the framework is more user centric rather than organisation centric, hence it can be used by both the individual and institutional users.

6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927787

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pulmonary Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular tumor;with approximately 248 cases of reported in the literature, making diagnosis and management challenging. Case: A 57-year-old female with past history of hypertension, hyperthyroidism and scoliosis was admitted with worsening chronic right flank pain. Initial lab workup was unremarkable. revealed COVID-19 PCR test was negative. CT chest revealed bilateral pleural effusions and CT abdomen showed 2.8 x2.0cm vague hypo-attenuating lesion in the right hepatic lobe. A repeat CT scan following thoracentesis demonstrated multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules, with the largest located in the right lower lobe (RLL) measuring 2.1cm (Image). Flowcytometry on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significant for a CD4/CD8 ratio of 5;however, the transbronchial biopsy was unremarkable. Differential diagnosis included sarcoidosis and hence patient was discharged on prednisone with Bactrim prophylaxis. She underwent VATS lung biopsy. RLL and pleural biopsies revealed EHE. Following the prednisone taper, patient was placed on pazopanib 800mg. The dose of medication subsequently reduced to 300-600mg due to adverse events. Repeat CT scans at 3 months demonstrated minimal change in size of the nodules. Patient continues to be followed on regular basis with a stable clinical status. Discussion: EHE is a low-intermediate grade malignancy which affects mostly liver, lungs and bones;although it can be found in any bodily tissue. Up to 50- 76% of patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis, with the most common symptomatic being local pain. Radiologically, Pulmonary EHE consists of bilateral perivascular nodularity. Our case describes the clinical course of a rare and poorly understood disease. Clinicians must be aware of the characteristics of unusual diseases and pursue robust diagnostic approach. In our case, biopsy led to the definitive diagnosis of EHE. Because of its rarity, there is no standard therapy for metastatic disease. Pazopanib has demonstrated prolonged long-term disease control in observational studies. Some other reports have shown response to cytotoxic chemotherapy such as doxorubicin-containing regimens, however, long-term survival is compromised. Lenalidomide, sorafenib and sunitinib have also been used, but the experience is limited. Our patient is currently on her 4th month of treatment with pazopanib, with 3-month follow-up showing no progression of disease. (Figure Presented).

7.
Indian Journal of Leprosy ; 94(1):33-48, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1888042

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the continuity of medical care, the impact on disease condition and to highlight the major challenges faced by people affected by leprosy during the pandemic. Telephonic questionnaire-based survey was conducted among previously registered patients of leprosy at referral hospitals in India. Leprosy affected people aged >18 years, either on treatment or who had completed treatment with access to phone and willingness to participate were included. The questions were asked pertaining to demographic details, baseline disease characteristics and various problems faced during lockdown relating to livelihood, finances, treatment, and mental status. A total of 196 patients consented to participate in the study. Mean age of study participants was 37.31 (13.86) years, male participants (n=123, 62.7%) were more than females (n=73, 37.2%). Overall, 101 patients (51.5%) experienced exacerbation, 21 patients (10.7%) reported improvement and 74 patients (37.8%) reported no change in disease status during the pandemic. Most common difficulty faced was the procurement of medicines (115 patients, 58.6%) followed by difficulty in diagnostic testing (61 patients, 31.1%). Course of treatment was interrupted in 16 patients. Most of the patients (n=147, 75%), agreed that teleconsultation services would aid in management of their disease. The majority of patients (88.2%) were able to continue some form of treatment. Two patients (1%) tested positive for COVID-19. Nearly all patients (n=189, 96.4%) were informed regarding the risks and preventive measures related to COVID-19. Fifty percent of the patients reported deterioration in mental health due to the pandemic. The present study highlights the gaps in healthcare delivery and social inequalities along with their impact on the health, livelihood and mental status of people affected by leprosy during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 128:223-237, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872376

ABSTRACT

The chapter discusses about the sentimental analysis of fears, psychological disorders and health issues of the individuals. The qualitative data of 42 millennials working in different sectors has been collected to analyze the findings. The major findings of the chapter dealt with how the millennials are facing the challenges of several psychological disorder, fears in order to fulfill their jobs and duties during Covid-19, which impact their physical health as well. The study provides a result discussion with the help of word cloud and sentimental analysis, thematic analysis of millennials through NVIVO-12. The chapter concludes that this pandemic creates a window for discussing the psychological fears and mental health issues openly in Indian context. The chapter provides a future scope for the researcher to do the quantitative analysis for the same variables. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

