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1.
N Engl J Med ; 387(7): 620-630, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses typically cause self-limited respiratory, gastrointestinal, and conjunctival infections in healthy children. In late 2021 and early 2022, several previously healthy children were identified with acute hepatitis and human adenovirus viremia. METHODS: We used International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes to identify all children (<18 years of age) with hepatitis who were admitted to Children's of Alabama hospital between October 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022; those with acute hepatitis who also tested positive for human adenovirus by whole-blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our case series. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were obtained from medical records. Residual blood specimens were sent for diagnostic confirmation and human adenovirus typing. RESULTS: A total of 15 children were identified with acute hepatitis - 6 (40%) who had hepatitis with an identified cause and 9 (60%) who had hepatitis without a known cause. Eight (89%) of the patients with hepatitis of unknown cause tested positive for human adenovirus. These 8 patients plus 1 additional patient referred to this facility for follow-up were included in this case series (median age, 2 years 11 months; age range, 1 year 1 month to 6 years 5 months). Liver biopsies indicated mild-to-moderate active hepatitis in 6 children, some with and some without cholestasis, but did not show evidence of human adenovirus on immunohistochemical examination or electron microscopy. PCR testing of liver tissue for human adenovirus was positive in 3 children (50%). Sequencing of specimens from 5 children showed three distinct human adenovirus type 41 hexon variants. Two children underwent liver transplantation; all the others recovered with supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: Human adenovirus viremia was present in the majority of children with acute hepatitis of unknown cause admitted to Children's of Alabama from October 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, but whether human adenovirus was causative remains unclear. Sequencing results suggest that if human adenovirus was causative, this was not an outbreak driven by a single strain. (Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/virology , Humans , Infant , Viremia
2.
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine ; 146(8):921-923, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989893

ABSTRACT

The authors correctly stated that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed testing for SARS-CoV-2 and found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in autopsy tissues from the decedents. Molecular analysis included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on nucleic acid extracted from FFPE heart tissue, including SARS-CoV-2 and enterovirus reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays2,3 and conventional PCR for parvovirus B19. Clostridium septicum produces multiple toxins that cause necrosis of striated muscle cells9,11 and inhibit influx of neutrophils to infected tissues;indeed, paucity of neutrophilic infiltrates in tissues infected with C septicum is considered a hallmark of this disease.9,12 Clostridium septicum is not considered normal flora of the human intestinal tract,13,14 but rather an opportunistic invader of immunologically compromised hosts, particularly persons with colonic adenocarcinoma, leukemia, diabetes, bowel ischemia, or cyclic, congenital, or acquired neutropenia.7,8 Spontaneous infections have been described for a few pediatric patients with no recognized risk factor and for whom microscopic breaches in the mucosa of the large intestine were considered the likely portal of entry.8,15 No representative samples of the small or large intestine were provided to the IDPB for evaluation;however, histologic evidence of bacterial invasion of the external surfaces of the adrenals, kidneys, liver, and spleen support an intraabdominal source of infection. The findings and conclusions in this letter are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2022-0084-LE In Reply.-We thank the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch laboratory for performing these tests and for sharing the full extent of its workup.

4.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 681-695, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714567

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes respiratory disease in mink similar to human COVID-19. We characterized the pathological findings in 72 mink from US farms with SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, localized SARS-CoV-2 and its host cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in mink respiratory tissues, and evaluated the utility of various test methods and specimens for SARS-CoV-2 detection in necropsy tissues. Of SARS-CoV-2-positive animals found dead, 74% had bronchiolitis and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Of euthanized SARS-CoV-2-positive animals, 72% had only mild interstitial pneumonia or minimal nonspecific lung changes (congestion, edema, macrophages); similar findings were seen in SARS-CoV-2-negative animals. Suppurative rhinitis, lymphocytic perivascular inflammation in the lungs, and lymphocytic infiltrates in other tissues were common in both SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative animals. In formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) upper respiratory tract (URT) specimens, conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) was more sensitive than in situ hybridization (ISH) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of SARS-CoV-2. FFPE lung specimens yielded less detection of virus than FFPE URT specimens by all test methods. By IHC and ISH, virus localized extensively to epithelial cells in the nasal turbinates, and prominently within intact epithelium; olfactory mucosa was mostly spared. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 was extensively detected by IHC within turbinate epithelium, with decreased detection in lower respiratory tract epithelium and alveolar macrophages. This study expands on the knowledge of the pathology and pathogenesis of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in mink and supports their further investigation as a potential animal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Mink , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Epithelial Cells , Lung , Macrophages, Alveolar , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 510-517, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686417

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease in neonates is rare. We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings from a neonate in the United States who was delivered at 25 weeks of gestation and died 4 days after birth; the mother had asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and preeclampsia. We observed severe diffuse alveolar damage and localized SARS-CoV-2 by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy of the lungs of the neonate. We localized SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal heart and liver vascular endothelium by using in situ hybridization and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal and placental tissues by using reverse transcription PCR. Subgenomic reverse transcription PCR suggested viral replication in lung/airway, heart, and liver. These findings indicate that in utero SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributed to this neonatal death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Autopsy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Lung , Placenta , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(2): 207-217, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310923

ABSTRACT

We combined viral genome sequencing with contact tracing to investigate introduction and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 lineages in Santa Clara County, California, from 27 January to 21 March 2020. From 558 persons with coronavirus disease 2019, 101 genomes from 143 available clinical samples comprised 17 lineages, including SCC1 (n = 41), WA1 (n = 9; including the first 2 reported deaths in the United States, with postmortem diagnosis), D614G (n = 4), ancestral Wuhan Hu-1 (n = 21), and 13 others (n = 26). Public health intervention may have curtailed the persistence of lineages that appeared transiently during February and March. By August, only D614G lineages introduced after 21 March were circulating in Santa Clara County.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Female , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Travel , Young Adult
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1517-1519, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127972

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shares common clinicopathologic features with other severe pulmonary illnesses. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients in Arizona, USA, suspected of dying from infection with SARS-CoV-2. Differential diagnoses and possible co-infections should be considered for cases of respiratory distress during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Arizona , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 752-764, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to produce substantial morbidity and mortality. To understand the reasons for the wide-spectrum complications and severe outcomes of COVID-19, we aimed to identify cellular targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tropism and replication in various tissues. METHODS: We evaluated RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues from 64 case patients (age range, 1 month to 84 years; 21 COVID-19 confirmed, 43 suspected COVID-19) by SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viral characterization, we performed in situ hybridization (ISH), subgenomic RNA RT-PCR, and whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified by RT-PCR in 32 case patients (21 COVID-19 confirmed, 11 suspected). ISH was positive in 20 and subgenomic RNA RT-PCR was positive in 17 of 32 RT-PCR-positive case patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized by ISH in hyaline membranes, pneumocytes, and macrophages of lungs; epithelial cells of airways; and endothelial cells and vessel walls of brain stem, leptomeninges, lung, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas. The D614G variant was detected in 9 RT-PCR-positive case patients. CONCLUSIONS: We identified cellular targets of SARS-CoV-2 tropism and replication in the lungs and airways and demonstrated its direct infection in vascular endothelium. This work provides important insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis and mechanisms of severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Infant , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Tropism , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
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