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1.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(27): 9602-9610, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164266

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had devastating impact on populations around the world. The high mortality rates in patients with COVID-19 has been attributed to the influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), its causative viral agent, on several physiological systems in human body, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological systems. There is emerging evidence on propensity of this virus to attack cardiovascular system. However, various pathophysiological mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 interacts with cardiovascular system and leads to high morbidity and mortality, including cardiovascular complications, are poorly understood. This mini review aims to provide an update on the current knowledge and perspectives on areas of future research.

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3.
Arch Med Sci ; 18(4): 982-990, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911938

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic provoked unprecedented disturbance in hypertension care, while alarming concerns arose about its long-term consequences. We investigated the trends of emergency visits and admissions regarding uncontrolled hypertension in order to assess the impact of COVID-19 spread on population behavior towards hypertension urgencies during its first wave. Material and methods: Data from daily unscheduled visits and admission counts in the Cardiology sector were collected from the Emergency Department database of a tertiary General Hospital in Athens, Greece for the period January 15th to July 15th 2020. These data were compared with those from the previous year. Cases of patients who presented with hypertensive urgency or who were admitted due to uncontrolled hypertension were separately analyzed. Results: A total of 7,373 patient records were analyzed. Hypertension urgency cases demonstrated a U-shaped distribution in 2020, showing a declining trend during the rapid virus spread, an image that was reversed after the transmission rate's decline. COVID-19 incidence in Greece was inversely associated with uncontrolled hypertension admissions during its declining phase (r = -0.64, p = 0.009), whereas total attendance exhibited a similar correlation during the first and the following months of the pandemic (r = 0.677, p = 0.031, r = -0.789, p = 0.001). Uncontrolled hypertension rate on admission was positively related to the national incidence of COVID-19 cases during the first months of 2020 (r = 0.82, p = 0.045). Conclusions: Hypertensive urgency-related visits followed a U-shape distribution during the pandemic's first wave with the attendance nadir coinciding with the virus spread peak. This is a complex phenomenon, closely related to increased levels of public stress, disruptions in health care services and to a lesser extent to the imposed restrictions in transportation. The initial relative increase in uncontrolled hypertension-related admissions rate, combined with the later increase of hypertensive urgencies may be indicative of blood pressure deregulation among the studied population, which is multifactorial and potentially detrimental.

4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 99: 204-211, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has caused a massive surge in telemedicine utilization as patients and physicians tried to minimize in-person contact to avoid the spread and impact of the pandemic. This study aims to expand on the knowledge of telemedicine during and beyond the COVID-19 era as it pertains to its use, efficacy, and patient and provider satisfaction through surveys. METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving 93 patients and 33 Neurosurgery physicians who anonymously participated in the survey about their experience with telemedicine visits. RESULTS: Most respondents indicated extreme satisfaction with their telemedicine encounters during the pandemic (77%). As for how comfortable physicians are in providing a diagnosis via telemedicine compared to clinic visits, 7 (21.9%) physicians felt extremely comfortable, 13 (40.6%) felt somewhat comfortable, 2 (6.4%) were neutral, 9 (28.1%) felt somewhat uncomfortable and 1 (3.1%) felt extremely uncomfortable. Physical examination was the main tool that telemedicine didn't provide (n = 21, 100%). CONCLUSION: Telemedicine has become a major force in the health care system under the circumstances the world is witnessing. Physicians and patients have displayed high levels of satisfaction with telemedicine which could be pivotal to improving healthcare access to underprivileged areas beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Physicians , Telemedicine , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Microcirculation ; 29(3): e12749, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been found to be associated with encephalopathy and brain imaging abnormalities. The identification of incident white matter lesions, known to be associated with cerebral microcirculatory failure and cerebrovascular disease, in COVID-19 patients is of clinical and scientific interest. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the incidence of white matter lesions (WMLs) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on brain imaging abnormalities in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The terms used included "white matter lesions," "white matter hyperintensity," "COVID-19," "coronavirus," and "SARS-CoV-2." A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to obtain a pooled estimate of WML prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 4 eligible studies involving 362 patients (144 with WMLs and 218 without) were included in the meta-analysis. We found the pooled estimate of WML prevalence to be 20% (ES 0.20; 95% CI 0.00-0.54; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated pooled prevalence rate of WMLs was approximately 20% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, albeit lower than the crude prevalence rate (39.8%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , White Matter , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Microcirculation , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
6.
APMIS ; 130(2): 101-110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650387

