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Nat Med ; 29(1): 190-202, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287074


Primary aldosteronism (PA) due to a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma is a common cause of hypertension. This can be cured, or greatly improved, by adrenal surgery. However, the invasive nature of the standard pre-surgical investigation contributes to fewer than 1% of patients with PA being offered the chance of a cure. The primary objective of our prospective study of 143 patients with PA ( NCT02945904 ) was to compare the accuracy of a non-invasive test, [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography computed tomography (MTO) scanning, with adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in predicting the biochemical remission of PA and the resolution of hypertension after surgery. A total of 128 patients reached 6- to 9-month follow-up, with 78 (61%) treated surgically and 50 (39%) managed medically. Of the 78 patients receiving surgery, 77 achieved one or more PA surgical outcome criterion for success. The accuracies of MTO at predicting biochemical and clinical success following adrenalectomy were, respectively, 72.7 and 65.4%. For AVS, the accuracies were 63.6 and 61.5%. MTO was not significantly superior, but the differences of 9.1% (95% confidence interval = -6.5 to 24.1%) and 3.8% (95% confidence interval = -11.9 to 9.4) lay within the pre-specified -17% margin for non-inferiority (P = 0.00055 and P = 0.0077, respectively). Of 24 serious adverse events, none was considered related to either investigation and 22 were fully resolved. MTO enables non-invasive diagnosis of unilateral PA.

Hyperaldosteronism , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Humans , Adrenal Glands/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Glands/surgery , Adrenal Glands/blood supply , Hyperaldosteronism/diagnostic imaging , Hyperaldosteronism/surgery , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
Science ; 377(6603): eabq1841, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891726


The Omicron, or Pango lineage B.1.1.529, variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) carries multiple spike mutations with high transmissibility and partial neutralizing antibody (nAb) escape. Vaccinated individuals show protection against severe disease, often attributed to primed cellular immunity. We investigated T and B cell immunity against B.1.1.529 in triple BioNTech BNT162b2 messenger RNA-vaccinated health care workers (HCWs) with different SARS-CoV-2 infection histories. B and T cell immunity against previous variants of concern was enhanced in triple-vaccinated individuals, but the magnitude of T and B cell responses against B.1.1.529 spike protein was reduced. Immune imprinting by infection with the earlier B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant resulted in less durable binding antibody against B.1.1.529. Previously infection-naïve HCWs who became infected during the B.1.1.529 wave showed enhanced immunity against earlier variants but reduced nAb potency and T cell responses against B.1.1.529 itself. Previous Wuhan Hu-1 infection abrogated T cell recognition and any enhanced cross-reactive neutralizing immunity on infection with B.1.1.529.

B-Lymphocytes , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 179, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068028


Background: Most biomedical research has focused on sampling COVID-19 patients presenting to hospital with advanced disease, with less focus on the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. We established a bioresource with serial sampling of health care workers (HCWs) designed to obtain samples before and during mainly mild disease, with follow-up sampling to evaluate the quality and duration of immune memory. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on HCWs from three hospital sites in London, initially at a single centre (recruited just prior to first peak community transmission in London), but then extended to multiple sites 3 weeks later (recruitment still ongoing, target n=1,000). Asymptomatic participants attending work complete a health questionnaire, and provide a nasal swab (for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR tests) and blood samples (mononuclear cells, serum, plasma, RNA and DNA are biobanked) at 16 weekly study visits, and at 6 and 12 months. Results: Preliminary baseline results for the first 731 HCWs (400 single-centre, 331 multicentre extension) are presented. Mean age was 38±11 years; 67% are female, 31% nurses, 20% doctors, and 19% work in intensive care units. COVID-19-associated risk factors were: 37% black, Asian or minority ethnicities; 18% smokers; 13% obesity; 11% asthma; 7% hypertension and 2% diabetes mellitus. At baseline, 41% reported symptoms in the preceding 2 weeks. Preliminary test results from the initial cohort (n=400) are available: PCR at baseline for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 28 of 396 (7.1%, 95% CI 4.9-10.0%) and 15 of 385 (3.9%, 2.4-6.3%) had circulating IgG antibodies. Conclusions: This COVID-19 bioresource established just before the peak of infections in the UK will provide longitudinal assessments of incident infection and immune responses in HCWs through the natural time course of disease and convalescence. The samples and data from this bioresource are available to academic collaborators by application