9.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 72(3):4453-4466, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836519

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a group of people in Wuhan city of Hubei province of China were found to be affected by an infection called dark etiology pneumonia. The outbreak of this pneumonia infection was declared a deadly disease by the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention on January 9, 2020, named Novel Coronavirus 2019 (nCoV-2019). This nCoV-2019 is now known as COVID-19. There is a big list of infections of this coronavirus which is present in the form of a big family. This virus can cause several diseases that usually develop with a serious problem. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 2019-nCoV has been placed as the modern generation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses, so COVID-19 can repeatedly change its internal genome structure to extend its existence. Understanding and accurately predicting the mutational properties of the genome structure of COVID-19 can form a good leadership role in preventing and fighting against coronavirus. In this research paper, an analytical approach has been presented which is based on the k-means cluster technique of machine learning to find the clusters over the mutational properties of the COVID-19 viruses’ complete genome. This method would be able to act as a promising tool to monitor and track pathogenic infections in their stable and local genetics/hereditary varieties. This paper identifies five main clusters of mutations with k = 5 as best in most cases in the coronavirus that could help scientists and researchers develop disease control vaccines for the transformation of coronaviruses. © 2022 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

10.
3rd International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Control and Networking, ICAC3N 2021 ; : 2096-2099, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1774592

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic began in Wuhan, China and has now expanded to the majority of a world's nations. The propagation of a pandemic is primarily determined according to each country's policies and social responsibilities. As per the WHO, the attack rate for 23 June 2020 is estimated to be between 1.4 and 2.5. In comparison to industrialized nations, India's position is rather manageable. It would be fascinating to learn about the facts and data surrounding corona cases throughout India. On world meters, many forms of data are provided. We aimed to assess similar information for India and created several predictions on the impacted rate, daily new cases, and daily total completed cases, among others. COVID-19 has cruelly stopped everything within civilization. An examination of COVID-19 records to determine which age groups are the most affected by the virus. Various Machine learning is used to develop predictive model. Algorithms as well as their related performance data are calculated and analysed. Regressor Random Forest and Random Forest The classification algorithm beat all other machine learning algorithm. such as Support Vector Machine, KNN+, Neighbourhood Component Analysis, decision tree classification, and Gaussian Classifier naive Bayesian, Multi linear Regression, various Logistic Classifiers based on the regression technique and the Extreme Gradient Boosting algorithm. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
12th International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies, ICCCNT 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752371

ABSTRACT

Over the years, the domain of psychological therapy and counselling has significantly expanded and established different forums to provide mental health services. The use of virtual therapy for providing mental support to individuals has drastically increased by professionals over the internet through emails, chatting over voice, audio platforms or chat rooms. The world was exposed to certain triggers initiated due to the unprecedented crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, yet therapy applications have helped alleviate mental health challenges and maximize benefits towards the psychological wellbeing of the society. However, evaluation of its efficiency in actually helping people during a crisis is important. The present study aims to (a) Evaluate online counselling services and its effectiveness in providing the necessary emotional support during the pandemic and (b) Understand perspective of trained experts and members on e-therapy platforms. Initially, the study carefully reviewed existing literature on virtual therapy. An online survey was designed to garner the opinions of over 100 mental health professionals about online counselling services. The results reported, about 72% of the experts would consider shifting to virtual platforms during difficult situations for their clients. This paper is particularly useful for mental health professionals evaluating the shift to online platforms for their clients. In the future, researchers could develop technology to enhance the process of e-therapy for the clients and the experts. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(3):DC1-DC5, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1744634

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with damage of cells of both innate and adaptive immunity, which results in immune system's impairment leading to secondary infections. Microbiological evaluation helps in diagnostic as well as antimicrobial stewardship leading to accurate treatment of COVID-19 infected patients. Aim: To evaluate superadded bacterial and fungal infections in COVID-19 infected patients and to evaluate bacterial and fungal infections in COVID-19 non infected patients admitted with Acute Respiratory Illness (ARI). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India, over a period of eight months (May to December, 2020). Respiratory samples, received from indoor patients with history of ARI, were processed for COVID-19 (TrueNat Real Time Polymerase chain reaction) as well as for bacterial and fungal cultures following Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Identification and susceptibility pattern was evaluated by Vitek2 compact system (bioMérieux, Inc. Durham, North Carolina/USA). Quality control strains used were American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Staphylococcus aureus 29213, Escherichia coli 25922 and Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) levels were standardised as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline, 2020. All statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test using Software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Results: Total patients admitted with the history of ARI were 542;COVID-19 Positive Group (CPG) included 115 (21.22%) while COVID-19 Negative Group (CNG) included 427 (78.78%). Growth in bacterial and fungal cultures in CPG was 59.13% (68/115) while in CNG;it was 47.78% (204/427). Among the bacterial isolates, most common isolate was Klebsiella pneumoniae {CPG: 41.93% (26/62);CNG: 36.72% (76/207)}, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa {CPG: 33.87% (21/62);CNG: 31.88% (66/207)}. Fungal isolates in CPG was 19.48% (15/77) (p-value 0.0445). On comparing Antimicrobial Susceptibility (AST) pattern of Enterobacterales in both CPG (n=36) and CNG (n=102), no statistically significant difference was observed. Co-morbid conditions were found mostly in CNG 89% (140/158) with ARI while only 11% (18/158) was found in CPG. Conclusion: Secondary respiratory infections are quite common amongst COVID-19 positive patients. However, growth in culture, type of isolates, Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) was almost similar with COVID-19 non infected patients admitted with ARI. Co-morbidity had the similar impact as COVID-19 infection with respect to co-infections.

13.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50(1 SUPPL):155, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1691891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early reports from Wuhan, NYC and Detroit showed poor prognosis after in hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in COVID-19 patients. Factors leading to poor outcomes included overwhelmed healthcare systems, cardiac arrests on regular nursing floor instead of ICUs & shorter duration of resuscitation efforts. We aimed to assess whether there was a difference in resuscitation efforts in our healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic (22% survival - recently reported) when compared to our historic MICU IHCA (16% survival) resuscitation attempts. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared the duration of resuscitation between two cardiac arrest cohorts. Cohort one included COVID-19 IHCA patients who were admitted from 03/2020- 10/2020 in the ICU of the Cleveland Clinic Health System of NE Ohio. Cohort two included patients who were admitted to the medical ICU of Cleveland Clinic from 01/2014-12/2018. Study was approved by the IRB and data obtained through EMR and quality and patient safety registry. 2:1 propensity score matching was performed to derive two matched groups for outcome analysis. Wilcoxon test was used to compare the duration of resuscitation between two cohorts. Wilcoxon test was used to compare the duration. The statistical analysis was carried using R 4.0.3 and p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There were a total of 442 patients, 384 in non- COVID-19 cohort and 58 in COVID-19 cohort. The mean age of the study population was 61.3 (16.2) years and 44.5% were females. In 90.8% (n=385) patients, rhythm was nonshockable. After propensity score matching, there was no significant difference in the mean duration of resuscitation in COVID-19 (n=57) and non-COVID cohort (n=114) (13.1 (11.7) vs 11.4 (10.2), p=0.470). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that there was no significant change in the duration of the resuscitation attempts in patients with COVID-19 when compared to the historic cohort of critically ill patients who had an IHCA. The favorable outcomes we noted in our patient cohort is related to the systems of care, the large ICU capacity, expansive restructuring of critical care resources and investment into critical care COVID 19 specific education.

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16.
Field Exchange Emergency Nutrition Network ENN ; 66:40-43, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1628016

ABSTRACT

ASIA & AFRICA. What this article is about: This article outlines the activities carried out by Nutrition International since 2015, providing weekly iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation to adolescents residing in six separate high-risk countries. Key messages: * Despite regional supply chain challenges and the complications due to the COVID-19 pandemic, weekly programmes were successful in supporting governments to increase IFA supplementation coverage. * There remains a paucity of data on adolescent health outcomes which makes the design, implementation and monitoring of adolescent health projects particularly difficult. * Although school-based delivery models are effective at the population level, reaching adolescents who do not attend school - who are often at higher risk - remains a significant challenge. Governments should prioritise reaching these isolated groups in order to meet public health policy objectives.

17.
International Conference on Construction Materials and Environment, ICCME 2020 ; 196:481-489, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1598005

ABSTRACT

As India is in its developing stage and the traffic on the other side in India is very heterogeneous or mixed in its nature and the average growth rate of vehicles in India is about 8%. With the increase rate of urbanization in India it will lead to the considerable traffic and travel growth on the roads which will result in vehicular delays, long queues and traffic congestion. So, in this paper with the help of traffic simulation software, i.e. VISSIM, three simulation of an unsignalized intersection {Dadour and Una-Jahu, Nerchowk Rd. (NH-21),H.P} will be analyzed and will compare them on the basis of vehicular delays and long queues. These three simulation will be analyzed on the basis of real world traffic data which is less from the expectations due to the pandemic covid-19, theoretical traffic data (increase in real data by 30%) and theoretical traffic data {with traffic signals as theoretical data follows warrant 1 (Min. Vehicular Volume) shown in IRC:93:1985}. Result showed that with increase in vehicular data there was not so much variation in vehicular delays, whereas there was an increase in long queues or queue stops and whilst third simulation (with traffic lights) is done it shows that it overcomes the queue stops of the intersection. © 2022, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

18.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine ; 27:196-203, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576352

ABSTRACT

Context center dot SARS-CoV-2 is a global public-health concern. Interventions to prevent infection are urgently needed. The anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of neem make it a potential agent for COVID-19 prophylaxis. Objective center dot The study intended to evaluate the prophylactic effects of neem capsules for persons at high risk of COVID-19 infection due to contact with COVID-19 positive patients. Design center dot The research team designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, paralleldesign study. Setting center dot The study was conducted at a single center in India. Participants center dot Participants were 190 healthcare workers at the hospital or relatives of patients with COVID-19 infection. Intervention center dot Of the 190 participants, 95 were in the intervention group and 95 in the control group. Participants received 50 mg of a proprietary, patent-pending, neem-leaf extract or a placebo orally in capsules, twice a day for 28 days. Outcome Measures center dot The number of individuals positive for COVID-19 between baseline and follow-up on day 56 was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included an evaluation of neem's safety and its effects on quality of life (QOL) and changes in biomarkers. Results center dot The mean age of participants was 36.97 years, and 68.42% were male. Total 13 subjects tested positive during the study. All were asymptomatic. Of the 154 participants who completed the study per-protocol, 11 tested positive, 3 in the intervention group and 8 in the control group. The probability of COVID-19 infection in participants receiving the intervention was 0.45 times that of participants receiving the placebo, a relative risk of 0.45, with the effectiveness of the intervention being around 55%. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in both groups were minimal and were of grade 1 or 2 in severity. Biomarkers and QOL remained stable in both groups. Conclusions center dot The study found a reduced risk of COVID-19 infection in participants receiving neem capsules, which demonstrates its potential as a prophylactic treatment for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. The findings warrant further investigation in clinical trials.

20.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 70(1):1017-1032, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1405623

ABSTRACT

The recent unprecedented threat from COVID-19 and past epidemics, such as SARS, AIDS, and Ebola, has affected millions of people in multiple countries. Countries have shut their borders, and their nationals have been advised to self-quarantine. The variety of responses to the pandemic has given rise to data privacy concerns. Infection prevention and control strategies as well as disease control measures, especially real-time contact tracing for COVID-19, require the identification of people exposed to COVID-19. Such tracing frameworks use mobile apps and geolocations to trace individuals. However, while the motive may be well intended, the limitations and security issues associated with using such a technology are a serious cause of concern. There are growing concerns regarding the privacy of an individual's location and personal identifiable information (PII) being shared with governments and/or health agencies. This study presents a real-time, trust-based contact-tracing framework that operates without the use of an individual's PII, location sensing, or gathering GPS logs. The focus of the proposed contact tracing framework is to ensure real-time privacy using the Bluetooth range of individuals to determine others within the range. The research validates the trust-based framework using Bluetooth as practical and privacy-aware. Using our proposed methodology, personal information, health logs, and location data will be secure and not abused. This research analyzes 100,000 tracing dataset records from 150 mobile devices to identify infected users and active users. © 2021 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

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