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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309103

ABSTRACT

A new beta Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection was first identified in the Wuhan City, China in December 2019 and after that it had spread rapidly throughout the globe and subsequently WHO have announced it as a pandemic. So, SARS-CoV-2 has now become a global threat to human civilization. Recent studies showed that the proteomic data of SARS-CoV-2 is closely related with other beta Coronavirus. The phylogenetic tree revealed the closeness of recently reported SAR-CoV2 with SARS-CoV by using MEGA 7 along with the suitable protocol of Neighbor joining algorithm. The spike glycoprotein plays the most important role during the onset of infection. Several mutations have been reported across the globe in the S Proteins. In this research, molecular docking between the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and ACE2 protein was carried out in PatchDock web servers. WEBnm@ calculated the molecular simulation using Normal Mode Analysis (NMA) along with lowest deformation energy value which signifies the domain motions. Also during multiple sequence analysis, variations were observed within the Spike protein reported globally. 3- Dimensional structure of protein molecules were designed using homology modeling and the structure were validated through Q mean score and Ramachandran plot. All of the designed sequences were having around 91% of the amino acid in the favored region of Ramachandran plot. In order to check the binding affinity difference between the mutated and non-mutated strains, the generated models were docked with human ACE2 molecules. The non mutated strains have given the similar ACE value. However, there were variations in ACE value of the mutated strains. This observation provides evidence of Phylogenetic diversity and evolution.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6719-6730, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 vaccines have developed quickly, and vaccination programs have started in most countries to fight the pandemic. The aging population is vulnerable to different diseases, also including the COVID-19. A high death rate of COVID-19 was noted from the vulnerable aging population. A present scenario regarding COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination program foraging adults had been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the current status and future projections till 2050 of the aging population worldwide. It also discusses the immunosenescence and inflammaging issues facing elderly adults and how it affects the vaccinations such as influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster. RESULTS: This paper recommends clinical trials for all approved COVID-19 vaccines targeting the elderly adult population and to project a plan to develop a next-generation COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The review has mapped the COVID-19 vaccination status from the developed and developing countries for the elderly population. Finally, strategies to vaccinate all elderly adults globally against COVID-19 to enhance longevity has been suggested.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunosenescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
3.
32nd Irish Signals and Systems Conference, ISSC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1405139

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has created an urgent need for different monitoring systems to prevent viral transmission because of its severity and contagious aspect. This paper proposes design and implementation of a hardware-software solution that uses supervised machine learning algorithms to examine an individual and determine if he/she poses a viral transmission danger. The solution proposed was developed utilising an ARM embedded device along with different sensors to detect and monitor COVID-19 symptoms and, at the same time, to enforce wearing of a mask by using deep learning computer vision. © 2021 IEEE.

4.
Future Virology ; 16(4):277-291, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1354808

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19 is currently the biggest threat to mankind. Recently, ivermectin (a US FDA-approved antiparasitic drug) has been explored as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent. Herein, we have studied the possible mechanism of action of ivermectin using in silico approaches. Materials & methods: Interaction of ivermectin against the key proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis were investigated through molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation. Results: Ivermectin was found as a blocker of viral replicase, protease and human TMPRSS2, which could be the biophysical basis behind its antiviral efficiency. The antiviral action and ADMET profile of ivermectin was on par with the currently used anticorona drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir. Conclusion: Our study enlightens the candidature of ivermectin as an effective drug for treating COVID-19.

5.
EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing ; : 45-60, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1231874

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease or COVID-19 is a fast-spreading pandemic caused due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing the death of many peoples worldwide. The conventional methods of disease detection and diagnosis like swab test using RT-PCR are not sufficient enough during this critical condition as it has several limitations along with possibilities of being contaminated. Computer-based tools are now being used for the demonstration of the disease and healthcare management. The present chapter is to demonstrate the various applications of AI-based model that is useful against COVID-19, based on recently developed technologies and research publications. The AI-based algorithm is driven by machine learning technology along with an advanced bio-computational technique for fast and precise diagnosis and detection of coronavirus disease. It also has the ability of early prediction and warning for the spread of disease. Moreover, AI-based techniques are also an important setup for the development of an effective drug or vaccine. It provides worldwide access to various databases of all research and medical data related to COVID-19 and also helps in the management of the socioeconomic constraints. This study summarizes the application of the artificial intelligence-based model and its utilities in the fight against this pandemic, along with its limitations and future advancement and developmental strategies. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021.

6.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):165-166, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1148493
7.
Thorax ; 76(SUPPL 1):A92-A93, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1146817

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic.1 A national lock-down was announced in the UK from 23rd March 2020, with a public health campaign encouraging patients to stay home. Healthcare services, including the NHS, had to urgently adapt to the demands of COVID-19, with changes in primary and secondary care. At our hospital trust we have reviewed the referrals to our lung cancer services during the pandemic. Suspected lung cancers in the community are referred using the cancer 2-week pathway. Survival estimates for lung cancer are poor compared to most other primary cancers and NICE advocates for quick referral to a specialist for patients whom lung cancer is suspected 2. We have looked at the impact of the pandemic on the referrals to our services. Method: We have reviewed the referrals to lung cancer services, via the lung cancer 2-week pathway at our hosptial trust, between the same periods in 2019 and 2020. Results: There has been a noticeable reduction in the number of referrals to the lung cancer services from the 23rd March, in comparison to same period in 2019 (see graph 1). Between weeks 13 and 19 of 2020 there was a 56.85% reduction in the number of referrals made compared to 2019. Conclusion: There are several likely reasons for the reduction in referral rate shown, including the nationwide advice to 'stay home to protect the NHS', changes to service provision and alterations to clinical set-ups. Timely referral of patients to lung cancer services and prompt diagnosis are essential, directly relating to lung cancer outcomes. We all, therfore, have a responsibility to ensure we learn from the COVID-19 pandemic, to help develop robust services, on top of appropriate clinical awareness, ensuring essential medical services can be provided irrespective of other pressures on the NHS.

