Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control ; 146:104581, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180393

ABSTRACT

We adopt a time series approach to investigate the historical relation between unemployment, life expectancy, and mortality rates. We fit Vector-autoregressions for the overall US population and for groups identified based on gender and race. We use our results to assess the long-run effects of the COVID-19 economic recession on mortality and life expectancy. We estimate the size of the COVID-19-related unemployment shock to be between 2 and 5 times larger than the typical unemployment shock, depending on race and gender, resulting in a significant increase in mortality rates and drop in life expectancy. We also predict that the shock will disproportionately affect African-Americans and women, over a short horizon, while the effects for white men will unfold over longer horizons. These figures translate in more than 0.8 million additional deaths over the next 15 years.

2.
Neurological Sciences ; 43(Supplement 1):S85-S86, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2174348

ABSTRACT

Background: Fingolimod is approved in Italy as a second-line therapy for Relapsing-Remittent Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Its withdrawal may increase the risk of relapses that typically occur after a long hiatus after drug discontinuation and usually require high dosages of intravenous steroids to be controlled. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can affects both Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Like other viruses, it can be a trigger for MS relapses. Here, we describe a case of rebound after Fingolimod discontinuation during a SARS-CoV-2 infection that interestingly appeared soon after drug discontinuation and that was effectively controlled with low dosages of oral steroids. We speculate possible mechanisms underlying this atypical course of disease rebound and postulate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection might have contributed or even caused the disease relapse. Case report: On November 2020, a 44-years-old male with RRMS developed a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and autonomously discontinued Fingolimod for 10 days. A scheduled MRI performed 1 month later showed a voluminous demyelinating lesion in the supratentorial white matter, with contrast enhancement. However, the patient did not present new neurological signs, so he was treated with oral steroids for few days. After 3 months, a cerebralMRI highlighted a marked dimensional reduction of the lesion with no longer appreciable contrast enhancement. Discussion(s): Since radiological relapse appeared soon after drug discontinuation, a contribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection in relapse occurrence may be postulated. Indeed, as SARS-CoV-2 may cause several neurologicalmanifestations, also acting as a trigger for newonset or flares of many immunological disease, it is unclearwhether our patient's relapse was due to drug discontinuation, to covid19 infection or maybe to an additional effect of both. Moreover, the disease rebound was effectively controlled by low dosage of oral steroids, in contrast to what usually happens with drug withdrawal-related disease rebound that need high dosage of intravenous steroids to be controlled. Conclusion(s): The decision to continue or suspend a DMT during a SARS-CoV-2 infection must be individualized, but in presence of mild symptoms drug discontinuation is not recommended. Fingolimod does not seem to expose to a risk of a more severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the risk of aggressive rebound after discontinuation may exceed the risk of infection. In our patient is not surely defined whether the relapse was related to drug withdrawal, to SARS-CoV-2 infection, or maybe to both. However, immunization against SARS-CoV-2 should be recommended for individuals with MS.

3.
Neurological Sciences ; 43(Supplement 1):S62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2174312

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV- 2) shows a keen neurotropism and may affect both Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Among the several neurological manifestations reported, only few cases of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) have been described so far. Here we present two cases of myelitis after a SARS-CoV-2 infection that referred to our Centre in Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy. Cases presentation: In the first case, a 39-year-old man came to our attention for a sudden onset of hypoesthesia started in lower limbs and acutely spread to abdominal and perianal region, associated to bladder dysfunction with urinary retention. A spineMRI showed multiple lesions extending from D4 to D5 involving the dorsal column. Complete blood test including virological and rheumatological screening, serum Anti- Aquaporin 4 and MOG antibodies as well as complete cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain MRI resulted negative. Follow-up brain and spine MRIs did not detect any other lesions. Since the patient had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at nasopharyngeal swab few days prior the occurrence of symptoms, a SARS-CoV-2-related myelitis had been postulated. Interestingly, he received the third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine fourteen days prior, well tolerated at that time. In the second case, a 31-year-old man came to our attention for a burning sensation in the right iliac crest with allodynia and dysesthesia, gradually extended to the right armpit and occurred a few days after having been tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at nasopharyngeal swab. A spine MRI revealed a right posterolateral lesion extended from D10 to D11. Again, complete blood test, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain MRI resulted negative. Thus, a SARS-CoV-2 related myelitis had been hypothesized. Discussion(s): Since SARS-CoV-2 may affect spinal cord and neural structures with different mechanisms, the precise pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-related myelitis is still unclear. Molecular mimicry, bystander activation or a dysregulation of the cytokine cascade triggered by viral proteins are all possible pathogenic mechanisms. Conclusion(s): Among the neurological symptoms related to SARSCoV- 2 infection, ATM is not commonly reported. These two cases may contribute in shedding light on the precise etiopathogenetic mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 -related myelitis.

4.
Neurological Sciences ; 43(Supplement 1):S21-S22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2174263

ABSTRACT

Background: Neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare, severely disabling inflammatory disease. It may be associated with other autoimmune diseases, including Sjogren's syndrome (SS), mainly in those patients with positive anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Although SS may cause itself neurological disorders including myelitis, an association between SS and NMOSD may also be reported. Moreover, in presence of AQP4-IgG positivity and symptoms belonging to NMOSD, an association between SS and NMOSD is considered more frequent than an isolated SS causing neurological disorders. Severe respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may cause a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations as well, including myelitis. Here we describe a case of an elderly woman with SS who, during a possible Sars-Cov-2 infection, developed transverse myelitis and tested positive for AQP4- IgG. Case report: A 75-year-old female with SS came to our attention for the occurrence of left iliac and lowback pain later followed by paresthesia and left lower limb hyposthenia. A spinal MRI revealed a wide intramedullary lesion extended from D7 to D12, with slight contrast enhancement. Interestingly, she tested positive at SARS-CoV-2 swab test, no further confirmed at the following swab tests performed. A brain MRI and complete CSF exams resulted normal, while serum AQP4-IgG resulted positive. In the suspicion of inflammatory transverse myelitis, intravenous steroids were attempted, but after a first clinical and radiological improvement, the patient reported a new decline in her neurological symptoms. She then was treated with immunosuppressive therapy (Rituximab), with a subsequent disappearance of neurological symptoms. Discussion(s): Although the association between NMOSD and SS is well recognized, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. AQP4-IgG are supposed to play a primary role since, when present in SS, they are associated to an increased amount of relapses and a more aggressive disease course. In particular, AQP4-IgG are supposed to cross-react against AQP5 that are widely present, for example, on salivary glands. This may contribute in explaining the association between NMOSD and SS. Furthermore, in our case the uncertain positivity for SARS-CoV-2 concomitant to disease onset is matter of debate, since neurological disorders including NMOSD after SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported in the literature. Conclusion(s): Our case confirms the possible association between NMOSD and SS in elderly people previously reported in Literature. This association must be kept in mind in order to avoid misdiagnosis, especially considering that an early immunosuppressive therapy is effective in disease control.

5.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153816

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several studies highlighted how COVID-19-related isolation and quarantine deeply weighed on the mental health of both the general and psychiatric population. There has been limited investigation about self-harm and impulsivity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective(s): The aim of this study is to evaluate how COVID-19- related lockdown affected self-harm rates in an Italian hospital. Method(s): Data on 59 patients were retrospectively collected from the Emercency deparment of the Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, from March 11 to May 4, 2020 (Italian mass quarantine) and the same periods of 2019 and 2021. Demographics, psychiatric history, substance use/abuse, types of self-harm and admission in psychiatric acute unit (PAU) rates were recorded. Result(s): No statistical difference was reported in self-harm rates [9.8%(26/266) in 2019 vs 13.2%(10/76) in 2020 vs 10.7%(23/215) in 2021;p>0.05]. In 2020 subjects were younger (31.9+/-12.1 vs 39.2+/-14.4,p=0.22;vs 38.1+/-14.4;p=0.15) and had higher incidence of psychiatric history [90%(9/10) vs 73.1%(19/26), p= 0.42;vs 65.2% (15/23),p=0.29],than 2019 and 2021 respectively. Substance use/abuse rates were significantly lower in 2020 compared to 2019 and 2021 [10%(1/10) vs 53.8%(14/26),p= 0.04;vs 60.9% (14/23), p=0.02]. In 2020, subjects committing self-harms were more frequently admitted to PAU compared to 2019 and 2021 [60%(6/10)vs19.2%(5/26),p=0.04;vs 17.4% (4/23), p=0.04). Conclusion(s): Consistent with the literature, lockdown-related measures negatively impacted on younger people, with higher rates of self-harm between March and May 2020. This, together with a higher rate of admissions to PAU, should warn the mental health system to target with specific programs to support adolescents and youngers.

