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1.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26239, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964583

ABSTRACT

Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in 2020, several therapies have been developed to reduce symptoms of COVID-19 infection and prevent progression. Paxlovid is an antiviral that was authorized for emergency use in December 2021 for non-hospitalized symptomatic patients with COVID-19 to prevent progression to severe disease. Relapse of symptoms following a period of improvement after treatment with Paxlovid has been described recently. Data are limited, but the disease course in available case reports is usually mild and requires no additional antiviral treatment. We present the cases of COVID-19 relapse (COVID-19 rebound) in two patients following treatment with Paxlovid.

2.
Germs ; 12(2):253-261, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1929494

ABSTRACT

Introduction Prior evidence found that bloodstream infections (BSIs) are common in viral respiratory infections and can lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. We described the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of BSIs in patients with COVID'19. Methods This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of adults consecutively admitted from March to June 2020 for COVID-19 with BSIs. Data were collected by electronic medical record review. BSIs were defined as positive blood cultures (BCs) with a known pathogen in one or more BCs or the same commensal organism in two or more BCs. Results We evaluated 290 patients with BCs done;39 (13.4%) had a positive result. In univariable analysis, male sex, black/African American race, admission from a facility, hemiplegia, altered mental status, and a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index were positively associated with positive BCs, whereas obesity and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were negatively associated. Patients with positive BCs were more likely to have severe COVID'19, be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), require mechanical ventilation, have septic shock, and higher mortality. In multivariable logistic regression, factors that were independent predictors of positive BCs were male sex (OR=2.8, p=0.030), hypoalbuminemia (OR=3.3, p=0.013), ICU admission (OR=5.3, p<0.001), SBP<100 mmHg (OR=3.7, p=0.021) and having a procedure (OR=10.5, p=0.019). Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray on admission were less likely to have positive BCs (OR=0.3, p=0.007). Conclusions We found that male sex, abnormal chest X-ray, low SBP, and hypoalbuminemia upon hospital admission, admission to ICU, and having a procedure during hospitalization were independent predictors of BSIs in patients with COVID-19.

3.
Curr Drug Saf ; 17(4): 366-369, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zinc supplementation is frequently prescribed during the treatment of COVID-19. However, the evidence supporting the efficacy of this intervention is mixed. OBJECTIVE: Establish the clinical utility of zinc supplementation to alter disease severity in COVID- 19 illness. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, observational chart review of patients admitted to Ascension St. John Hospital or Detroit Medical Center from January 1st, 2020 to May 31st, 2020. All included patients received concomitant hydroxychloroquine due to its zinc ionophore activity. Our primary outcome was a change in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score with secondary outcomes including all-cause mortality, need for intubation, and QTc prolongation as a safety outcome. RESULTS: We identified 489 patients who received zinc and 587 patients who did not. The primary outcome showed a small difference in the change in SOFA score in patients receiving zinc in univariate analysis (1.08 vs. 1.43, p=0.02), but this difference was not significant after adjustment for confounding factors such as receipt of corticosteroids and ICU admission. Mortality was not different between those that received zinc compared to those that did not (32.7% vs. 35.9%, p=0.268). CONCLUSION: Our retrospective study, including 1064 patients hospitalized in Detroit, demonstrated no differences in mortality or disease severity with zinc combination. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to establish the utility of zinc in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc/therapeutic use
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320723

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Methods: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study of adults admitted for COVID-19 with BSIs. Data were collected by electronic medical record review. BSIs were defined as positive blood cultures (BCs) with a known pathogen in one or more BCs or the same commensal organism in two or more BCs. Results: Of 565 eligible patients, 290 (51.3%) had BCs done, with 39 (13.4%) having a positive result. In univariable analysis, male sex, black/African American race, admission from a facility, hemiplegia, altered mental status, and a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index were positively associated with a positive BC, whereas obesity and low systolic blood pressure (SBP) were negatively associated. Patients with positive BCs were more likely to have severe disease, be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), require mechanical ventilation, have septic shock, and higher mortality. In multivariable logistic regression, factors that were independent predictors of a positive BC were male sex (OR=2.75, p=0.03), hypoalbuminemia (OR=3.3, p=0.01), ICU admission (OR=5.3, p<0.0001), SBP < 100 (OR=3.7, p=0.03) and having a procedure (OR=10.5, p<0.0001). Patients with an abnormal chest x-ray on admission were less likely to have a positive BC (OR=0.25, p=0.007). Conclusions: We found that independent predictors of BSIs in COVID-19 patients included male sex, abnormal chest x-ray, hypoalbuminemia, admission to ICU, low SBP, and having a procedure during hospital stay.

6.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S262-S263, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601779

ABSTRACT

Background Long term sequelae across multiple medical domains, including the respiratory, psychiatric, and neurocognitive have been reported after COVID-19. Studies evaluating the impact of this symptom burden, however, are lacking. We aimed to describe the self-reported occurrence of symptoms and their effect on patient functioning six months after their acute hospitalization for COVID-19. Methods From a historical cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 8, and June 14, 2020, we identified patients discharged home. The purpose of the study was explained, and they were asked to consent to a telephone questionnaire. We used a modified version of a previously validated general symptom questionnaire (GSQ-30) to assess multi-system symptom burden. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was used to screen for major depression. Results Of the original 565 patients, 258 patients were discharged home (45%). Of these, 57 (22%) patients were able to be contacted and agreed to participate in the survey. The mean (SD) age of the respondents was 55.1 (14.8) years, and 37 (64.9%) were female. The most common symptoms at follow-up were fatigue (60.0%), dyspnea (57.1%), feeling irritable, sad or decreased pleasure (56.4%), and memory difficulty (56.4%). Females had a significantly higher GSQ score (0.02) than males. Patients ages < 60 years tended to experience similar, if not greater, impaired functioning (p=0.07) compared with those ages ≥ 60 years (Table 1). Females were more likely to be irritable or sad (p=0.007), not feel rested on awakening (p=0.04), have shooting, stabbing and burning pain (p=0.02), have discomfort with normal light and sound (p=0.04), and have memory difficulty (p=0.04) than males (Table 2). Table 1. Self-Reported Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID syndrome in adults younger than 60 versus adults at or older than 60 Years. SD: Standard deviation, ICU: Intensive care unit, ED: Emergency department, GSQ - General symptom questionnaire, PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2 Table 2. Self-Reported Post-acute Sequelae of COVID syndrome in female versus male adults. SD: Standard deviation, ED: Emergency department, GSQ - General symptom questionnaire, PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2 Conclusion Our study describes the clinical burden of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) in four core domains: fatigue, neurologic, neuro-psychiatric and viral-like symptoms. Over 45% of patients ages < 60 years suffered impaired functioning, compared with 21.1% of patient’s ages 60 years and above. Females had significantly higher GSQ scores than men which strongly corelates with the functional impairment among the females. Larger studies are needed to further validate our findings. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):326-326, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564646

ABSTRACT

Background Virus-specific antibodies help to understand the prevalence of infections and the course of the immune response. Humans produce antibodies against the spike and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-COV-2 virus. Patients with COVID-19 who recover from the infections have higher levels of antibodies to spike proteins. Our study aimed to find the levels of antibodies to spike and nucleocapsid proteins in severe COVID-19. Methods A single center prospective study was done at Ascension St John Hospital, Detroit, MI. We included COVID-19 cases diagnosed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR). Quantitative measurements of plasma or serum antibodies to nucleocapsid and spike proteins were done in hospitalized patients with acute COVID-19. Using the electronic medical record, we collected data on demographic and clinical information. Results A total 24 patients were studied. Of which, 15 patients were suffering from severe and critical COVID 19 and 9 patients were suffering from mild to moderate COVID 19. The mean age (standard deviation) of our cohort was 69 ± 10 years and 60% were males. Common comorbid conditions were hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. We also noted that severe to critical COVID 19 expressed higher level of antibody to nucleocapsid. Conclusion These results display the seroconversion in COVID 19 patients. Our study shows antibody level remain high in severe COVID 19 patients but those are against nucleocapsid protein instead of spike protein. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

10.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S26-S27, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564135

ABSTRACT

Background Little is known about risk factors for readmission after COVID-19 hospitalizations. Knowledge of these factors may help to identify patients at increased risk and may help to prevent these rehospitalizations. Methods This historical cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care academic medical center. We included COVID-19 cases diagnosed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay between March 8th and June 14th, 2020. Patients readmitted within 30 days were identified. Using the electronic medical record, we collected data on demographic and clinical information. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test, the chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Results We included 391 patients who survived after the index hospitalization for COVID-19. The readmission rate was 13.3% (52/391). The mean time to readmission was 9.2 ± 7.9 days. The mean age (±SD) was 66.3 ± 18.6 years, 44.2% were male, and 78.8% were black/African-American. The most common presenting complaint was shortness of breath (50%). The most frequent diagnosis during the readmission was infectious process (57.7%). The mortality rate on readmission was 11.5%. Patients with a 30-day readmission were older than those not readmitted, mean age (±SD) 66.3 ± 18.6 vs. 61.0 ± 16.0, respectively (p=0.03). Readmitted patients also had a higher prevalence of heart failure and renal disease as comorbidities. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (AST) and low albumin level were also associated with readmission (Table 1). Intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mechanical ventilation during the index admission did not increase the risk of readmission. From multivariable analysis, independent predictors of 30-day readmission were higher Charlson score (p=0.004), higher creatinine on admission in the index hospitalization (p=0.009), and presence of rhabdomyolysis during the index hospitalization (p=0.039) (Table 2). Table 1. Univariable Analysis of Predictors for Readmission within 30 days from COVID-19 Infection Table 2. Multivariable Analysis of Predictors for Readmission within 30 days from COVID-19 Infection Conclusion In our cohort, infectious etiologies were common among those readmitted within 30 days of COVID-19. A higher Charlson score, acute renal failure, and rhabdomyolysis during the index admission were independent predictors of a 30-day readmission. Further studies are required to investigate these contributing factors. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4005-e4011, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are central in the national conversation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , with Black/African Americans being disproportionately affected. We assessed risk factors for death from COVID-19 among Black inpatients at an urban hospital in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (the COVID-19 virus) on qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay who were admitted between 8 March 2020 and 6 May 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 29.1% (122/419). The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 5.3 (3.9) days. The incidence of altered mental status on presentation was higher among patients who died than those who survived, 43% vs 20.0%, respectively (P < .0001). From multivariable analysis, the odds of death increased with age (≥60 years), admission from a nursing facility, Charlson score, altered mental status, higher C-reactive protein on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, presence of shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors may help healthcare providers identify Black patients at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated outcomes. Early and aggressive interventions among this at-risk population may help mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(11): 705-712, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can have a severe presentation characterized by a dysregulated immune response requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Immunomodulatory treatments like tocilizumab were found to improve inflammatory markers and lung injury over time. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of tocilizumab treatment on critically ill patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center retrospective cohort study of 154 adult patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March 15 and May 8, 2020. Data were obtained by electronic medical record (EMR) review. The primary outcome of interest was mortality. RESULTS: Of 154 patients, 34 (21.4%) received tocilizumab. Compared to the non-treated group, the treated group was significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, lower creatinine and procalcitonin levels, and higher alanine aminotransferase levels on admission. The treated group was more likely to receive supportive measures in the context of critical illness. The overall case fatality rate was 71.4%, and it was significantly lower in the treated than the non-treated (52.9 vs. 76.7%, p = 0.007). In multivariable survival analysis, tocilizumab treatment was associated with a 2.1 times lower hazard of mortality when compared to those who were not treated (hazard ratio: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.83; p = 0.009). The prevalence of secondary infection was higher in the treated group compared to the non-treated without significant difference (p = 0.17). CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19 resulted in a lower likelihood of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(11): 705-712, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can have a severe presentation characterized by a dysregulated immune response requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Immunomodulatory treatments like tocilizumab were found to improve inflammatory markers and lung injury over time. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of tocilizumab treatment on critically ill patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center retrospective cohort study of 154 adult patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March 15 and May 8, 2020. Data were obtained by electronic medical record (EMR) review. The primary outcome of interest was mortality. RESULTS: Of 154 patients, 34 (21.4%) received tocilizumab. Compared to the non-treated group, the treated group was significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, lower creatinine and procalcitonin levels, and higher alanine aminotransferase levels on admission. The treated group was more likely to receive supportive measures in the context of critical illness. The overall case fatality rate was 71.4%, and it was significantly lower in the treated than the non-treated (52.9 vs. 76.7%, p = 0.007). In multivariable survival analysis, tocilizumab treatment was associated with a 2.1 times lower hazard of mortality when compared to those who were not treated (hazard ratio: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.83; p = 0.009). The prevalence of secondary infection was higher in the treated group compared to the non-treated without significant difference (p = 0.17). CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19 resulted in a lower likelihood of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(11): 1441-1442, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363851

ABSTRACT

We investigated the clinical implications of bacteremia among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Higher rates (52.1%) of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) were noted on hospital admission compared to nosocomial acquisition (25%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen. Bacteremia with MDRO should be considered in the differential diagnosis among at risk populations especially those admitted from nursing facilities.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1870, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240880
17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237946

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective chart review examining the demographics, clinical history, physical findings, and comorbidities of patients with influenza and patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Older patients, male patients, patients reporting fever, and patients with higher body mass indexes (BMIs) were more likely to have COVID-19 than influenza.

18.
Germs ; 11(1): 111-115, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159528

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several publications described neurological manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2. Immune-mediated neurological damages caused by COVID-19 are increasingly recognized. CASE REPORT: A young male presented in March 2020 with a new-onset seizure. Later, he started to experience a severe headache. During the second admission in May, the MRI of the brain showed left frontal lesion. Nasal PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative, but the serology was positive, raising the suspicion of immune-mediated encephalitis. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin G with two oligoclonal bands were also seen. The patient received IV immunoglobulin and showed improvement in headache. Follow-up MRIs of the brain revealed complete resolution of the lesion. DISCUSSION: Neurological complications from COVID-19 have been increasingly recognized. The proposed pathophysiology is either direct damage of neurological tissues, or indirectly through immune-mediated mechanisms. The timeline of the patient's presentation with seizure, as well as the lesion on the brain MRI with complete resolution after the IV immunoglobulin, strongly suggest that the patient had immune-mediated encephalitis after exposure to SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Several cases of encephalitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been reported. Immune-mediated encephalitis as probable pathophysiology is described here.

19.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(6): 711-718, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality from COVID-19 has been associated with older age, black race, and comorbidities including obesity, Understanding the clinical risk factors and laboratory biomarkers associated with severe and fatal COVID-19 will allow early interventions to help mitigate adverse outcomes. Our study identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 infection at a tertiary care center, in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study at a 776-bed tertiary care urban academic medical center. Adult inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (nasopharyngeal swab testing positive by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay) from March 8, 2020, to June 14, 2020, were included. Clinical information including the presence of comorbid conditions (according to the Charlson Weighted Index of Comorbidity (CWIC)), initial vital signs, admission laboratory markers and management data were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 565 hospitalized patients, 172 patients died for a case fatality rate of 30.4%. The mean (SD) age of the cohort was 64.4 (16.2) years, and 294 (52.0%) were male. The patients who died were significantly older (mean [SD] age, 70.4 [14.1] years vs 61.7 [16.1] years; P < 0.0001), more likely to have congestive heart failure (35 [20.3%] vs 47 [12.0%]; P = 0.009), dementia (47 [27.3%] vs 48 [12.2%]; P < 0.0001), hemiplegia (18 [10.5%] vs 18 [4.8%]; P = 0.01) and a diagnosis of malignancy (16 [9.3%] vs 18 [4.6%]; P = 0.03).From multivariable analysis, factors associated with an increased odds of death were age greater than 60 years (OR = 2.2, P = 0.003), CWIC score (OR = 1.1, P = 0.023), qSOFA (OR = 1.7, P < 0.0001), WBC counts (OR = 1.1, P = 0.002), lymphocytopenia (OR = 2.0, P = 0.003), thrombocytopenia (OR = 1.9, P = 0.019), albumin (OR = 0.6, P = 0.014), and AST levels (OR = 2.0, P = 0.004) on admission. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified risk factor for in-hospital mortality among patients admitted with COVID-19 in a tertiary care hospital at the onset of U.S. Covid-19 pandemic. After adjusting for age, CWIC score, and laboratory data, qSOFA remained an independent predictor of mortality. Knowing these risk factors may help identify patients who would benefit from close observations and early interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Tertiary Care Centers , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Healthcare
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