ABSTRACT

In the milieu of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are increasing reports of paediatric hyperinflammatory conditions (PHICs), including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). Few analyses of PHIC prevalence in paediatric and adolescent hospitalized COVID-19 patients exist. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to determine a pooled prevalence estimate of PHICs in paediatric and adolescent hospitalized patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19. Individual studies were retrieved from PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Relevant prevalence, baseline, treatment and outcome data were extracted using a standardized datasheet. The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted as per the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Overall, 14 studies with 2202 patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19, among whom 780 were diagnosed with PHICs, were included. The crude estimate of prevalence was 35.42%, and the pooled estimate of prevalence was 29% (random pooled ES = 0.29; 95% CIs = 0.18-0.42; p < 0.0001; z = 7.45). A sizeable proportion of paediatric and adolescent hospitalized patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19 are diagnosed with a PHIC warranting a high index of clinical suspicion for PHICs. Further studies are required to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
7.
J Diabetes ; 14(2): 144-157, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a cardiometabolic comorbidity that may predispose COVID-19 patients to worse clinical outcomes. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diabetes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and investigate the association of diabetes severe COVID-19, rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mortality, and need for mechanical ventilation by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Individual studies were selected using a defined search strategy, including results up until July 2021 from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate the proportions and level of association of diabetes with clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Forest plots were generated to retrieve the odds ratios (OR), and the quality and risk assessment was performed for all studies included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The total number of patients included in this study was 10 648, of whom 3112 had diabetes (29.23%). The overall pooled estimate of prevalence of diabetes in the meta-analysis cohort was 31% (95% CI, 0.25-0.38; z = 16.09, P < .0001). Diabetes significantly increased the odds of severe COVID-19 (OR 3.39; 95% CI, 2.14-5.37; P < .0001), ARDS (OR 2.55; 95% CI, 1.74-3.75; P = <.0001), in-hospital mortality (OR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.93-3.09; P < .0001), and mechanical ventilation (OR 3.03; 95% CI, 2.17-4.22; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that diabetes is significantly associated with increased odds of severe COVID-19, increased ARDS rate, mortality, and need for mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients. We also estimated an overall pooled prevalence of diabetes of 31% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 662617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167391
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 562882, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993473

ABSTRACT

The tragic failure of the global supply chain in the face of the current coronavirus outbreak has caused acute shortages of essential frontline medical devices and personal protective equipment, crushing fear among frontline health workers and causing fundamental concerns about the sustainability of the health system. Much more coordination, integration, and management of global supply chains will be needed to mitigate the impact of the pandemics. This article describes the pressing need to revisit the governance and resilience of the supply chains that amplified the crisis at pandemic scale. We propose a model that profiles critical stockpiles and improves production efficiency through new technologies such as advanced analytics and blockchain. A new governance system that supports intervention by public-health authorities during critical emergencies is central to our recommendation, both in the face of the current crisis and to be better prepared for potential future crises. These reinforcements offer the potential to minimize the compromise of our healthcare workers and health systems due to infection exposure and build capacity toward preparedness and action for a future outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disaster Planning/statistics & numerical data , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 559905, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993431

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is deepening the inequity and injustice among the vulnerable communities. The current study aims to present an overview of the impact of COVID-19 on equity and social justice with a focus on vulnerable communities. Vulnerable communities include, but not limited to, healthcare workers, those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnic or minority groups, immigrants or refugees, justice-involved populations, and people suffering from chronic diseases or mental illness. The implications of COVID-19 on these communities and systemic disparities beyond the current pandemic are also discussed. People from vulnerable communities' experience disproportionately adverse impacts of COVID-19. COVID-19 has exacerbated systemic disparities and its long-term negative impact on these populations foretell an impending crisis that could prevail beyond the COVID-19 era. It is onerous that systemic issues be addressed and efforts to build inclusive and sustainable societies be pursued to ensure the provision of universal healthcare and justice for all. Without these reinforcements, we would not only compromise the vulnerable communities but also severely limit our preparedness and response to a future pandemic.