8.
Studies in Computational Intelligence ; 933:17-41, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1107737

ABSTRACT

In this fastest-growing digitalization and technology, the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the healthcare industry brings revolutionary changes in the development and advancement in disease prediction, health monitoring, mobile health, and healthcare management. The main objective of this chapter is to focus on the various computational frameworks that are available for IoT-based healthcare system, by incorporating the findings demonstrated in the recently published research papers/reviews. This chapter highlights the strategic development of IoT-based computational framework or network for the advancement in disease prediction, monitoring, treatment strategies and drug monitoring and provides a ubiquitous healthcare system. The use of Internet-assisted healthcare networks, sensor-based devices, web servers, smartphone applications, big data, and cloud computing systems effectively limitless resources for generating massive datasets and digital health records can be used for remote monitoring and mobile health. The development of smartphone applications increases the efficiency and accessibility of IoT-based healthcare system to the user. Furthermore, this study also focuses on the application of Internet-assisted technology to provide better healthcare platform and overcome the worldwide pandemic emergency of COVID-19. In summary, this chapter enlightens the potentials and promises of various IoT-based computational frameworks for the development of an easily accessible, simple to handle, time-efficient, and almost low-cost healthcare system with its technological constraints and future advancement. © 2021, The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1708-1723, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102757

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 is a global warning for the healthcare system. The spike protein of virus SARS-CoV-2 is significant because of two reasons. Firstly, the spike protein of this virus binds with the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor. Secondly, it has several antigenic regions that might be targeted for vaccine development. However, the structural analytical data for the spike protein of this virus is not available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we performed an analysis to understand the structural two subunits of S glycoprotein (S gp) of SARS-CoV-2. Further, an analysis of secondary structure components and the tertiary structure analysis of RBD was carried out. We also performed molecular interaction analysis between S gp of this virus and hACE2 as well as between SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 to compare the binding properties of these two viruses. RESULTS: We noted that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 form eleven hydrogen bonds, while the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor form seven hydrogen bonds, indicating that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 receptor is more stable than SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor. The pairwise sequence alignment of S gp SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 shows several conserved residues of these two proteins. Besides, conserved pattern analysis of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 revealed the presence of several highly conserved regions for these two proteins. The molecular dynamics simulation shows a stable interplay between SARS-CoV-2 S gp with the hACE2 receptor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study might help determine the SARS-CoV-2 virus entrance mechanism into the human cell. Moreover, the understanding of the conserved regions may help in the process of therapeutic development from the infection of the deadly virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Glycosylation , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Subunits
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11409-11420, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease and it has become an epidemic worldwide in recent decades. In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation, diabetes has become a serious health concern since large numbers of patients are vulnerable to die from the virus. Thus, diabetic patients affected by COVID-19 cause a major health crisis now. Reports show that large occurrence of diabetes makes it a serious comorbidity in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is crucial to understand how COVID-19 affects diabetes patients. This paper has reviewed published literature extensively to understand the pattern, importance, care, and medication. RESULTS: This review summarizes the association between COVID-19 and diabetes in terms of susceptibility for pneumonia and other diseases. It also discusses the harshness of COVID-19 with diabetes populations and immunological impacts. It further adds the ACE2 receptor role in diabetes with COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Finally, this paper illustrates different types of diabetes management techniques, such as blood glucose management, self-management, mental health management, and therapeutic management. It also summarizes the current knowledge about diabetic patients with COVID-19 to fight this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Pancreas/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(7): 4016-4026, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-123794

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the outbreak of severe respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, China and is now spreading rapidly throughout the world. The prompt outbreak of COVID-19 and its quick spread without any controllable measure defines the severity of the situation. In this crisis, a collective pool of knowledge about the advancement of clinical diagnostic and management for COVID-19 is a prerequisite. Here, we summarize all the available updates on the multidisciplinary approaches for the advancement of diagnosis and proposed therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Moreover, the review discusses different aspects of the COVID-19, including its epidemiology; incubation period; the general clinical features of patients; the clinical features of intensive care unit (ICU) patients; SARS-CoV-2 infection in the presence of co-morbid diseases and the clinical features of pediatric patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2. Advances in various diagnostic approaches, such as the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) imaging; and other modern diagnostic methods, for this infection have been highlighted. However, due to the unavailability of adequate evidence, presently there are no officially approved drugs or vaccines available against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we have discussed various therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 under different categories, like the possible treatment plans with drug (antiviral drugs and anti-cytokines) therapy for disease prevention. Lastly, potentials candidates for the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described. Collectively, the review provides an overview of the SARS-CoV-2 infection outbreak along with the recent advancements and strategies for diagnosis and therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Vaccines
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