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1.
Inorganic chemistry communications ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1489665

ABSTRACT

Graphical abstract Piano-stool water-soluble binuclear organometallic Ru-p-cymene complex was synthesized and characterized. The complex exhibited superior activity than cisplatin against A549, HeLa, HepG-2, T24 and EA.hy926 cancer cells. The compounds showed potential binding ability towards the spike protein and main protease of SARS-CoV-2. A water-soluble binuclear organometallic Ru-p-cymene complex [Ru(η6-p-cymene)(η2-L)]2 (1) was prepared from (E)-2-((1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-N-phenylhydrazine-1-carbothioamide (HL) and [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 in methanol at room temperature under inert atmosphere. The structure of binuclear complex was analyzed by UV-Visible, FT-IR, NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. The solid-state structure of the complex was ascertained by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The complex exhibited pseudo-octahedral (piano-stool) geometry around Ru(II) ion. The cytotoxic property of the ligand and complex along with cisplatin was investigated against A549-lung, MCF7-breast, HeLa-cervical, HepG-2-liver, T24-urinary bladder and EA.hy926-endothelial cancer cells, and Vero-kidney epithelial normal cells. The complex exhibited superior activity than cisplatin against A549, HeLa and T24 cancer cells with the IC50 values of 7.70, 11.2, and 5.05 µM, respectively. The complexes were cytotoxic specifically to the cancer cells. Molecular docking studies showed good binding potential of the ligand and complex with the spike protein and main protease of SARS-CoV-2, indicating the promising role of these compounds as antiviral compounds.

2.
J Mol Struct ; 1250: 131782, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474901

ABSTRACT

Two heterocyclic azole compounds, 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one (SVS1) and 5-(1H-indol-3-yl)-4-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (SVS2) were obtained unexpectedly from 2-aminothiophenol and 4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde (for SVS1), and (E)-2-((1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-N-methylhydrazine-1-carbothioamide in the presence of anhydrous FeCl3 (for SVS2), respectively. The compounds were well characterized by analytical and spectroscopic tools. The molecular structures of both the compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The results obtained from density functional theory (DFT) study revealed the molecular geometry and electron distribution of the compounds, which were correlated well with the three-dimensional structures obtained from the single crystal XRD. DMol3 was used to calculate quantum chemical parameters [chemical potential (µ), global hardness (η), global softness (σ), absolute electronegativity (χ) and electrophilicity index (ω)] of SVS1 and SVS2. Molecular docking study was performed to elucidate the binding ability of SVS1 and SVS2 with SARS-CoV-2 main protease and human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) molecular targets. Interestingly, the binding efficiency of the compounds with the molecular targets was comparable with that of remdesivir (SARS-CoV-2), chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. SVS1 showed better docking energy than SVS2. The molecular docking study was complemented by molecular dynamics simulation study of SARS-CoV-2 main protease-SVS1 complex, which further exemplified the binding ability of SVS1 with the target. In addition, SVS1, SVS2 and cisplatin were assessed for their cytotoxicity against a panel of three human cancer cells such as HepG-2 (hepatic carcinoma), T24 (bladder) and EA.hy926 (endothelial), as well as Vero (kidney epithelial cells extracted from an African green monkey) normal cells using MTT assay. The results showed that SVS2 has significant cytotoxicity against HepG-2 and EA.hy926 cells with the IC50 values of 33.8 µM (IC50 = 49.9 µM-cisplatin and 8.6 µM-doxorubicin) and 29.2 (IC50 = 26.6 µM-cisplatin and 3.8 µM-doxorubicin), respectively.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 59(23): 17109-17122, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387106

