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1.
Stat Biosci ; : 1, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437332

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s12561-021-09320-8.].

2.
Stat Biosci ; : 1-16, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410941

ABSTRACT

To confine the spread of an infectious disease, setting a sensible quarantine time is crucial. To this end, it is imperative to well understand the distribution of incubation times of the disease. Regarding the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, 14-days is commonly taken as a quarantine time to curb the virus spread in balancing the impacts of COVID-19 on diverse aspects of the society, including public health, economy, and humanity perspectives, etc. However, setting a sensible quarantine time is not trivial and it depends on various underlying factors. In this article, we take an angle of examining the distribution of the COVID-19 incubation time using likelihood-based methods. Our study is carried out on a dataset of 178 COVID-19 cases dated from January 20, 2020 to February 29, 2020, with the information of exposure periods and dates of symptom onset collected. To gain a good understanding of possible scenarios, we employ different models to describe incubation times of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that statistically, the 14-day quarantine time may not be long enough to control the probability of an early release of infected individuals to be small. While the size of the study data is not large enough to offer us a definitely acceptable quarantine time, and further in practice, the decision-makers may take account of other factors related to social and economic concerns to set up a practically acceptable quarantine time, our study demonstrates useful methods to determine a reasonable quarantine time from a statistical standpoint. Further, it reveals some associated complexity for fully understanding the COVID-19 incubation time distribution. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12561-021-09320-8.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 814, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065864

ABSTRACT

On the basis of Covid-19-induced pulmonary pathological and vascular changes, we hypothesize that the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug bevacizumab might be beneficial for treating Covid-19 patients. From Feb 15 to April 5, 2020, we conducted a single-arm trial (NCT04275414) and recruited 26 patients from 2-centers (China and Italy) with severe Covid-19, with respiratory rate ≥30 times/min, oxygen saturation ≤93% with ambient air, or partial arterial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspiration O2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2) >100 mmHg and ≤300 mmHg, and diffuse pneumonia confirmed by chest imaging. Followed up for 28 days. Among these, bevacizumab plus standard care markedly improves the PaO2/FiO2 ratios at days 1 and 7. By day 28, 24 (92%) patients show improvement in oxygen-support status, 17 (65%) patients are discharged, and none show worsen oxygen-support status nor die. Significant reduction of lesion areas/ratios are shown in chest computed tomography (CT) or X-ray within 7 days. Of 14 patients with fever, body temperature normalizes within 72 h in 13 (93%) patients. Relative to comparable controls, bevacizumab shows clinical efficacy by improving oxygenation and shortening oxygen-support duration. Our findings suggest bevacizumab plus standard care is highly beneficial for patients with severe Covid-19. Randomized controlled trial is warranted.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Body Temperature/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Fever/prevention & control , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5279

ABSTRACT

A review. Novel coronavirus has seriously threatened people′s health and lives, however, there is no effective drug for treatment. As the main active ingredient of Rhubarb and Polygonum cuspidatum, emodin has various pharmacol. effects and can inhibit the replication and infection of many viruses,such as SARS-CoV,HIV,HBV and influenza virus. It has been widely used in clin. treatments. We reviewed the recent studies on the antiviral effects of emodin,and discussed the clin. possibility of emodin for treating the COVID-19.

5.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5250

ABSTRACT

A review. A number of cases of pneumonia with unknown causes have been found in Wuhan, Hubei province since Dec. 2019, which were later identified as the Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). And the NCP was included in category B infectious diseases and controlled by measures for category A infectious diseases by National Health Commission (NHC) of the People′s Republic of China. At the same time, the NHC has also released several versions of Prevention and Treatment Plan of the Pneumonia Caused by the 2019-nCoV, and in the latest fifth version of the plan, ribavirin was used for antiviral treatment for the first time. Therefore, in order to provide theor. evidence for ribavirin in the fight against novel coronavirus, this paper summarizes the efficays and safety of ribavirin in the treatment of SARS and MERS.

6.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4443

ABSTRACT

A review. The prognosis of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is closely related to host′s immune response. Immunity system plays a vital role in controlling and eliminating virus infections. Thymosin immunomodulators can enhance the body′s cellular immune function. Based on existing evidences, this paper reviews the sources and differences of thymosin drugs, of which the immunomodulatory effects in different populations and application in viral infection are also summarized. In addition, we discuss the roles of thymosin drugs in the prevention and treatment of new coronavirus infections, and put forward suggestions for drug selection and pharmaceutical care, in order to provide reference for clin. decision-making related to new coronavirus pneumonia and improve its prevention and treatment effects.

7.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4201

ABSTRACT

A review. Arbidol has a broad-spectrum antiviral activity, which has a significant role in the prevention and treatment of influenza virus and other respiratory viral infections. As one of the most widely used antiviral drugs, it can significantly improve patients′ clin. symptoms and vital signs, and ultimately improve the quality of life. Currently, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, posing a major threat to the lives of people around the world. Because of its broad spectrum antiviral effect, arbidol has huge potential and has been added to the diagnosis and treatment plan for combating the epidemic in China, and cooperated with other antiviral drug to bring good therapeutic effects to patients. Therefore, based on the previous antiviral treatment of arbidol, the feasibility of arbidol for COVID-19, with a view to providing a reference for rational clin. use were systematically reviewed in this article.

8.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4081

ABSTRACT

In Dec. 2019, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread rapidly to other areas. COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease are the most of all comorbidities, and SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a serious threat to cardiovascular disease, antiviral drugs also have series of adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. These bring great challenges to the treatment of COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease. This article combines the common adverse reactions and interactions of antiviral drugs and cardiovascular drugs to formulate pharmacol. monitoring, provides a reference for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease, promote the safety, rationality and effectiveness of clin. medication.

9.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-3575

ABSTRACT

A review. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has entered a critical period. The treatment of complex and changeable disease requires the cooperation of doctors, nurses and pharmacists. Therefore, from the perspective of pharmaceutical service, this article introduced some important aspects to improve the treatment of COVID-19, including the formulation of pharmaceutical care standards, prescription and medical order review, remote pharmaceutical care for COVID-19, pharmaceutical care for COVID-19 patients in the hospital and science popularization of COVID-19. As an important part of the prevention and control of epidemic disease, clin. pharmacy service has played an active role in ensuring the safety and effectiveness of patients′ medication, thereby making contribution to the effective control of the epidemic.

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