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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2147375, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Identifying which patients with COVID-19 are likely to benefit from COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) treatment may have a large public health impact. Objective: To develop an index for predicting the expected relative treatment benefit from CCP compared with treatment without CCP for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 using patients' baseline characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study used data from the COMPILE study, ie, a meta-analysis of pooled individual patient data from 8 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating CCP vs control in adults hospitalized for COVID-19 who were not receiving mechanical ventilation at randomization. A combination of baseline characteristics, termed the treatment benefit index (TBI), was developed based on 2287 patients in COMPILE using a proportional odds model, with baseline characteristics selected via cross-validation. The TBI was externally validated on 4 external data sets: the Expanded Access Program (1896 participants), a study conducted under Emergency Use Authorization (210 participants), and 2 RCTs (with 80 and 309 participants). Exposure: Receipt of CCP. Main Outcomes and Measures: World Health Organization (WHO) 11-point ordinal COVID-19 clinical status scale and 2 derivatives of it (ie, WHO score of 7-10, indicating mechanical ventilation to death, and WHO score of 10, indicating death) at day 14 and day 28 after randomization. Day 14 WHO 11-point ordinal scale was used as the primary outcome to develop the TBI. Results: A total of 2287 patients were included in the derivation cohort, with a mean (SD) age of 60.3 (15.2) years and 815 (35.6%) women. The TBI provided a continuous gradation of benefit, and, for clinical utility, it was operationalized into groups of expected large clinical benefit (B1; 629 participants in the derivation cohort [27.5%]), moderate benefit (B2; 953 [41.7%]), and potential harm or no benefit (B3; 705 [30.8%]). Patients with preexisting conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases), with blood type A or AB, and at an early COVID-19 stage (low baseline WHO scores) were expected to benefit most, while those without preexisting conditions and at more advanced stages of COVID-19 could potentially be harmed. In the derivation cohort, odds ratios for worse outcome, where smaller odds ratios indicate larger benefit from CCP, were 0.69 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.48-1.06) for B1, 0.82 (95% CrI, 0.61-1.11) for B2, and 1.58 (95% CrI, 1.14-2.17) for B3. Testing on 4 external datasets supported the validation of the derived TBIs. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that the CCP TBI is a simple tool that can quantify the relative benefit from CCP treatment for an individual patient hospitalized with COVID-19 that can be used to guide treatment recommendations. The TBI precision medicine approach could be especially helpful in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Patient Selection , Plasma , Therapeutic Index , Aged , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 383, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636827

ABSTRACT

A single center open label phase 2 randomised control trial (Clinical Trial Registry of India No. CTRI/2020/05/025209) was done to assess clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy. At the Infectious Diseases and Beleghata General Hospital in Kolkata, India, 80 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 disease and fulfilling the inclusion criteria (aged more than 18 years, with either mild ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 200-300 or moderate ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 100-200, not on mechanical ventilation) were recruited and randomized into either standard of care (SOC) arm (N = 40) or the convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) arm (N = 40). Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality by day 30 of enrolment and immunological correlates of response to therapy if any, for which plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines was quantitated before and after intervention to assess the effect of CPT on the systemic hyper-inflammation encountered in these patients. The secondary outcomes were recovery from ARDS and time taken to negative viral RNA PCR as well as to report any adverse reaction to plasma therapy. Transfused convalescent plasma was characterized in terms of its neutralizing antibody content as well as proteome. The trial was completed and it was found that primary outcome of all-cause mortality was not significantly different among severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS randomized to two treatment arms (Mantel-Haenszel Hazard Ratio 0.6731, 95% confidence interval 0.3010-1.505, with a P value of 0.3424 on Mantel-Cox Log-rank test). No adverse effect was reported with CPT. In severe COVID-19 patients with mild or moderate ARDS no significant clinical benefit was registered in this clinical trial with convalescent plasma therapy in terms of prespecified outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Passive , India , Inflammation , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518484

ABSTRACT

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) led to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A systemic hyper-inflammation characterizes severe COVID-19 disease, often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Blood biomarkers capable of risk stratification are of great importance in effective triage and critical care of severe COVID-19 patients. Flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing were done on peripheral blood cells and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and cytokines were measured from and mass spectrometry-based proteomics was done on plasma samples from an Indian cohort of COVID-19 patients. Publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed for validation of primary data. Statistical analyses were performed to validate risk stratification. We report here higher plasma abundance of suPAR, expressed by an abnormally expanded myeloid cell population, in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The plasma suPAR level was found to be linked to a characteristic plasma proteome, associated with coagulation disorders and complement activation. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis to predict mortality identified a cutoff value of suPAR at 1,996.809 pg/ml (odds ratio: 2.9286, 95% confidence interval 1.0427-8.2257). Lower-than-cutoff suPAR levels were associated with a differential expression of the immune transcriptome as well as favorable clinical outcomes, in terms of both survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0.3615, 95% confidence interval 0.1433-0.912) and faster disease remission in our patient cohort. Thus, we identified suPAR as a key pathogenic circulating molecule linking systemic hyperinflammation to the hypercoagulable state and stratifying clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Proteome/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 565-574, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to significant morbidity and mortality. While most suffer from mild symptoms, some patients progress to severe disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: First, to characterize key cytokines and their dynamics in this hyperinflammatory condition, we assessed abundance and correlative expression of a panel of 48 cytokines in patients progressing to ARDS as compared to patients with mild disease. Then, in an ongoing randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), we analyzed rapid effects of CPT on the systemic cytokine dynamics as a correlate for the level of hypoxia experienced by the patients. RESULTS: We identified an anti-inflammatory role of CPT independent of its neutralizing antibody content. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies, as well as reductions in circulating interleukin-6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, contributed to marked rapid reductions in hypoxia in response to CPT. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY OF INDIA: CTRI/2020/05/025209. http://www.ctri.nic.in/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
5.
ISBT Sci Ser ; 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across 87 million people with more than 1·8 million deaths in the world. As there is no definite treatment modality, the use of convalescent plasma has become increasingly popular worldwide. This study aimed to identify an appropriate strategy of donor recruitment and to evaluate the appropriateness of pre-set plasma donation guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study conducted from May to September 2020, the donors were recruited under the following two circumstances: Group I, patients in the post-COVID-19 follow-up in the clinic, and Group II, patients recovered from COVID-19 recruited through mass and electronic media. A pre-set donor selection criteria and laboratory investigation was designed according to national and international guidelines. Approximately 500 ml of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was collected from recovered individuals in each group by two different cell separators. The overall donor's attendance rate, deferral rate, adverse events and donor compliance was analysed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in attendance in relation to registration between the groups (P < 0·0001). Donor deferral was significantly higher in group II compared with group I. The single most frequent cause of donor deferral was low antibody index (P = 0·0001). The total donor adverse event rate in CCP donation was significantly lower compared with routine plateletpheresis procedures. The donor's compliance to blood centre's protocol was satisfactory in both the groups. CONCLUSION: Recruitment of patients in the post-COVID-19 follow-up in the clinic was more effective than the general recruitment through mass and electronic media for convalescence plasma donation in a resource-constrained blood centre.

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