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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319311

ABSTRACT

Importance: The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early the sign and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which further help in early management of patients. Objective: Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 “SARS” and 2012 “MERS” pandemics. Methods: : The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15 th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neural sign and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological sign and symptoms in COVID-19 patients relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data were analyzed by using the “ MedCalc Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Heterogeneity was investigated (standard I 2 test). Results: : We have collected and screened about a total 2615 articles, finally we have included 31 articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms during the COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which is next tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Conclusion: & Relevance: Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication found with the primary or secondary objective of finding the neurological manifestation in the COVID-19 patients and their mechanism which strengthen the importance to start more precise clinical trials.

2.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 499-510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Till now, no meta-analysis is available to address the clinical profile, risk factors, different interventions, and outcomes among COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (C-ROCM) cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were screened using appropriate keywords from November 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The objectives were to analyze the clinical and microbiological profile, risk factor/comorbidity, intervention, and outcome. "R-metafor package" was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were included. The mean age of presentation of C-ROCM was 54.6 years. The most common presentation was ptosis (72.7%), lid edema (60.6%), proptosis (60.6%), ophthalmoplegia (57.3%), loss of vision (53.7%), facial edema (34.7%), and nasal-blockage (11.8%). Evidence of intracranial spread was seen in 42.8% of cases. Rhizopus was the most common fungus (57.1%) isolated in fungal culture. Among C-ROCM patients, diabetes was the commonest comorbid condition, and the use of corticosteroids related to COVID-19 treatment was the most common risk factor (85.75%). Compared to controlled diabetics, C-ROCM was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetics (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.041-0.544, P = 0.0010). However, no significant association was seen between C-ROCM and COVID-19 severity (OR 0.930, 95% C.I. 0.212-4.087, P = 0.923). For treatment, amphotericin-B was the most common antifungal drug used which was followed by surgical options. However, mortality was high (prevalence 0.344, 95% C.I. 0.205-0.403) despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Although local rhino-orbito symptoms were the first to appear, rapid intracranial extension was seen in a significant number of C-ROCM cases. Uncontrolled diabetes and excessive use of corticosteroid were the most common risk factors present among the C-ROCM cases. High index clinical suspicion is imperative (specifically among COVID-19 patients with diabetes), and routine screening may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
J Crit Care ; 67: 172-181, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521256

ABSTRACT

Ferritin is a known inflammatory biomarker in COVID-19. However, many factors and co-morbidities can confound the level of serum ferritin. This current metaanalysis evaluates serum ferritin level in different severity levels in COVID-19. Studies evaluating serum ferritin level in different clinical contexts (COVID-19 vs. control, mild to moderate vs. severe to critical, non-survivor vs. survivor, organ involvement, ICU and mechanical ventilation requirement) were included (total 9 literature databases searched). Metaanalysis and metaregression was carried out using metaphor "R" package. Compared to control (COVID-19 negative), higher ferritin levels were found among the COVID-19 patients [SMD -0.889 (95% C.I. -1.201, -0.577), I2 = 85%]. Severe to critical COVID-19 patients showed higher ferritin levels compared to mild to moderate COVID-19 patients [SMD 0.882 (0.738, 1.026), I2 = 85%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity was observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age", and "percentage of population with concomitant co-morbidities". Non-survivors had higher serum ferritin level compared to survivors [SMD 0.992 (0.672, 1.172), I2 = 92.33%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age" and "percentage of male sex". Patients requiring ICU [SMD 0.674 (0.515 to 0.833), I2 = 80%] and mechanical ventilation [SMD 0.430 (0.258, 0.602), I2 = 32%] had higher serum ferritin levels compared to those who didn't. To conclude, serum ferritin level may serve as an important biomarker which can aid in COVID-19 management. However, presence of other co-morbid conditions/confounders warrants cautious interpretation.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Regression Analysis
5.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505760

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 is a transmissible disease and has caused havoc throughout the world. The present study identifies the novel potential antiviral inhibitors against the nucleocapsid C-terminal domain that aids in RNA-binding and replication. A total of 485,629 compounds were screened, and MD was performed. The trajectory analysis (DCCM & PCA), structural integrity, and degree of compaction depicted the protein-ligand complex stability (PDB-PISA and Rgyr). Results obtained from screening shortlists 13 compounds possessing high Docking score. Further, seven compounds had a permissible RMSD limit (3 Å), with robust RMSF. Post-MD analysis of the top two compounds (204 and 502), DCCM & PCA analysis show a positive atomic displacements correlation among residues of active sites-dimer (Chain A and Chain B) & residual clustering. The ΔGint of RNA-bound (-83.5 kcal/mol) and drug-bound N-CTD-204 (-40.8 kcal/mol) and 502(-39.7 kcal/mol) as compared to Apo (-35.95 kcal/mol) suggests stabilization of protein, with less RNA-binding possibility. The Rgyr values depict the loss of compactness on RNA-binding when compared to the drug-bound N-CTD complex. Further, overlapping the protein complexes (0 ns and 100 ns) display significant changes in RMSD of the protein (204-2.07 Å and 502-1.89 Å) as compared to the Apo (1.72 Å) and RNA-bound form (1.76 Å), suggesting strong interaction for compound 204 as compared to 502. ADMET profiling indicates that these compounds can be used for further experiments (in vitro and pre-clinical). Compound 204 could be a promising candidate for targeting the N-protein-RNA assembly and viral replication.

6.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474134

ABSTRACT

During this COVID-19 pandemic, except steroid, none of the therapeutic measures have showed any evidence of efficacy. Traditionally jala-neti using lukewarm salted water remains a yogic way of maintaining upper airway hygiene. Saline irrigation decreases the concentration of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine, leukotriene etc.) in nasal secretions, reduces the severity and frequency of sinusitis, reduce need of antibiotic therapy and restores competency of nasal mucosa. Jala-neti is an integral part of six cleansing techniques of yogic kriyas practised in India since thousands of years. Jala-neti can clean the upper airways, prevents colonization of infectious agents, removes foreign bodies, prevents stasis of mucous and subsequently enhances the drainage of paranasal sinuses and maintain health. Regular practice of Jala neti improves nasal symptoms and overall health status of patients with sinusitis. Jala-neti sample can even be used for COVID-19 diagnosis. Povidone iodine (PVP-I) has been utilized as a time tested antimicrobial agent with broad spectrum coverage against wide range of bacteria and viruses. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of PVP-I was seen at a concentration as low as 0.45%. PVP-I is generally well tolerated upto 5%, however nasal ciliotoxicity is reported at this concentration, however, this toxicity is not reported with lower concentrations(1.25% and 0.5%). So, theoretically, by using neti-kriya with povidone iodine (0.5-1%) as irrigation solution can combine and enhance the protection against COVID-19 and this can be an important armor in the fight against COVID-19. However, this hypothesis needs to be validated in real life clinical trial scenario before implementing.

7.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367965

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of a new mutant strain of SARS-coronavirus (CoV-2) is enormously essential to identify a targeted drug and for the development of the vaccine. In this article, we systematically reviewed the different mutation strains (variant of concern [VOC] and variant of interest [VOI]) which were found in different countries such as the UK, Singapore, China, Germany, Vietnam, Western Africa, Dublin, Ireland, Brazil, Iran, Italy, France, America, and Philippines. We searched four literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, NATURE, and Willey online library) with suitable keywords and the time filter was November 2019 to June 16, 2021. To understand the worldwide spread of variants of SARS-CoV-2, we included a total of 27 articles of case reports, clinical and observational studies in the systematic review. However, these variants mostly spread because of their ability to increase transmission, virulence, and escape immunity. So, in this paper is we found mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 like VOCs that are found in different regions across the globe are ALPHA strain in the U.K, BETA strain in South Africa, GAMMA strain in Brazil, Gamma and Beta strains in European Countries, and some VOIs like Theta variant in the Philippines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 317-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367964

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, parallel opportunistic infections have also been emerging as another disease spectrum. Among all these opportunistic infection, mucormycosis has become a matter of concern with its rapid increase of cases with rapid spread as compared to pre-COVID-19 era. Cases have been reported in post-COVID-19-related immune suppression along with the presence of comorbidity which adds on the deadly outcome. There is no systematic review addressing the issue of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. This is the first systematic review of published studies of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the real scenario of the disease statement including all the published studies from first November 2019 to 30th June to analyze the contemporary epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor, prognosis, and treatment outcome of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis. A comprehensive literature search was done in following databases, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using keywords mucormycosis, rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis, COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 (from November 01, 2019 to June 30, 2021). Our study shows that, while corticosteroids have proved to be lifesaving in severe to critical COVID-19 patients, its indiscriminate use has come with its price of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis epidemic, especially in India especially in patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus with higher mortality. Corticosteroid use should be monitored and all COVID-19 patients should be closely evaluated/monitored for sequelae of immunosuppression following treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/mortality , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/immunology , Orbital Diseases/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355898

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12888, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275957

ABSTRACT

The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early signs and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which will further help in early management of patients. Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 "SARS" and 2012 "MERS" pandemics. The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neurological signs and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross-sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological signs and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data was analyzed by using the "MedCalc" Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Standard I2 test was used to analyze the heterogeneity. We have collected and screened about a total 2615articles, finally we have included 31articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which was further tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication had primary or secondary objectives of searching neurological manifestations in the COVID-19 patients and the pathogenic mechanism which will subsequently strengthen the importance to start more prospective clinical trials. The prevalence of neurological signs and symptoms were taken as primary objective. Thereafter, the prevalence of each CNS/PNS symptoms was categorized and their prevalence studied. The selection of Bagheri et al., 2020 may be discussed because they have done the cross-sectional study with the neurological finding and correlated the data with prevalence of the COVID-19 positive patients. The proportion of patients presenting with neurological outcome and clinical/PCR positivity were done. We had searched and followed all the possible online/web source, still the data collection process may remain a limitation of work due to addition of several publications on COVID-19 every day. Due to lack of data of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, we have included the case reports, MERS and COVID-19 in CNS/PNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence
11.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270486

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174233, 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260717

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of pyrimidone which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotate to orotate. Orotate is utilized in the biosynthesis of uridine-monophosphate. DHODH inhibitors have shown promise as antiviral agent against Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, Influenza, Epstein Barr and Picornavirus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of DHODH inhibitors are also coming up. In this review, we have reviewed the safety and efficacy of approved DHODH inhibitors (leflunomide and teriflunomide) against COVID-19. In target-centered in silico studies, leflunomide showed favorable binding to active site of MPro and spike: ACE2 interface. In artificial-intelligence/machine-learning based studies, leflunomide was among the top 50 ligands targeting spike: ACE2 interaction. Leflunomide is also found to interact with differentially regulated pathways [identified by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and reactome pathway analysis of host transcriptome data] in cogena based drug-repurposing studies. Based on GSEA (gene set enrichment analysis), leflunomide was found to target pathways enriched in COVID-19. In vitro, both leflunomide (EC50 41.49 ± 8.8 µmol/L) and teriflunomide (EC50 26 µmol/L) showed SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. In clinical studies, leflunomide showed significant benefit in terms of decreasing the duration of viral shredding, duration of hospital stay and severity of infection. However, no advantage was seen while combining leflunomide and IFN alpha-2a among patients with prolonged post symptomatic viral shredding. Common adverse effects of leflunomide were hyperlipidemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and liver-function alteration. Leflunomide/teriflunomide may serve as an agent of importance to achieve faster virological clearance in COVID-19, however, findings needs to be validated in bigger sized placebo controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Crotonates/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , Toluidines/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Crotonates/adverse effects , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates/adverse effects , Hydroxybutyrates/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/adverse effects , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Nitriles/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/adverse effects , Toluidines/therapeutic use
13.
Comput Biol Med ; 134: 104495, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230418

ABSTRACT

The advent of SARS-CoV-2 has become a universal health issue with no appropriate cure available to date. The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein combines viral genomic RNA into a ribonucleoprotein and protects the viral genome from the host's nucleases. Structurally, the N protein comprises two independent domains: the N-terminal domain (NTD) for RNA-binding and C-terminal domain (CTD) involved in RNA-binding, protein dimerization, and nucleocapsid stabilization. The present study explains the structural aspects associated with the involvement of nucleocapsid C-terminal domain in the subunit assembly that helps the RNA binding and further stabilizing the virus assembly by protecting RNA from the hosts exonucleases degradation. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the N-CTD and RNA complex suggests two active sites (site I: a monomer) and (site II: a dimer) with structural stability (RMSD: ~2 Å), Cα fluctuations (RMSF: ~3 Å) and strong protein-ligand interactions were estimated through the SiteMap module of Schrodinger. Virtual screening of 2456 FDA-approved drugs using structure-based docking identified top two leads distinctively against Site-I (monomer): Ceftaroline fosamil (MM-GBSA = -47.12 kcal/mol) and Cefoperazone (-45.84 kcal/mol); and against Site-II (dimer): Boceprevir, (an antiviral protease inhibitor, -106.78 kcal/mol) and Ceftaroline fosamil (-99.55 kcal/mol). The DCCM and PCA of drugs Ceftaroline fosamil (PC1+PC2 = 71.9%) and Boceprevir (PC1 +PC2 = 61.6%) show significant correlated residue motions which suggests highly induced conformational changes in the N-CTD dimer. Therefore, we propose N-CTD as a druggable target with two active binding sites (monomer and dimer) involved in specific RNA binding and stability. The RNA binding site with Ceftaroline fosamil binding can prevent viral assembly and can act as an antiviral for coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Catalytic Domain , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226478

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). One of the striking targets amongst all the proteins in coronavirus is the main protease (Mpro), as it plays vital biological roles in replication and maturation of the virus, and hence the potential target. The aim of this study is to repurpose the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved molecules via computer-aided drug designing against Mpro (PDB ID: 6Y2F) of SARS CoV-2 due to its high x-ray resolution of 1.95 Å as compared to other published Mprostructures. High Through Virtual Screening (HTVS) of 2456 FDA approved drugs using structure-based docking were analyzed. Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed to check the overall structural stability (RMSD), Cα fluctuations (RMSF) and protein-ligand interactions. Further, trajectory analysis was performed to assess the binding quality by exploiting the protein-residue motion cross correlation (DCCM) and binding free energy (MM/GBSA). Tenofovir, an antiretroviral for HIV-proteases and Terlipressin, a vasoconstrictor show stable RMSD, RMSF, better MM/GBSA with good cross correlation as compared to the Apo and O6K. Moreover, the results show concurrence with Nelfinavir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir which have shown significant inhibition in in vitro studies. Therefore, we conclude that Tenofovir and Terlipresssin might also show protease inhibition but are still open to clinical validation in case of SARS-CoV 2 treatment.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

15.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(1): 63-72, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented collaborative effort among industry, academia, regulatory bodies, and governments with huge financial investments. Scientists and researchers from India also left no stone unturned to find therapeutic and preventive measures against COVID-19. Indian pharmaceutical companies are one of the leading manufacturers of vaccine in the world, are utilizing its capacity to its maximum, and are one among the forerunners in vaccine research against COVID-19 across the globe. In this systematic review, the information regarding contribution of Indian scientists toward COVID-19 research has been gathered from various news articles across Google platform apart from searching PubMed, WHO site, COVID-19 vaccine tracker, CTRI, clinicaltrials.gov, and websites of pharmaceutical companies. The article summarizes and highlights the various therapeutic and vaccine candidates, diagnostic kits, treatment agents, and technology being developed and tested by Indian researcher community against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computer-Aided Design , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Repositioning , Humans , India , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
16.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 52(6): 535-550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119594

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the use of steroids in the management of COVID-19 has been addressed by a few systematic review and meta-analysis, however, they also used data from "SARS-CoV" and "MERS-CoV." Again, most of these studies addressed only one severity category of patients or addressed only one efficacy endpoint (mortality). In this context, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy among all severity categories of patients with COVID-19 (mild to moderate and severe to critical category) in terms of "mortality," "requirement of mechanical ventilation," "requirement of ICU" and clinical cure parameters. METHODS: 11 databases were screened. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or high quality (on the basis of risk of bias analysis) comparative-observational studies were included in the analysis. RevMan5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies (3 RCT and 12 comparative-observational studies) were included. In the mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 population, treatment with dexamethasone showed significant protection against mortality (single study). Among severe and critically ill combined population, steroid administration was significantly associated with lowered mortality (risk ratio [RR] 0.83 [0.76-0.910]), lowered requirement of mechanical ventilation (RR 0.59 [0.51-0.69]), decreased requirement of intensive care unit (ICU) (RR 0.62 [0.45-0.86]), lowered length of ICU stay (single-study) and decreased duration of mechanical ventilation (two-studies). In mild to moderate population, steroid treatment was associated with a higher "duration of hospital stay," while no difference was seen in other domains. In patients at risk of progression to "acute respiratory distress syndrome," steroid administration was associated with "reduced requirement of mechanical ventilation" (single-study). CONCLUSION: This study guides the use of steroid across patients with different severity categories of COVID-19. Among mechanically ventilated patients, steroid therapy may be beneficial in terms of reduced mortality. Among "severe and critical" patients; steroid therapy was associated with lowered mortality, decreased requirement of mechanical ventilation, and ICU. However, no benefit was observed in "mild to moderate" population. To conclude, among properly selected patient populations (based-upon clinical severity and biomarker status), steroid administration may prove beneficial in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Steroids/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 149: 110539, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091701

ABSTRACT

Using folic acid (FA) as placebo complicates the interpretation of the findings of few RCTs evaluating safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis in COVID-19. FA is found to bind to furin-protease and spike: ACE2 interface of SARS-CoV-2. In clinical studies, FA level was lowest among severe patients compared to mild and moderate disease. A single controlled study reported the benefit of combination of folic acid with Pyridoxine & cyanocobalamin in terms of clinical and laboratory cure parameters. One hypothesis associates the differences in geographical variation of disease severity with prevalence of methyl tertahydrofolic acid reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism. Other possible domains, where FA is hypothesized to be beneficial are COVID-19 associated pulmonary hypertension and hyper-homocystinemia. So, scientific justification of using folic acid as placebo in COVID-19 trials seems scientifically not credible and this may be one of the major factors for failure of many agents. We need to be more careful in choosing our placebo especially when conducting a placebo controlled trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Folic Acid/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Placebos , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hyperhomocysteinemia/complications , Hyperhomocysteinemia/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Models, Theoretical , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Protein Binding , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design
18.
Tissue Cell ; 70: 101497, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In-Vitro/Cellular evidence is the backbone and vital proof of concept during the development of novel therapeutics as well as drugs repurposing against COVID-19. Choosing an ideal in-vitro model is vital as the virus entry is through ACE2, CD147, and TMPRSS2 dependant and very specific. In this regard, this is the first systematic review addressing the importance of specific cell lines used as potential in-vitro models in the isolation, pathogenesis, and therapeutics for SARS-COV-2. METHODS: We searched 17 literature databases with appropriate keywords, and identified 1173 non-duplicate studies. In the present study, 71 articles are included after a careful, thorough screening of the titles and their abstracts for possible inclusion using predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria (PRISMA Guidelines). RESULTS: In the current study, we compiled cell culture-based studies for SARS-CoV-2 and found the best compatible In-Vitro models for SARS-CoV-2 (Vero, VeroE6, HEK293 as well as its variants, Huh-7, Calu-3 2B4, and Caco2). Among other essential cell lines used include LLC-MK2, MDCKII, BHK-21, HepG2, A549,T cell leukemia (MT-2), stems cells based cell line DYR0100for differentiation assays, and embryo-specific NIH3T3 cell line for vaccine production. CONCLUSION: The Present study provides a detailed summary of all the drugs/compounds screened for drug repurposing and discovery purpose using the in-vitro models for SARS-CoV-2 along with isolation, pathogenesis and vaccine production. This study also suggests that after careful evaluation of all the cell line based studies, Kidney cells (VeroE6, HEK293 along with their clones), liver Huh-7cells, respiratory Calu-3 cells, and intestinal Caco-2 are the most widely used in-vitro models for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
20.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 52(5): 414-421, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962440

ABSTRACT

Multiple options are being tried for the management of 2019-nCoV infection since its pandemic started. Favipiravir (FPV) is one of drugs, which is also being tried for the management of 2019-nCoV infection. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FPV in published literature. Comparative randomized or nonrandomized controlled clinical trials comparing FPV to the standard of care (SOC)/control or other antiviral agent/combinations were included. A total of 12 databases were searched and identify four studies which were further used for final analysis. The data analysis was done as pooled prevalence using a random effect model by "RevMan manager version 5.4.1 and "R" software. The point estimate, odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for dichotomous data. In the present study, the marginal beneficial effect was seen in the FPV group in overall clinical improvement comparison to SOC/control, i.e., (4 studies, log OR [95% CI] (-0.19 [-0.51, 0.13]). However, in all other outcomes, it was found to be comparable to the SOC/control arm namely "clinical improvement on day 7-10" (3 studies, OR [95% CI] 1.63 [1.07, 2.48]) while "clinical improvement on day 10-14" (3 studies, OR [95% CI] 1.37 [0.24, 7.82]) and viral negativity was seen (4 studies, OR [95% CI] 1.91 [0.91, 4.01]). No difference in efficacy was found between FPV versus lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol groups. Regarding adverse effects, except for the occurrence of rash (higher in the FPV group), safety was comparable to SOC. In our study, there was a marginal difference between the FPV and the SOC arm in terms of "clinical improvement" on day 7-10 or 10-14, and "virological negativity" on day 10-14." However, some benefit was observed in a few studies, but it was also comparable to the control drugs or SOC.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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