12.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589669, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983745

ABSTRACT

Medical students are the future of sustainable health systems that are severely under pressure during COVID-19. The disruption in medical education and training has adversely impacted traditional medical education and medical students and is likely to have long-term implications beyond COVID-19. In this article, we present a comprehensive analysis of the existing structural and systemic challenges applicable to medical students and teaching/training programs and the impact of COVID-19 on medical students and education. Use of technologies such as telemedicine or remote education platforms can minimize increased mental health risks to this population. An overview of challenges during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed, and targeted recommendations to address acute and systemic issues in medical education and training are presented. During the transition from conventional in-person or classroom teaching to tele-delivery of educational programs, medical students have to navigate various social, economic and cultural factors which interfere with their personal and academic lives. This is especially relevant for those from vulnerable, underprivileged or minority backgrounds. Students from vulnerable backgrounds are influenced by environmental factors such as unemployment of themselves and family members, lack of or inequity in provision and access to educational technologies and remote delivery-platforms, and increased levels of mental health stressors due to prolonged isolation and self-quarantine measures. Technologies for remote education and training delivery as well as sustenance and increased delivery of general well-being and mental health services to medical students, especially to those at high-risk, are pivotal to our response to COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 556789, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937487

ABSTRACT

Technological innovations such as artificial intelligence and robotics may be of potential use in telemedicine and in building capacity to respond to future pandemics beyond the current COVID-19 era. Our international consortium of interdisciplinary experts in clinical medicine, health policy, and telemedicine have identified gaps in uptake and implementation of telemedicine or telehealth across geographics and medical specialties. This paper discusses various artificial intelligence and robotics-assisted telemedicine or telehealth applications during COVID-19 and presents an alternative artificial intelligence assisted telemedicine framework to accelerate the rapid deployment of telemedicine and improve access to quality and cost-effective healthcare. We postulate that the artificial intelligence assisted telemedicine framework would be indispensable in creating futuristic and resilient health systems that can support communities amidst pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Public Health ; 8: 556720, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914458

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has accelerated the adoption of telemedicine globally. The current consortium critically examines the telemedicine frameworks, identifies gaps in its implementation and investigates the changes in telemedicine framework/s during COVID-19 across the globe. Streamlining of global public health preparedness framework that is interoperable and allow for collaboration and sharing of resources, in which telemedicine is an integral part of the public health response during outbreaks such as COVID-19, should be pursued. With adequate reinforcement, telemedicine has the potential to act as the "safety-net" of our public health response to an outbreak. Our focus on telemedicine must shift to the developing and under-developing nations, which carry a disproportionate burden of vulnerable communities who are at risk due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 8: 410, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814740

ABSTRACT

Technology has acted as a great enabler of patient continuity through remote consultation, ongoing monitoring, and patient education using telephone and videoconferencing in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. The devastating impact of COVID-19 is bound to prevail beyond its current reign. The vulnerable sections of our community, including the elderly, those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, those with multiple comorbidities, and immunocompromised patients, endure a relatively higher burden of a pandemic such as COVID-19. The rapid adoption of different technologies across countries, driven by the need to provide continued medical care in the era of social distancing, has catalyzed the penetration of telemedicine. Limiting the exposure of patients, healthcare workers, and systems is critical in controlling the viral spread. Telemedicine offers an opportunity to improve health systems delivery, access, and efficiency. This article critically examines the current telemedicine landscape and challenges in its adoption, toward remote/tele-delivery of care, across various medical specialties. The current consortium provides a roadmap and/or framework, along with recommendations, for telemedicine uptake and implementation in clinical practice during and beyond COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19/prevention & control , Telemedicine/trends , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Videoconferencing
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1648, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685338

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is an acute hyperinflammatory response that may be responsible for critical illness in many conditions including viral infections, cancer, sepsis, and multi-organ failure. The phenomenon has been implicated in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus implicated in COVID-19. Critically ill COVID-19 patients experiencing cytokine storm are believed to have a worse prognosis and increased fatality rate. In SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, cytokine storm appears important to the pathogenesis of several severe manifestations of COVID-19: acute respiratory distress syndrome, thromboembolic diseases such as acute ischemic strokes caused by large vessel occlusion and myocardial infarction, encephalitis, acute kidney injury, and vasculitis (Kawasaki-like syndrome in children and renal vasculitis in adult). Understanding the pathogenesis of cytokine storm will help unravel not only risk factors for the condition but also therapeutic strategies to modulate the immune response and deliver improved outcomes in COVID-19 patients at high risk for severe disease. In this article, we present an overview of the cytokine storm and its implications in COVID-19 settings and identify potential pathways or biomarkers that could be targeted for therapy. Leveraging expert opinion, emerging evidence, and a case-based approach, this position paper provides critical insights on cytokine storm from both a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Critical Care/methods , Cytokines/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Thrombosis
17.
Front Neurol ; 11: 664, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-658453

ABSTRACT

With the rapid pace and scale of the emerging coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a growing body of evidence has shown a strong association of COVID-19 with pre- and post- neurological complications. This has necessitated the need to incorporate targeted neurological care for this subgroup of patients which warrants further reorganization of services, healthcare workforce, and ongoing management of chronic neurological cases. The social distancing and the shutdown imposed by several nations in the midst of COVID-19 have severely impacted the ongoing care, access and support of patients with chronic neurological conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy, Neuromuscular Disorders, Migraine, Dementia, and Parkinson disease. There is a pressing need for governing bodies including national and international professional associations, health ministries and health institutions to harmonize policies, guidelines, and recommendations relating to the management of chronic neurological conditions. These harmonized guidelines should ensure patient continuity across the spectrum of hospital and community care including the well-being, safety, and mental health of the patients, their care partners and the health professionals involved. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on chronic neurological conditions and specific recommendations to minimize the potential harm to those at high risk.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 112, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625687

ABSTRACT

Patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes are at potentially higher risk of infection and fatality due to COVID-19. Given the social and economic costs associated with disability due to these conditions, it is imperative that specific considerations for clinical management of these patients be observed. Moreover, the reorganization of health services around the pandemic response further exacerbates the growing crisis around limited access, treatment compliance, acute medical needs, and mental health of patients in this specific subgroup. Existing recommendations and guidelines emanating from respective bodies have addressed some of the pressure points; however, there are variations and limitations vis a vis patient with multiple comorbidities such as obesity. This article will pull together a comprehensive assessment of the association of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and COVID-19, its impact on the health systems and how best health systems can respond to mitigate current challenges and future needs. We anticipate that in the context of this pandemic, the cardiovascular disease and diabetes patients need a targeted strategy to ensure the harm to this group does not translate to huge costs to society and to the economy. Finally, we propose a triage and management protocol for patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the COVID-19 settings to minimize harm to patients, health systems and healthcare workers alike.

19.
Front Neurol ; 11: 579, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613501

ABSTRACT

The management of acute neurological conditions, particularly acute ischemic stroke, in the context of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is of importance, considering the risk of infection to the healthcare workers and patients and emerging evidence of the neuroinvasive potential of the virus. There are variations in expert guidelines further complicating the picture for clinicians in acute settings. In this light, there is a compelling need for further formulation of recommendations that compile these variations seen in the numerous guidelines present. Health system protocols for managing ongoing acute neurological care and intervention need consideration of safety and well-being of the frontline healthcare workers and the patients. We examine existing pathways and their efficacy to mitigate viral exposure to the healthcare workers and patients and synthesize a systemic approach to manage patients with acute neurological conditions in the COVID-19 scenario. Early experiences with a COVID-19 positive stroke patient treated with endovascular thrombectomy is presented to highlight the urgent need for adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) during acute neuro-interventional procedures.

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