ABSTRACT

Metal complexes have numerous applications in the current era, particularly in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry and catalysis. A novel synthetic approach for the same is always a beneficial addition to the literature. Henceforth, for the first time, we report the formation of three new Pd(II) complexes through the Michael addition pathway. Three chromone-based thiosemicarbazone ligands (SVSL1-SVSL3) and Pd(II) complexes (1-3) were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic tools. The Michael addition pathway for the formation of complexes was confirmed by spectroscopic studies. Distorted square planar structure of complex 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-3 were subjected to DNA- and BSA-binding studies. The complex with cyclohexyl substituent on the terminal N of thiosemicarbazone (3) showed the highest binding efficacy toward these biomolecules, which was further understood through molecular docking studies. The anticancer potential of these complexes was studied preliminarily by using MTT assay in cancer and normal cell lines along with the benchmark drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine). It was found that complex 3 was highly toxic toward MDA-MB-231 and AsPC-1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.9 µM, respectively, and was more efficient than the standard drugs. The programmed cell death mechanism of the complexes in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells was confirmed. Furthermore, the complexes induced apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway. Conveniently, all the complexes showed less toxicity (≥50 µM) against MCF-10a normal cell line. Molecular docking studies were performed with VEGFR2, EGFR, and SARS-CoV-2 main protease to illustrate the binding efficiency of the complexes with these receptors. To our surprise, binding potential of the complexes with SARS-CoV-2 main protease was higher than that with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromones/chemical synthesis , Chromones/metabolism , Chromones/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/chemical synthesis , Coordination Complexes/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Intercalating Agents/chemical synthesis , Intercalating Agents/metabolism , Intercalating Agents/pharmacology , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Palladium/chemistry , Protein Binding , Thiosemicarbazones/chemical synthesis , Thiosemicarbazones/metabolism , Thiosemicarbazones/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
4.
Dalton Trans ; 50(35): 12226-12233, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358359

ABSTRACT

Numerous organic molecules are known to inhibit the main protease of SARS-CoV-2, (SC2Mpro), a key component in viral replication of the 2019 novel coronavirus. We explore the hypothesis that zinc ions, long used as a medicinal supplement and known to support immune function, bind to the SC2Mpro enzyme in combination with lipophilic tropolone and thiotropolone ligands, L, block substrate docking, and inhibit function. This study combines synthetic inorganic chemistry, in vitro protease activity assays, and computational modeling. While the ligands themselves have half maximal inhibition concentrations, IC50, for SC2Mpro in the 8-34 µM range, the IC50 values are ca. 100 nM for Zn(NO3)2 which are further enhanced in Zn-L combinations (59-97 nM). Isolation of the Zn(L)2 binary complexes and characterization of their ability to undergo ligand displacement is the basis for computational modeling of the chemical features of the enzyme inhibition. Blind docking onto the SC2Mpro enzyme surface using a modified Autodock4 protocol found preferential binding into the active site pocket. Such Zn-L combinations orient so as to permit dative bonding of Zn(L)+ to basic active site residues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tropolone/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tropolone/analogs & derivatives , Zinc/chemistry
5.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104967, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213051

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, over 200 countries face a wellbeing emergency because of epidemiological disease COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It will cause a very high effect on the world's economy and the worldwide health sector. The present work is an investigation of the newly synthesized 4-benzyl-1-(2,4,6-trimethyl-benzyl)-piperidine (M1BZP) molecule's inhibitory potential against important protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 using computational approaches. M1BZP crystallizes in monoclinic type with P1211 space group. For the title compound M1BZP, spectroscopic characterization like 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, were carried out. The geometry of the compound had been optimized by the DFT method and its results were compared with the X-ray diffraction data. The calculated energies for the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) showed the stability and reactivity of the title compound. Intermolecular interactions in the crystal network were determined using Hirshfeld surface analyses. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) picture was drawn using the same level of theory to visualize the chemical reactivity and charge distribution on the molecule. Molecular docking study performed for the synthesized compound revealed an efficient interaction with the COVID-19 protease and resulted in good activities. We hope the present study would help workers in the field to develop potential vaccines and therapeutics against the novel coronavirus. Virtual ADME studies were carried out as well and a relationship between biological, electronic, and physicochemical qualifications of the target compound was determined. Toxicity prediction by computational technique for the title compound was also carried out.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Piperidines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Density Functional Theory , Half-Life , Humans , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Piperidines/chemical synthesis , Piperidines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
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