6.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S76, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2153810

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A few studies have analyzed the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on psychiatric Emergency Department (ED) accesses. The pandemic may indeed have influenced the phase of day accesses for patients with psychiatric disorders. Objective(s): Aim of this cross-sectional study is to analyze how COVID-19 weighed on psychiatric patients daily accesses over the course of three years. Method(s): Data on 219 patients were retrospectively collected from the ED in the Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome. According to the stage of the day, accesses were divided into 4 groups: between 00:00 and 6:00;between 6:00 a.m. and 12:00 a.m.;between 12:00 a.m. and 18:00 p.m.;between 18:00 p.m. and 00:00 p.m. Result(s): Performing a regression analysis, a relation was found between psychiatric symptoms, stage of the day admission and year. In 2019 the admissions seem to be homogeneously distributed, however during 2021 and 2020 the admissions rates have a delayed evening trend. Conclusion(s): Despite the low number of accesses considered, the Covid-19 pandemic appears to exert an effect that still lasts in terms of both accesses and worsening or new onset of psychiatric symptoms. Measures taken to prevent the spread of infections may have affected access in the ED of patients in various ways. However, the trend of increasing evening accesses could be related to a saturation of territorial psychiatric services that work mainly until the afternoon. Thus, an enhancement of territorial psychiatric services seems highly necessary to cope with what could be an increase in psychopathology in patients without previous diagnosis.

7.
European journal of public health ; 32(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101652

ABSTRACT

Background Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 compared to people who are not pregnant. Therefore, the CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccination for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, and trying to become pregnant or who may become pregnant in the future. Despite this, low vaccination coverages are reported in this population sub-group. The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of pregnant and breastfeeding women expressing hesitation to the COVID-19 vaccine worldwide. Determinants of vaccine compliance and options suggestedto address vaccine hesitancy were also analyzed. Methods Forty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis and systematic review, selected from scientific articles available in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases between January 1, 2020 and February 6, 2022. The following terms were used for the search strategy: (adherence OR hesitancy OR compliance OR attitude) AND (covid* OR SARS*) AND (vaccin* OR immun*) AND (pregnan* OR post-partum OR breastfeeding OR lactating). Results The vaccine hesitation rate was 48.4% (95%CI=43.4-53.4%). In a sub analysis by study period, the pooled prevalence of vaccine hesitation was 40.0% (95%CI=31.6-46.6%) considering surveys administered in 2020, 58.0% (95%CI=48.9-66.9%) considering surveys administered in the first semester of 2021, and 38.1% (95%CI=25.9-51.2%) considering surveys administered in the second semester of 2021. The main reasons for vaccine hesitation were lack of information about vaccination, opinion that the vaccine is unsafe, and fear of adverse events for both mother and fetus/child. Conclusions In order to achieve high vaccination coverage, a multifactorial approach is needed, requiring major social, scientific, and health efforts. The success of the vaccination campaign in this population depends on the capillarity and consistency of the interventions implemented. Key messages • Vaccine hesitancy can be a determining factor in the success (or otherwise) of the anti-COVID-19 immunization campaign. • Vaccine hesitancy in pregnant and breastfeeding women is a genuine public health concern worldwide.

8.
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists ; 65(Suppl 1):S76-S76, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073715

ABSTRACT

Introduction A few studies have analyzed the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on psychiatric Emergency Department (ED) accesses. The pandemic may indeed have influenced the phase of day accesses for patients with psychiatric disorders. Objectives Aim of this cross-sectional study is to analyze how COVID-19 weighed on psychiatric patients daily accesses over the course of three years. Methods Data on 219 patients were retrospectively collected from the ED in the Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome. According to the stage of the day, accesses were divided into 4 groups: between 00:00 and 6:00;between 6:00 a.m. and 12:00 a.m.;between 12:00 a.m. and 18:00 p.m.;between 18:00 p.m. and 00:00 p.m. Results Performing a regression analysis, a relation was found between psychiatric symptoms, stage of the day admission and year. In 2019 the admissions seem to be homogeneously distributed, however during 2021 and 2020 the admissions rates have a delayed evening trend. Conclusions Despite the low number of accesses considered, the Covid-19 pandemic appears to exert an effect that still lasts in terms of both accesses and worsening or new onset of psychiatric symptoms. Measures taken to prevent the spread of infections may have affected access in the ED of patients in various ways. However, the trend of increasing evening accesses could be related to a saturation of territorial psychiatric services that work mainly until the afternoon. Thus, an enhancement of territorial psychiatric services seems highly necessary to cope with what could be an increase in psychopathology in patients without previous diagnosis. Disclosure No significant relationships.

9.
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists ; 65(Suppl 1):S121-S121, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073413

ABSTRACT

Introduction Several studies highlighted how COVID-19-related isolation and quarantine deeply weighed on the mental health of both the general and psychiatric population. There has been limited investigation about self-harm and impulsivity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate how COVID-19-related lockdown affected self-harm rates in an Italian hospital. Methods Data on 59 patients were retrospectively collected from the Emercency deparment of the Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, from March 11 to May 4, 2020 (Italian mass quarantine) and the same periods of 2019 and 2021. Demographics, psychiatric history, substance use/abuse, types of self-harm and admission in psychiatric acute unit (PAU) rates were recorded. Results No statistical difference was reported in self-harm rates [9.8%(26/266) in 2019 vs 13.2%(10/76) in 2020 vs 10.7%(23/215) in 2021;p>0.05]. In 2020 subjects were younger (31.9±12.1 vs 39.2±14.4,p=0.22;vs 38.1±14.4;p=0.15) and had higher incidence of psychiatric history [90%(9/10) vs 73.1%(19/26), p=0.42;vs 65.2% (15/23),p=0.29],than 2019 and 2021 respectively. Substance use/abuse rates were significantly lower in 2020 compared to 2019 and 2021 [10%(1/10) vs 53.8%(14/26),p=0.04;vs 60.9% (14/23), p=0.02]. In 2020, subjects committing self-harms were more frequently admitted to PAU compared to 2019 and 2021 [60%(6/10)vs19.2%(5/26),p=0.04;vs 17.4% (4/23), p=0.04). Conclusions Consistent with the literature, lockdown-related measures negatively impacted on younger people, with higher rates of self-harm between March and May 2020. This, together with a higher rate of admissions to PAU, should warn the mental health system to target with specific programs to support adolescents and youngers. Disclosure No significant relationships.

10.
Ann Ig ; 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067153

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In Italy, at the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the main organizational model of hospital care was represented by the physical or functional division of hospitals and wards into COVID and non-COVID areas, in order to separate SARS-CoV-2-infected patients from the others. Now that the emergency phase has reached its long-awaited end, it is necessary to develop a new hospital care paradigm that may deal with SARS-CoV-2-positive patients discriminating between those who are hospitalized because of COVID-19 and those who are diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection immediately before or after the first access to healthcare facilities.

11.
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists ; 64(Suppl 1):S286-S286, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046278

ABSTRACT

Introduction Italy has been one of the most affected countries by Covid-19 pandemic. Our University General Hospital, Policlinico of “Tor Vergata” (PTV) in Rome, has become a Covid Hub in order to manage the spread of the epidemic. Thus, our Psychiatric Emergency Service (PES)’s access has been partially limited. Direct indicators of PES activity, as admission rates, can be useful for evaluating the psychological impact of Covid epidemic. Objectives To assess psychiatric admittance rates to PES of PTV before and during Covid-19 global pandemic. Methods Data from our PES register have been obtained and analyzed. We compared all the psychiatric access during the trimester March – May 2019 and 2020. All patients have been characterized according to clinical features. Results A marked reduction of the number of patients presenting to PES has been observed (76 patients) in the 57-day period (March 11–May 04, 2020) of lockdown compared to the same period in 2019 (266 patients). The cutback was visible for all diagnostic groups, except for “Borderline Personality Disorder” diagnosis which have slightly increased. On the other hand, hospitalization rates in our psychiatric inpatients unit remained steady. Conclusions Although larger study are needed to understand the mental consequences of the lockdown experience, people’s fear of potential infection might explain our results. Interestingly, personality disorder patients represent an exception to it, suggesting the importance of the clinical characteristics of fearless, engagement in dangerous behavior and detachment from reality. These findings might be helpful to improve psychosocial crisis interventions during the pandemic.

12.
Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases ; 9:S37-S38, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043396

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted the management difficulties of NMDs patients and the necessity to continue the program of implementation of standard of care yet started in Europe with the definition of the ERNs and with different applications in the various European countries. It will be increasingly necessary to favor and further develop smart management care through the implementation of IT platforms, telemedicine services and other eHealth technologies. In the near future we are moving towards a health system that supports scientific research, strengthens prevention, and brings medicine home. The outbreak of COVID-19 has forced the health care system to undergo profound rearrangements in its services and facilities. In this setting, inpatient and outpatient services had to rethink and reorganize their activities to meet the needs of patients during the lockdown. The rapid and abrupt COVID-19 shutdowns and stay-at-home orders imposed challenges to routine clinical management and clinical trials. The opportunity for real-world evaluation and reduced patient burden are clear benefits to remote assessment and may provide a more robust understanding and characterization of disease impact in NMD. The quality of patient-physician relationship, the modality of remote clinical assessment and monitoring, and the administration of therapies are the key elements to be provided in neuromuscular Telemedicine. Telemedicine permits the maintenance of a close patient-physician relationship. Other important aspect is digital therapies: I.e., access in hospital settings to perform medical therapies that can be performed only and exclusively in protected settings (such as antisense oligonucleotides for SMA or Patisiran for genetic amyloidosis), but some treatments can be home-based, such as subcutaneous immunoglobulins, or enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease.

15.
Ann Ig ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As other indoor sports facilities, swimming pools were closed in Italy from March to May 2020 and from October 2020 to July 2021 due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic;access to these facilities was restricted to athletes of national relevance. This decision was based on "precautionary principles" and without evidence of a high risk of SARS-COV-2 circulation among swimming pools' attendants. The aim of this paper is to describe the pattern of SARS-COV-2 circulation among swimming athletes in Apulia (Southern Italy). STUDY DESIGN: The study aims to investigate the hypothesis that attending a pool increases the risk of SARSCOV- 2 infection. The outcome measure is the incidence of SARS-COV-2 infection among swimming athletes compared with the general population. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study carried out in Apulia, Southern Italy. The study was performed through the analysis of both the database of the Italian Swimming Federation and the SARS-COV-2 infections in Apulia Region, from July 2020 to August 2021. RESULTS: Among 2,939 federally licensed athletes, 221 had an history of SARS-COV-2 infection from July 2020 to August 2021, with an incidence of 75.2 /1,000. In the general Apulian population, during the same time span, the incidence of SARS-COV-2 infection was 67.3/1,000 and - considering the incidence rate ratio - there is no difference between the two populations (IRR=1.1;95% CI=0.9-1.3;p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SARS-COV-2 infection in Apulian swimmers showed no significant differences with the general population.

16.
Ann Ig ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811220

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers on duty at the hospital are at high risk of COVID-19 infection. However, despite the introduction of risk-lowering practices in the hospital setting, there have been many cases of SARS-COV-2 infection among Health Care Workers. Fast and efficient contact tracing and Sars-CoV-2 PCR-based testing of the close contacts of Health Care Workers with confirmed infections are essential steps to limit nosocomial outbreaks. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bari Policlinico General University-Hospital (Apulia, Italy) and describes the management of a cluster of SARS-COV-2 infections in three Operative Units. The contact tracing activities and the measures implemented to control the outbreak are described. RESULTS: Among the 186 Health Care Workers active in the cluster setting, there were 9 (4.8%) confirmed cases, including the index case. Due to the outbreak, three Operative Units were closed to limit virus circulation. Health Care Workers with confirmed infections tested negative after a mean of 28.0±6.6 days (range: 13-37) and none required hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Protection of the health of Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 pandemic should be a public health priority. However, despite recent recommendations and the implementation of protective measures, SARS-COV-2 infections of Health Care Workers remain at a high rate, indicative of the continued high risk of cluster onset in the nosocomial setting.

