Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences ; 10(38):3424-3429, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1534609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world is hit by a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, a new genotype of the virus, which causes coronavirus disease, Covid-19. The situation has challenged the entire scientific community nationally as well as internationally to fight back this deadly disease. Since its beginning in November 2019, it has disseminated throughout the human race, regardless of all the measures taken by healthcare sectors, governments, and world health organizations as well. Numerous investigations show that this virus uses air as a passage to commute and spread, the disease most commonly spreads through droplet infections and when comes in contact with the mucous membrane, enters the body. Entire medical staff along with scientists of various nations are working perpetually to develop successful vaccines and drugs to fight back this virus. Amongst various vaccines developing across the world, many of them are in their clinical trials and human trial phases and those which have succeeded in all the trial phases are getting delivered to citizens since December 2020. The present article aims to provide a review of the literature on the type of vaccinations that have been developed so far with their mechanism of action and their basic formulations.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): e318-e325, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433934

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of deaths from an infectious disease worldwide. WHO's End TB Strategy is falling short of several 2020 targets. Undernutrition is the leading population-level risk factor for tuberculosis. Studies have consistently found that undernutrition is associated with increased tuberculosis incidence, increased severity, worse treatment outcomes, and increased mortality. Modelling studies support implementing nutritional interventions for people living with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis disease to ensure the success of the End TB Strategy. In this Personal View, we highlight nutrition-related immunocompromisation, implications of undernutrition for tuberculosis treatment and prevention, the role of nutritional supplementation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimycobacterial medications in undernourished people with tuberculosis, and the role of social protection interventions in addressing undernutrition as a tuberculosis risk factor. To catalyse action on this insufficiently addressed accelerant of the global tuberculosis epidemic, research should be prioritised to understand the immunological pathways that are impaired by nutrient deficiencies, develop tools to diagnose clinical and subclinical tuberculosis in people who are undernourished, and understand how nutritional status affects the efficacy of tuberculosis vaccine and therapy. Through primary research, modelling, and implementation research, policy change should also be accelerated, particularly in countries with a high burden of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Status , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/physiopathology
3.
Natl Med J India ; 33(5): 298-301, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289146

ABSTRACT

India has the largest global burden of new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and deaths due to TB. These occur predominantly in the poor who suffer catastrophic costs during diagnosis and treatment. The National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme has ambitious goals of 80% reduction of incidence of TB, 90% reduction in mortality due to TB by 2025 and 0% occurrence of catastrophic costs to households affected by TB by 2020. The Covid-19 pandemic and the resulting disruption to TB services are expected to worsen the situation. There are gaps in case finding at the peripheral level and access to care at the higher level for patients with TB. An estimated 32% patients with active TB do not access diagnostic services, while catastrophic costs associated with hospitalization are a barrier to access for seriously ill patients. Deaths due to TB in India occur largely at home and not in medical facilities, and are preventable with appropriate inpatient care. The Ayushman Bharat scheme with its Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) and coverage for inpatient care under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) can facilitate, the achievement of the goals of TB elimination. The HWCs provide an opportunity to close the case-finding gap as first point of contact by enabling sputum transport services to the designated microscopy centres. This will facilitate case detection, reduce diagnostic delays, and decrease community transmission and the incidence of TB. The benefit package of PM-JAY can cover patients with pulmonary TB, inpatient evaluation for other forms of TB, enhance the allocation for treatment and cover management of comorbid conditions such as severe undernutrition, anaemia, HIV and diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Early Diagnosis , Hospitalization , Patient Care Management , Tuberculosis , Universal Health Insurance , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Expenditures , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mortality , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Management/trends , Public Health/methods , Public Health/trends , Quality Improvement/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/economics , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/therapy
4.
Indian J Tuberc ; 67(4S): S139-S146, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125179

ABSTRACT

India has the highest burden of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases and deaths globally. TB is strongly associated with poverty and this risk is largely mediated by undernutrition in India. COVID-19 response related lockdown has resulted in an economic crisis which may double levels of poverty, has exacerbated food insecurity, and disrupted TB services. These developments may have serious implications for TB progression and transmission in India. The nutritional status of a population is a strong determinant of the TB incidence, and undernutrition in adults alone accounts for 32-44% of TB incidence in India. A systematic review has shown that a 14% increase in TB incidence can occur per one unit decrease in body mass index (BMI), across the BMI range of 18.5-30 kg/m2. We believe that one unit decrease in BMI (corresponding to a 2-3 kg weight loss) may result in the poor in India as a result of the lockdown and its aftermath. This may result in an increase in estimated (uncertainty interval) incident TB by 185 610 (180 230, 190 990) cases. A 59% reduction in TB case detection between end March and May 2020, may result in an estimated (uncertainty interval) additional 87 711 (59 998, 120 630) TB deaths [19.5% increase (14.5, 24.7)] in 2020. Disadvantaged social groups and those living in states with higher levels of poverty, under-nutrition,and migrant workers are at particular risk. We suggest enhanced rations including pulses through the public distribution system and direct cash transfers to the poor pending restoration of livelihoods. TB services should be resumed immediately with enhanced efforts at case detection including active case finding. To prevent deaths among TB detected within the national TB programme, systemic identification, referral and management of severe disease at notification should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Health Services Accessibility , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL