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1.
Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development ; 13(4):238-242, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2081581

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease primarily involving the respiratory system. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization proclaimed COVID-19 a pandemic. One of the important strategies taken to prevent the spread of the disease has been social distancing around the world, Educational institutions have been closed for the safety of both students and communities. Social distancing measures hamper the students' learning process as they are prevented from assembling in laboratories, lecture halls, or small-group rooms and engaging in person with their peers and instructors. Although medical school is an adult schooling experience, the absence of interactive sessions affects not only Medical education but all education curricula that require hands-on experience or internship. The most significant response to the pandemic has been to shift teaching-learning and assessment online. Using standardized patients and facilitators, schools have also attempted to shift clinical learning and teaching. Both professors and students face obstacles when it comes to online teaching, learning, and assessment. Material(s) and Method(s): This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Government Medical College Anantnag, department of Physiology between October 2021 and December 2021 among 240 Medical, Paramedical students and faculty members of GMC Anantnag. A questionnaire was distributed, by means of email to all the faculty members, medical students, and paramedical students. Result(s): The reported challenges to online education during the COVID-19 pandemic at this institution included issues regarding in-person communication (19.5%), use of technology tools (12.5%), experience in online education (16.6%), time management (29.1%), students' evaluations of faculty (24.0%). In addition, we reported that 20% of participants did not have fourth generation internet access. 45% had an unsatisfactory experience with the medical education program and 40% do not have availability of advanced technology. Conclusion(s): COVID-19 has had an impact on many aspects of medical education as well as on medical students. The degree of effect was especially influenced by the type of institution attended. When things return to normal, proper planning and adequate rehabilitation will be needed to mitigate and possibly reverse the effects of COVID-19 on students' health and welfare. Copyright © 2022, Institute of Medico-legal Publication. All rights reserved.

2.
Interspeech 2021 ; : 901-905, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2044291

ABSTRACT

The DiCOVA challenge aims at accelerating research in diagnosing COVID-19 using acoustics (DiCOVA), a topic at the intersection of speech and audio processing, respiratory health diagnosis, and machine learning. This challenge is an open call for researchers to analyze a dataset of sound recordings, collected from COVID-19 infected and non-COVID-19 individuals, for a two-class classification. These recordings were collected via crowdsourcing from multiple countries, through a website application. The challenge features two tracks, one focusing on cough sounds, and the other on using a collection of breath, sustained vowel phonation, and number counting speech recordings. In this paper, we introduce the challenge and provide a detailed description of the task, and present a baseline system for the task.

4.
5th International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies, ICICT 2022 ; : 457-463, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029239

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19 time, finding medication was the tedious process. Proposed work explains about the segregation of covid-19 CT scan images into categories like mild, moderate and severe on the basis of pneumonia. The dataset uses 227 CT scan images which have been collected manually from hospitals. At first, the CT scan input images are preprocessed using K-means clustering algorithm. Then Watershed algorithm is used for the segmentation of the pre-processed images to get the affected region. After getting the affected region, VGG-16 model is used for feature extraction process, for model training 53 CT scan images are used as the testing dataset from 185 CT images. Using extracted feature, SVM model will classify the Covid19 pneumonia as mild, moderate, or severe. Finally the classifier has given an accuracy of 96.15% for the prediction of Covid-19 pneumonia stages. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(7):S49-S54, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024823

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been a health emergency of great concern in the year 2020. This study was undertaken to identify characteristics of hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) and hypoxia in the form of disease course and outcome with special reference to the presence or absence of comorbidities. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary hospital recognized as Dedicated COVID Hospital during the period of June 2020 to September 2020. The study included a total of 249 patients of COVID-19 with hypoxia who required oxygen or noninvasive ventilation/invasive ventilation. Patients were divided into two groups as per the presence or absence of comorbidity (175 and 74 patients, respectively). Their clinical and laboratory findings, course in the hospital, and outcomes were noted. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Among all the study patients, more patients from comorbidity group presented with a N:L ratio >3.5 and raised inflammatory markers (like serum ferritin) than patients in the no comorbidity group. In patients with comorbidities, 47.43% required noninvasive or invasive ventilation as against 18.92% in those without any comorbidities. Development of deranged renal function was noted in 32.57% of patients in the comorbidity group and only 9.46% in the noncomorbid group. All except one death during the study period were in the patients with comorbidities. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with hypoxia and the presence of comorbidities in this study had more complications and a worse outcome. © Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth 2022.

6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927865

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Airway inflammation plays a role in airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, and COVID-19 that affect millions of people worldwide. Previously, we showed that acute (24-h) exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) triggers an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in human airway smooth muscle (hASM) cells. In hASM cells, TNFα selectively activates the inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) ER stress pathway with downstream splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s), which transcriptionally activates expression of target genes that include proteins mediating phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (pDRP1) at the Ser616 (S616) residue. Increased pDRP1 at S616 is associated with mitochondrial fission (fragmentation);however, DRP1 is also phosphorylated at Ser637 (S637) residue, and the balance between phosphorylation at S616 and S637 regulates the translocation of DRP1 from cytosol to mitochondria and subsequent fragmentation of mitochondria. In the present study, we hypothesized that TNFα induces ER stress leading to XBP1s mediated increase in the expression of specific kinases that phosphorylate DRP1 at S616 and promote mitochondrial fragmentation. METHODS: hASM cells, dissociated from bronchial tissue obtained from patients with no history of respiratory diseases, were exposed to TNFα (20 ng/ ml for 6-h). As an inhibitor of fragmentation, cells were treated with Mdivi1 (50 μM for 6-h), GTPase inhibitor of DRP1. The expression and phosphorylation status of IRE1α, DRP1, XBP1, cyclin dependent kinases (CDK1, CDK5) and cyclin B1 were quantified by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Mitochondrial morphology was assessed by 3D confocal microscopy using MitoTracker. XBP1-targets were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Bioinformatics analysis predicted putative binding sites of XBP1 in the promoter region of CDK1, CDK5 and cyclin B1 genes that are reported to phosphorylate DRP1 at S616. Consistent with our previous findings, we found that TNFα increases IRE1α phosphorylation and XBP1 splicing. The TNFα induced increase in XBP1s transcriptionally activated expression of CDK1, CDK5 and cyclin B1 and leads to subsequent phosphorylation of DRP1 at S616 with no change in S637 phosphorylation. As a result, TNFα mediated increase in the ratio of S616/ S637 phosphorylation, which promoted translocation of DRP1 from cytosol to mitochondria and mitochondrial fragmentation. We also showed that Mdivi1 mediated inhibition of DRP1-GTPase activity ameliorated phosphorylation at S616 residue and significantly reduced mitochondrial fragmentation. CONCLUSIONS: The present study elucidates the mechanism underlying TNFα induced ER stress and mitochondrial fragmentation.

7.
Cumhuriyet Dental Journal ; 25(1):91-96, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847634

ABSTRACT

The Dental education sector has witnessed a lot of innovations in the past decade. Technology has played an important role in achieving this revolution such that the student can pursue the learning process at any given time and place beyond the geographical limits. The most frequently used approach is the concept of blended learning, which is an amalgamation of face-to-face and online modes of education. Thus, its role in ensuring the learning process to students all over the world despite the COVID 19 pandemic is innumerable. Hence, this review was conducted to explore how different dentistry fields have adopted this approach as a useful tool to impart dental education. The PUBMED database was used to retrieve the articles about the same using the search terms “Blended Learning” AND “dental education”. The majority of the studies showed a positive response and a higher level of satisfaction in comparison to conventional teaching. However, certain studies also indicated no significant improvement in knowledge compared to conventional methods. Conventional methods will definitely continue to be the mainstay as certain themes cannot be dealt with otherwise. In such cases, blending online as well as traditional methods would give beneficial results while preserving the feel of the live personal interaction. © 2022. All Rights Reserved.

8.
Physics of Fluids ; 34(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1774037

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are transported from an infected person to other neighboring people through respiratory droplets. These small droplets are easily advected by air currents in a room and can potentially infect others. In this work, the spread of droplets released during coughing, talking, and normal breathing is numerically analyzed in a typical conference room setting. The room space is occupied by ten people, with eight people sitting around a conference table and two people standing. Four different scenarios are considered, with the air-conditioning turned on/off and people wearing/not-wearing masks, to understand the spread of respiratory droplets inside the room. The flow in the room is simulated using a multiphase mixture model with properties computed for the inhaled and exhaled air using fundamental gas relations. The transport of respiratory droplets is analyzed using the discrete phase model with a range of droplet sizes fitted to data from previous experimental studies. The mask is modeled as porous media with the properties of a woven fabric computed using a newly developed model for multilayered homemade masks. The human inhalation and exhalation are modeled using analytical functions to mimic the biological flow patterns during breathing, coughing, and talking. Important observations about the air flow and dispersion of respiratory droplets in the conference room are presented based on the numerical analysis. Animations of all the results are included to provide insight into flow physics of the various dynamic conditions occurring in the room during an ongoing meeting. Although this study is conducted for a typical conference room, the newly developed models and techniques can be applied to other confined environments. © 2022 Author(s).

9.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):158-173, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717235

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of pneumonia of unknown origin in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV study group. The World Health Organization WHO named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency January 30, 2020 to a pandemic March 11, 2020. Nonetheless, the case fatality rate CFR of the current epidemic is on the rise between 2-4%, relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV 2002/2003 and MERS-CoV 2012 outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

10.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 8(4):2296-2303, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1663205

ABSTRACT

Background:The ongoing worldwide Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a huge threat to global public health1. COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic to critical pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Therefore, full monitoring the severity of COVID-19 and effective early intervention are the fundamental measures for reducing mortality. Accumulating evidence has suggested that inflammatory responses play a critical role in the progression of COVID-19 3. Inflammatory responses induce the release of cytokines and chemokines. These cytokines and chemokines then attract immune cells and activate immune responses, leading to cytokine storms and aggravations4. Several inflammatory markers have some tracing and detecting accuracy for disease severity and fatality. But the results are inconclusive, with various studies giving different results. Our study intends to correlate levels of inflammatory markers with severity of Covid 19 infection and its final outcome. Methods and materials:This is a retrospective study which includes 818 patients admitted to our hospital during the second wave of Covid 19 pandemic with confirmed Covid 19 infections by RTPCR. Admitted patients included mild disease to severe Covid 19 infections. Those patients who have received standardized treatment according to hospital protocol were included in the study. Data was collected and entered in pre-designed proforma. Results obtained will be compiled in excel sheet and will be analyzed statistically. Results: Total of 818 patients were admitted to our hospital between May to July 2021. Of which 341 had mild disease, 241 had moderate disease, 237 patients had severe disease on presentation.While looking into the final outcome of the disease, 175 patients died due Covid 19 pneumonia or its complication, 52 patients were discharged with oxygen support. Of 237 patients with severe disease 150 patients had CRP levels >75mg/dl. Of 175 patients who died, 121 had CRP levels >75 mg/dl. Of 237 patients with severe disease, 122 of them had D-dimer >1000 ng/ml. Of 175 patients who died with Covid 19, 103 of them had ddimer levels >1000 ng/ml.CRP and D-dimer were significantly increased in patients with severe disease and in patients who died of Covid 19 with p value <0.0001. Conclusion: Increasing levels of CRP and D-dimer were good predictors of severe disease in Covid 19. Also, increased levels of CRP and d-dimer were suggestive of poorer outcome of the disease in terms of mortality and morbidity in Covid 19 infection.

11.
Journal of Endourology ; 35(SUPPL 1):A328, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1569549

ABSTRACT

Introduction & Objective: Due to the COVID-19 global pandemic, in July 2020 we developed a same day discharge (SDD) protocol for robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) that balanced safety concerns with benefits of early discharge. In this study we present our experience and protocol. Methods: We performed a prospective analysis of patients undergoing RALP who were selected for SDD in a high-volume prostate cancer referral center. The criteria for discharge included uncomplicated surgery, stable postoperative hemoglobin, ambulation, tolerance of clear liquids without nausea or vomiting, pain control with oral medication, and patient/family comfort with SDD. We excluded patients older than 70 years, having concomitant general surgery operations, significant comorbidities (e.g. cardiopulmonary disease), and challenging procedures (e.g. salvage procedure, large prostates). We analyzed patient demographics, clinicopathologic factors, and operative outcomes and evaluated rates of SDD and factors associated with SDD failure (SDF). Results: From July 13, 2020 to January 1, 2021, 101 patients undergoing RALP were selected for SDD. Eighty patients (79%) met criteria , 73 (72%) were successful SDD, and 28 (28%) were SDF. All the SDF were discharged on postoperative day 1. Preoperative demographics were similar between the two groups with a median age of 63 (57-67) years and median BMI of 27 (25-30) kg/m2. Intraoperative characteristics were not statistically different with a median operative time of 92 (81-107) vs 103 (91-111) minutes for SDD and SDF respectively (P = 0.51). The readmission in the SDD group was due to dizziness from hematoma and ileus from urine leak in the SDF cohort (P = 0.69). Of the 28 SDF patients, the most common reasons for staying were anesthesia-related factors of nausea (35%) and drowsiness (7%), followed by patient/caregiver preference (25%), pain (14%), labile blood pressure (7%), arrhythmia (7%), and dizziness (7%). Conclusions: SDD for patients undergoing RALP can be safely incorporated into a clinical care pathway without increasing readmission rates. Coordinated care with anesthesia and nursing teams is an integral part of developing a SDD program, as is preoperative counseling to manage expectations. Future aims will be to investigate anesthesia factors leading to nausea and to expand selection to more patients.

12.
Current Science ; 119(6):910-911, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1489452

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses facts and fictions of poplar (Populus deltoides) in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Recently, after the COVID-19 outbreak, it was claimed that 'pollen grains of female poplar may be carriers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus'. The Government of Kashmir issued an order for the felling of about 42,000 female poplar trees, even though many environmentalists and scientists provided evidence that pollen from poplar causes meagre effect on human health when compared to other trees and it has no relation with COVID-19. Experts also suggest that the silky cotton seed of poplar may not cause much harm, but it has been misinterpreted due to carrier nature of other pollen grains. On the other hand, unscientific harvesting of millions of poplar trees could result in desert-like conditions in the future and also affect the livelihood opportunity of farmers and local people in J&K.

13.
Journal of Urology ; 206(SUPPL 3):e893, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1483645

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Due to the COVID-19 global pandemic, in July 2020 we developed a same day discharge (SDD) protocol for robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) that balanced safety concerns with benefits of early discharge. In this study we present our experience. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis of patients undergoing RALP who were selected for SDD in a high-volume prostate cancer referral center. The criteria for discharge included uncomplicated surgery, stable postop hemoglobin, ambulation, tolerance of clear liquids without nausea or emesis, pain control with oral medication, and patient/family comfort with SDD. We excluded patients older than 70 years, having concomitant general surgery operations, significant comorbidities (e.g. cardiopulmonary disease), and challenging procedures (e.g. salvage procedure, large prostates). We analyzed patient demographics, clinicopathologic factors, and operative outcomes and evaluated rates of SDD and factors associated with SDD failure (SDF). RESULTS: From July 13, 2020 to January 1, 2021, 101 patients undergoing RALP were selected for SDD. Eighty patients (79%) met criteria, 73 (72%) were successful SDD, and 28 (28%) were SDF. All the SDF were discharged on postop day 1. Preoperative demographics were similar between the two groups with a median age of 63 (57-67) years and median BMI of 27 (25-30) kg/m2. Intraoperative characteristics were not statistically different with a median operative time of 92 (81-107) vs 103 (91-111) minutes for SDD and SDF respectively (p=0.51). The readmission in the SDD group was due to dizziness from hematoma and ileus from urine leak in the SDF cohort (p=0.69). Of the 28 SDF patients, the most common reasons for staying were anesthesia-related factors of nausea (35%) and drowsiness (7%), followed by patient/caregiver preference (25%), pain (14%), labile blood pressure (7%), arrhythmia (7%), and dizziness (7%). CONCLUSIONS: SDD for patients undergoing RALP can be safely incorporated into a clinical care pathway without increasing readmission rates. Coordinated care with anesthesia and nursing teams is an integral part of developing a SDD program, as is preoperative counseling to manage expectations. Future aims will be to investigate anesthesia factors leading to nausea and to expand selection to more patients.

14.
3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Management Science, ISMS 2020 ; 303 LNNS:58-66, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437197

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced academic institutions to switch from traditional teaching-learning to fully digital mode. The traditional programming lab sessions are replaced by video lectures, notes, and assignment submission through LMS. Manual grading and debugging of the program results in delayed feedback. The existing auto-graders are designed to check the programs’ correctness, and they cannot enhance learning. The interactive workbooks we propose are similar to the popular Jupyter notebooks but oriented more towards enhancing the teaching-learning process and providing immediate feedback. The survey results showed that 70% of the students believed that interactive workbooks enabled them to understand the problem and made them capable of solving it in incremental steps. 65% of the instructors added that interactive workbooks could supplement the physical lab sessions’ teaching-learning process. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(7):11-12, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1431656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by SARS-COV-2, has been a health emergency of great concern throughout the world. Acute Kidney Injury was reported in a considerable amount of patients suffering from COVID-19, especially in those admitted in the ICU setting. This study was undertaken to study the clinical profile, incidence, severity, requirement of renal replacement therapy, and the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with Acute Kidney Injury admitted in the Intensive Care Unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary hospital recognized as Dedicated COVID Hospital during the period of May 2020 to September 2020. 218 patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit during this period were monitored for the development of Acute Kidney Injury. The clinical profile, laboratory findings, requirement of invasive ventilation and renal replacement therapy, and outcomes of such patients were recorded. Data was analysed using the SPSS software. RESULTS: Among all the patients enrolled in the Intensive Care Unit during the study period, 27.06% developed Acute Kidney Injury. 67.79% of these patients developed AKI during the first five days of hospitalisation. 76.27% of the patients with AKI required invasive mechanical ventilation, while 28.81% required renal replacement therapy. There was a significant association between the development of Acute Kidney Injury and the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0000015). 44.68% of the deaths among the 218 patients were associated with COVID-19 related AKI (p = 0.0000003). CONCLUSION: Acute Kidney Injury was found to be common among the hospitalised COVID-19 patients in our Intensive Care Unit. AKI occurs early, often in a temporal association with respiratory failure, and portends a dire prognosis. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

16.
Library Philosophy and Practice ; 2021:1-15, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1399890

ABSTRACT

Electronic resources generally known as e-resources are materials in digital format accessible electronically. It consists electronic journals (e-journal), electronic books (e- book), online databases, online databases in varied digital formats. These resources play an indispensible role during Covid-19. The COVID-19 pandemic situation has posed unprecedented challenges requiring teachers to adapt to teaching online. Until March 2020, the typical teaching situation at colleges of education was characterised by teacher trainees who convened in classrooms according to their timetables and teachers who covered their subjects' syllabus, frequently through formal lecturing. Teacher trainees were required to listen to their teachers in a formal way. The college lockdown confronted teachers, students, and parents with an entirely new situation. Teaching and learning during pandemic period is only possible through alternative means of education. Teachers need to use various digital tools and resources to solve problems and implement new approaches to teaching and learning process. In this present prevailing situation of Covid-19, libraries are more concerned with electronic resources as these provide accurate information with the latest data to fulfill their needs. The teacher trainees consult the electronic resources for their teaching learning process. This article focuses on various aspects of electronic resources and their subscription in colleges of education and usage by teacher trainees. © 2021. All Rights Reserved.

17.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 10(3-s):286-294, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly infectious, spreading swiftly from man to man which has not been previously recognized in humans. World Health Organization (WHO) on February 11, 2020 named the infection as COVID-19 as an acronym for 'coronavirus disease-2019' and on March 11, 2020 declared the outbreak as pandemic. It affects all the people without discrimination, however, older, immune compromised are more susceptible. The virus chiefly spread through droplet infection from infected person to healthy one by coughing, sneezing or with infected hands when touched to eyes, nose or mouth. Symptoms of the infection range from mild to severe ones. In severe cases (approx. 14% of cases) fever typically of high grade (104oF), breathlessness, pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome may appear. So far no specific treatment or vaccine for novel coronavirus-2019 is there. From the past and recent past experiences we have learnt that herbal medicines have proven beneficial against various dreadful viral infections. Assessment of immune enhancing herbs in this paper may definitely be helpful for the body to fight COVID-19 infection.

18.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 69(7):40-43, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1361120

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19, caused by SARS-COV-2, has been a health emergency of great concern throughout the world. Acute Kidney Injury was reported in a considerable amount of patients suffering from COVID-19, especially in those admitted in the ICU setting. This study was undertaken to study the clinical profile, incidence, severity, requirement of renal replacement therapy, and the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with Acute Kidney Injury admitted in the Intensive Care Unit. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary hospital recognized as Dedicated COVID Hospital during the period of May 2020 to September 2020. 218 patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit during this period were monitored for the development of Acute Kidney Injury. The clinical profile, laboratory findings, requirement of invasive ventilation and renal replacement therapy, and outcomes of such patients were recorded. Data was analysed using the SPSS software. Results: Among all the patients enrolled in the Intensive Care Unit during the study period, 27.06% developed Acute Kidney Injury. 67.79% of these patients developed AKI during the first five days of hospitalisation. 76.27% of the patients with AKI required invasive mechanical ventilation, while 28.81% required renal replacement therapy. There was a significant association between the development of Acute Kidney Injury and the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0000015). 44.68% of the deaths among the 218 patients were associated with COVID-19 related AKI (p = 0.0000003). Conclusion: Acute Kidney Injury was found to be common among the hospitalised COVID-19 patients in our Intensive Care Unit. AKI occurs early, often in a temporal association with respiratory failure, and portends a dire prognosis. © 2021 Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.

19.
4th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Communication, ICICC 2020 ; 197 LNNS:549-558, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1342952

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus-II. COVID-19 has affected a few millions of people across the globe with alarming death toll rate. Chest X-rays are widely available modality for immediate care in diagnosing COVID-19. X-ray images inherently possess significant amount of noise, and image resolution depends on radiation dosage. Diagnosis of COVID-19 chest X-rays would be more precise with high-resolution images. The aim of the current work is to explore selected super-resolution techniques for COVID-19 chest X-ray images. The samples are taken from COVID-19 chest X-ray public dataset. We conducted the experiments on COVID-19 chest X-ray public dataset. The super-resolution methods produced high resolution chest X-ray images the clear view of the pulmonary opacities in chest x-ray images. Evaluation metrics used in the experiments demonstrated improvement in overall quality enhancement of the chest X-ray images. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

20.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 12(4):2380-2384, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1187166

ABSTRACT

Background: The entire world is battling the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that potentially leads to pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ failure, often resulting in death. Therefore, the utmost challenge from a medical perspective is to improve lung function before the patient requires intubation and critical care. In the same light, the use of low dose radiation therapy (LDRT) that has been used to treat various nonmalignant inflammatory conditions can be exploited as a promising approach to combat ARDS in COVID-19 patients. LDRT is a century-old popular treatment of viral pneumonia that has been reported to reduce inflammation and prevent the cytokine storm, thus mitigating the severity of pneumonitis. Given the outcomes of pilot clinical studies, the administration of LDRT should be kept as an option in clinical situations where benefits outweigh the risks. Therefore, the present communication highlights the anti-inflammatory role of LDRT so as to revisit its prospective role in COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. Conclusions: In the COVID-19 pandemic, LDRT appears as a cost-efficient, potent, noninvasive, anti-inflammatory treatment option that can decrease the patient burden of the hospital set up and help in mitigating the life-threatening symptoms associated with COVID-19 pneumonitis, especially in patients who are at a progressive stage of infection and unfit for conventional anti-inflammatory treatments.

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