17.
Environ Sci Atmos ; 2(2): 146-164, 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788325

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on the climate and on human health. New particle formation (NPF) is globally an important source of aerosols but its relevance especially towards aerosol mass loadings in highly polluted regions is still controversial. In addition, uncertainties remain regarding the processes leading to severe pollution episodes, concerning e.g. the role of atmospheric transport. In this study, we utilize air mass history analysis in combination with different fields related to the intensity of anthropogenic emissions in order to calculate air mass exposure to anthropogenic emissions (AME) prior to their arrival at Beijing, China. The AME is used as a semi-quantitative metric for describing the effect of air mass history on the potential for aerosol formation. We show that NPF events occur in clean air masses, described by low AME. However, increasing AME seems to be required for substantial growth of nucleation mode (diameter < 30 nm) particles, originating either from NPF or direct emissions, into larger mass-relevant sizes. This finding assists in establishing and understanding the connection between small nucleation mode particles, secondary aerosol formation and the development of pollution episodes. We further use the AME, in combination with basic meteorological variables, for developing a simple and easy-to-apply regression model to predict aerosol volume and mass concentrations. Since the model directly only accounts for changes in meteorological conditions, it can also be used to estimate the influence of emission changes on pollution levels. We apply the developed model to briefly investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing. While no clear influence directly attributable to the lockdown measures is found, the results are in line with other studies utilizing more widely applied approaches.

18.
Environmental science: atmospheres ; 2(2):146-164, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1781961

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on the climate and on human health. New particle formation (NPF) is globally an important source of aerosols but its relevance especially towards aerosol mass loadings in highly polluted regions is still controversial. In addition, uncertainties remain regarding the processes leading to severe pollution episodes, concerning e.g. the role of atmospheric transport. In this study, we utilize air mass history analysis in combination with different fields related to the intensity of anthropogenic emissions in order to calculate air mass exposure to anthropogenic emissions (AME) prior to their arrival at Beijing, China. The AME is used as a semi-quantitative metric for describing the effect of air mass history on the potential for aerosol formation. We show that NPF events occur in clean air masses, described by low AME. However, increasing AME seems to be required for substantial growth of nucleation mode (diameter < 30 nm) particles, originating either from NPF or direct emissions, into larger mass-relevant sizes. This finding assists in establishing and understanding the connection between small nucleation mode particles, secondary aerosol formation and the development of pollution episodes. We further use the AME, in combination with basic meteorological variables, for developing a simple and easy-to-apply regression model to predict aerosol volume and mass concentrations. Since the model directly only accounts for changes in meteorological conditions, it can also be used to estimate the influence of emission changes on pollution levels. We apply the developed model to briefly investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing. While no clear influence directly attributable to the lockdown measures is found, the results are in line with other studies utilizing more widely applied approaches. Growth of nucleation mode particles, modulated by air mass exposure to anthropogenic emissions, plays an important role in pollution development.

19.
Ann Ig ; 34(6): 650-655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675178

ABSTRACT

Abstract: On February 9, 2021, the Italian Ministry of Health made the "Covid-19 vaccine AstraZeneca" (now "Vaxzevria") available for use in the anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. However, in early March, the media reported that five people died a few days after receiving the vaccine. The reaction among both those already vaccinated and the vaccine candidates was one of near panic. The subsequent events have had long-lasting consequences, as 10-20% of vaccine candidates have since refused vaccination with the AstraZeneca vac-cine, so in addition to the delay in vaccination, ~200,000 doses of it were not administered. The goal of the vaccination campaign in Italy, when operating at full capacity, was to administer 500,000 doses per day, for a total of 3,500,000 doses per week. In this large amount of people, it is statistically certain that a certain number of subjects will develop non-vaccine related health problems or even die from causes unrelated to having been vaccinated. At this time in history, press reports must be inspired by a strong sense of responsibility and awareness of the potential consequences of misinformation; this is particularly true, especially because also the social media get inevitably involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Mass Media , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunization Programs , Public Health , Vaccination
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL