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1.
American Heart Journal Plus: Cardiology Research and Practice ; : 100131, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1797309

ABSTRACT

Background Although troponin elevation is associated with worse outcomes among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), prognostic implications of serial troponin testing are lacking. We investigated the association between serial troponin measurements and adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Methods Using Danish registries, we identified COVID-19 patients with a high-sensitivity troponin measurement followed by a second measurement within 1–24 h. All measurements during follow-up were also utilized in subsequent time-varying analyses. We assessed all-cause mortality associated with the absence/presence of myocardial injury (≥1 troponin measurement >99th percentile upper reference limit) and absence/presence of dynamic troponin changes (>20% relative change if first measurement elevated, >50% relative change if first measurement normal). Results Of 346 included COVID-19 patients, 56% had myocardial injury. Overall, 20% had dynamic troponin changes. In multivariable Cox regression models, myocardial injury was associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 2.56, 95%CI = 1.46–4.51), as were dynamic troponin changes (HR = 1.66, 95%CI = 1.04–2.64). We observed a low incidence of myocardial infarction (4%) and invasive coronary procedures (4%) among patients with myocardial injury. Conclusions Myocardial injury and dynamic troponin changes determined using serial high-sensitivity troponin testing were associated with poor prognosis among patients with COVID-19. The risk of developing myocardial infarction requiring invasive management during COVID-19 hospitalization was low.

2.
Am Heart J ; 248: 21-34, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712407

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prevalence of chronic diseases is increasing largely due to suboptimal dietary habits. It is not known whether individualized, supermarket-based, nutrition education delivered by registered dietitians, utilizing the advantages of the in-store and online environments, and electronically collected purchasing data, can increase dietary quality. METHODS AND RESULTS: The supermarket and web-based intervention targeting nutrition (SuperWIN) for cardiovascular risk reduction trial is a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. Adults identified from a primary care network with 1 or more risk factors were randomized at their preferred store to: (1) standard of care plus individualized, point- of-purchase nutrition education; (2) standard of care plus individualized, point- of-purchase nutrition education enhanced with online shopping technologies and training; or (3) standard of care alone. Educational sessions within each store's clinic and aisles, emphasized the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. The primary assessment was an intention-to-treat comparison on the effects of the dietary interventions on mean change in DASH score (90-point range) from baseline to 3 months (post-intervention). Additional outcomes included blood pressure, lipids, weight, purchasing behavior, food literacy, and intervention feedback. Between April 2019 to February 2021, 267 participants were randomized (20 excluded due to coronavirus disease pandemic). Median age was 58 years, 69% were female, 64% had a college degree, 53% worked full-time, 64% were obese, 73% were treated with blood pressure and 42% with cholesterol medications, and most had low-to-moderate diet quality. CONCLUSION: The SuperWIN trial was designed to provide a rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of 2 novel, comprehensive, supermarket-based dietary intervention programs.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(1): e022010, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599177

ABSTRACT

Background Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality during index hospitalization; however, the relationship to long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. This study assessed the relationship between myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T level) during index hospitalization for COVID-19 and longer-term outcomes. Methods and Results This is a prospective cohort of patients who were hospitalized at a single center between March and May 2020 with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiac biomarkers were systematically collected. Outcomes were adjudicated and stratified on the basis of myocardial injury. The study cohort includes 483 patients who had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T data during their index hospitalization. During index hospitalization, 91 (18.8%) died, 70 (14.4%) had thrombotic complications, and 126 (25.6%) had cardiovascular complications. By 12 months, 107 (22.2%) died. During index hospitalization, 301 (62.3%) had cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T≧14 ng/L); these patients had 28.6%, 32.2%, and 33.2% mortality during index hospitalization, at 6 months, and at 12 months, respectively, compared with 4.1%, 4.9%, and 4.9% mortality for those with low-level positive troponin and 0%, 0%, and 0% for those with undetectable troponin. Of 392 (81.2%) patients who survived the index hospitalization, 94 (24%) had at least 1 readmission within 12 months, of whom 61 (65%) had myocardial injury during the index hospitalization. Of 377 (96%) patients who were alive and had follow-up after the index hospitalization, 211 (56%) patients had a documented, detailed clinical assessment at 6 months. A total of 78 of 211 (37.0%) had ongoing COVID-19-related symptoms; 34 of 211 (16.1%) had neurocognitive decline, 8 of 211 (3.8%) had increased supplemental oxygen requirements, and 42 of 211 (19.9%) had worsening functional status. Conclusions Myocardial injury during index hospitalization for COVID-19 was associated with increased mortality and may predict who are more likely to have postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Among patients who survived their index hospitalization, the incremental mortality through 12 months was low, even among troponin-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Troponin T/blood
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2141328, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592856

ABSTRACT

Importance: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia have high rates of morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the efficacy of colchicine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Estudios Clínicos Latino América (ECLA) Population Health Research Institute (PHRI) COLCOVID trial was a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial performed from April 17, 2020, to March 28, 2021, in adults with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection followed for up to 28 days. Participants received colchicine vs usual care if they were hospitalized with COVID-19 symptoms and had severe acute respiratory syndrome or oxygen desaturation. The main exclusion criteria were clear indications or contraindications for colchicine, chronic kidney disease, and negative results on a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 before randomization. Data were analyzed from June 20 to July 25, 2021. Interventions: Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to usual care or usual care plus colchicine. Colchicine was administered orally in a loading dose of 1.5 mg immediately after randomization, followed by 0.5 mg orally within 2 hours of the initial dose and 0.5 mg orally twice a day for 14 days or discharge, whichever occurred first. Main Outcomes and Measures: The first coprimary outcome was the composite of a new requirement for mechanical ventilation or death evaluated at 28 days. The second coprimary outcome was death at 28 days. Results: A total of 1279 hospitalized patients (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [14.6] years; 449 [35.1%] women and 830 [64.9%] men) were randomized, including 639 patients in the usual care group and 640 patients in the colchicine group. Corticosteroids were used in 1171 patients (91.5%). The coprimary outcome of mechanical ventilation or 28-day death occurred in 160 patients (25.0%) in the colchicine group and 184 patients (28.8%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.02; P = .08). The second coprimary outcome, 28-day death, occurred in 131 patients (20.5%) in the colchicine group and 142 patients (22.2%) in the usual care group (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.12). Diarrhea was the most frequent adverse effect of colchicine, reported in 68 patients (11.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that compared with usual care, colchicine did not significantly reduce mechanical ventilation or 28-day mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04328480.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Colchicine/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e023673, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551104
6.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750562

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken an unprecedented toll on the American healthcare system and economy. While numerous COVID-19 clinical trials have been initiated in hopes of curtailing its impact, most pre-existing clinical trials have been forced to suspend or limit activity, which itself can have significant consequences. Missed or postponed trial-related assessments may hinder data quality, and heterogeneity in data collection both across the country and over time introduces bias. In addition, COVID-19 may lower specific event rates due to patients avoiding the healthcare system that could result in underpowered outcome analyses, or conversely, some endpoints (mortality) may be inflated.

7.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 19(5): 342, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493121
8.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(10): ytab397, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is a realization for innovation in procedures and protocols to minimize hospital stay and at the same time ensure continued evidence-based treatment delivered to the patients. We present a same-day discharge protocol for transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) using MitraClip under general anaesthesia in a six-patient case series. This protocol aims to reduce the length of hospital stay, thereby minimizing potential for nosocomial COVID-19 infections and to promote safe discharge with cautious follow-up. CASE SUMMARY: Six patients with severe symptomatic mitral valve (MV) regurgitation underwent successful transfemoral MV repair using standard procedures. Following repair, patients were monitored on telemetry in the recovery area for 3 h, ambulated to assess vascular access stability and underwent post-procedural transthoracic echocardiogram to assess for any pericardial effusion or post-procedural prosthetic mitral stenosis. CONCLUSION: Same-day discharge after TMVR is possible when done cautiously with close follow-up, can minimize hospital stay, improve resource utilization, and reduce risk of nosocomial COVID-19 infection.

9.
Nature reviews. Cardiology ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1479254

ABSTRACT

Throughout 2021, the medical and scientific communities have focused on managing the acute morbidity and mortality caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. With the approval of multiple vaccines, there is a light at the end of this dark tunnel and an opportunity to focus on the future, including managing the long-term sequelae in patients who have survived acute COVID-19. In this Perspectives article, we highlight what is known about the cardiovascular sequelae in survivors of COVID-19 and discuss important questions that need to be addressed in prospective studies to understand and mitigate these lasting cardiovascular consequences, including in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. To provide the greatest benefit to these survivors, prospective studies should begin now, with resources made available to monitor and study this population in the coming years. In this Perspectives article, the authors highlight what is known about cardiovascular sequelae in survivors of COVID-19 and discuss important questions that need to be addressed in prospective studies to understand and mitigate these lasting cardiovascular consequences, including in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(16): 1635-1654, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation, endothelial activation, and multiorgan manifestations. Lipid-modulating agents may be useful in treating patients with COVID-19. These agents may inhibit viral entry by lipid raft disruption or ameliorate the inflammatory response and endothelial activation. In addition, dyslipidemia with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels portend worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Upon a systematic search, 40 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with lipid-modulating agents were identified, including 17 statin trials, 14 omega-3 fatty acids RCTs, 3 fibrate RCTs, 5 niacin RCTs, and 1 dalcetrapib RCT for the management or prevention of COVID-19. From these 40 RCTs, only 2 have reported preliminary results, and most others are ongoing. This paper summarizes the ongoing or completed RCTs of lipid-modulating agents in COVID-19 and the implications of these trials for patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fibric Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Niacin/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/therapeutic use , Niacin/pharmacology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121867, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375583

ABSTRACT

Importance: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurring after cardiac surgery is associated with adverse outcomes. Whether POAF persists beyond discharge is not well defined. Objective: To determine whether continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring enhances detection of POAF among cardiac surgical patients during the first 30 days after hospital discharge compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 10 Canadian centers. Enrollment spanned from March 2017 to March 2020, with follow-up through September 11, 2020. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, enrollment stopped on July 17, 2020, at which point 85% of the proposed sample size was enrolled. Cardiac surgical patients with CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, female sex) score greater than or equal to 4 or greater than or equal to 2 with risk factors for POAF, no history of preoperative AF, and POAF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization were enrolled. Interventions: The intervention group underwent continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring with wearable, patch-based monitors for 30 days after randomization. Monitoring was not mandated in the usual care group within 30 days after randomization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was cumulative AF and/or atrial flutter lasting 6 minutes or longer detected by continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring or by a 12-lead electrocardiogram within 30 days of randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included cumulative AF lasting 6 hours or longer and 24 hours or longer within 30 days of randomization, death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, non-central nervous system thromboembolism, major bleeding, and oral anticoagulation prescription. Results: Of the 336 patients randomized (163 patients in the intervention group and 173 patients in the usual care group; mean [SD] age, 67.4 [8.1] years; 73 women [21.7%]; median [interquartile range] CHA2DS2-VASc score, 4.0 [3.0-4.0] points), 307 (91.4%) completed the trial. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 32 patients (19.6%) in the intervention group vs 3 patients (1.7%) in the usual care group (absolute difference, 17.9%; 95% CI, 11.5%-24.3%; P < .001). AF lasting 6 hours or longer was detected in 14 patients (8.6%) in the intervention group vs 0 patients in the usual care group (absolute difference, 8.6%; 95% CI, 4.3%-12.9%; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In post-cardiac surgical patients at high risk of stroke, no preoperative AF history, and AF lasting less than 24 hours during hospitalization, continuous monitoring revealed a significant increase in the rate of POAF after discharge that would otherwise not be detected by usual care. Studies are needed to examine whether these patients will benefit from oral anticoagulation therapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02793895.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Flutter/diagnosis , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Patient Discharge , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Flutter/etiology , COVID-19 , Canada , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Electrocardiography , Female , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Stroke , Thromboembolism
13.
iScience ; 24(9): 103040, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373083

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a source of considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Therapeutic options to reduce symptoms, inflammatory response, or disease progression are limited. This randomized open-label trial enrolled 100 ambulatory patients with symptomatic COVID-19 in Toronto, Canada. Results indicate that icosapent ethyl (8 g daily for 3 days followed by 4 g daily for 11 days) significantly reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and improved symptomatology compared with patients assigned to usual care. Specifically, the primary biomarker endpoint, change in hs-CRP, was significantly reduced by 25% among treated patients (-0.5 mg/L, interquartile range [IQR] [-6.9,0.4], within-group p = 0.011). Conversely, a non-significant 5.6% reduction was observed among usual care patients (-0.1 mg/L, IQR [-3.2,1.7], within-group p = 0.51). An unadjusted between-group primary biomarker analysis was non-significant (p = 0.082). Overall, this report provides evidence of an early anti-inflammatory effect of icosapent ethyl in a modest sample, including an initial well-tolerated loading dose, in symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04412018.

14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118176, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330274

Subject(s)
Humans , United States
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 156: 129-131, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306838

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination was launched in the United States in mid-December 2020. There are limited data on the risk of thrombotic events related to COVID-19 vaccines. In conclusion, we report 2 cases of acute myocardial infarction with onset <24 hours after the first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine in patients presenting with shoulder pain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Time Factors
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252315, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280617

ABSTRACT

We extend previous studies on the impact of masks on COVID-19 outcomes by investigating an unprecedented breadth and depth of health outcomes, geographical resolutions, types of mask mandates, early versus later waves and controlling for other government interventions, mobility testing rate and weather. We show that mask mandates are associated with a statistically significant decrease in new cases (-3.55 per 100K), deaths (-0.13 per 100K), and the proportion of hospital admissions (-2.38 percentage points) up to 40 days after the introduction of mask mandates both at the state and county level. These effects are large, corresponding to 14% of the highest recorded number of cases, 13% of deaths, and 7% of admission proportion. We also find that mask mandates are linked to a 23.4 percentage point increase in mask adherence in four diverse states. Given the recent lifting of mandates, we estimate that the ending of mask mandates in these states is associated with a decrease of -3.19 percentage points in mask adherence and 12 per 100K (13% of the highest recorded number) of daily new cases with no significant effect on hospitalizations and deaths. Lastly, using a large novel survey dataset of 847 thousand responses in 69 countries, we introduce the novel results that community mask adherence and community attitudes towards masks are associated with a reduction in COVID-19 cases and deaths. Our results have policy implications for reinforcing the need to maintain and encourage mask-wearing by the public, especially in light of some states starting to remove their mask mandates.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Masks , COVID-19/mortality , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Social Media , United States/epidemiology
17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(46): 4376-4379, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276164
19.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 541-560, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059479

ABSTRACT

Artificial Intelligence (AI), in general, refers to the machines (or computers) that mimic "cognitive" functions that we associate with our mind, such as "learning" and "solving problem". New biomarkers derived from medical imaging are being discovered and are then fused with non-imaging biomarkers (such as office, laboratory, physiological, genetic, epidemiological, and clinical-based biomarkers) in a big data framework, to develop AI systems. These systems can support risk prediction and monitoring. This perspective narrative shows the powerful methods of AI for tracking cardiovascular risks. We conclude that AI could potentially become an integral part of the COVID-19 disease management system. Countries, large and small, should join hands with the WHO in building biobanks for scientists around the world to build AI-based platforms for tracking the cardiovascular risk assessment during COVID-19 times and long-term follow-up of the survivors.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Comorbidity , Humans , Risk Factors
20.
Am Heart J ; 235: 54-64, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The MITIGATE study aims to evaluate the real-world clinical effectiveness of pre-treatment with icosapent ethyl (IPE), compared with usual care, on laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory infection (URI)-related morbidity and mortality in adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). BACKGROUND: IPE is a highly purified and stable omega-3 fatty acid prescription medication that is approved for cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk adults on statin therapy with elevated triglycerides. Preclinical data and clinical observations suggest that IPE may have pleiotropic effects including antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties that may prevent or reduce the downstream sequelae and cardiopulmonary consequences of viral URIs. METHODS: MITIGATE is a virtual, electronic health record-based, open-label, randomized, pragmatic clinical trial enrolling ∼16,500 participants within Kaiser Permanente Northern California - a fully integrated and learning health care delivery system with 21 hospitals and >255 ambulatory clinics serving ∼4.5 million members. Adults ≥50 years with established ASCVD and no prior history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will be prospectively identified and pre-randomized in a 1:10 allocation ratio (∼ 1,500 IPE: ∼15,000 usual care) stratified by age and previous respiratory health status to the intervention (IPE 2 grams by mouth twice daily with meals) vs the control group (usual care) for a minimum follow-up duration of 6 months. The co-primary endpoints are moderate-to-severe laboratory-confirmed viral URI and worst clinical status due to a viral URI at any point in time. CONCLUSION: The MITIGATE study will inform clinical practice by providing evidence on the real-world clinical effectiveness of pretreatment with IPE to prevent and/or reduce the sequelae of laboratory-confirmed viral URIs in a high-risk cohort of patients with established ASCVD.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
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