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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000065

ABSTRACT

The emergence of various diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic made health workers more attentive, and one of the new pathogens is the black fungus (mucormycosis). As a result, millions of lives have already been lost. As a result of the mutation, the virus is constantly changing its traits, including the rate of disease transmission, virulence, pathogenesis, and clinical signs. A recent analysis revealed that some COVID-19 patients were also coinfected with a fungal disease called mucormycosis (black fungus). India has already categorized the COVID-19 patient black fungus outbreak as an epidemic. Only a few reports are observed in other countries. The immune system is weakened by COVID-19 medication, rendering it more prone to illnesses like black fungus (mucormycosis). COVID-19, which is caused by a B.1.617 strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been circulating in India since April 2021. Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection induced by exposure to a fungus called mucormycete. The most typically implicated genera are Mucor rhyzuprhizopusdia and Cunninghamella. Mucormycosis is also known as zygomycosis. The main causes of infection are soil, dumping sites, ancient building walls, and other sources of infection (reservoir words "mucormycosis" and "zygomycosis" are occasionally interchanged). Zygomycota, on the other hand, has been identified as polyphyletic and is not currently included in fungal classification systems;also, zygomycosis includes Entomophthorales, but mucormycosis does not. This current review will be focused on the etiology and virulence factors of COVID-19/mucormycosis coinfections in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis patients, as well as their prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment.

2.
Women and Leadership in Higher Education During Global Crises ; : 91-106, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975009

ABSTRACT

In the modern societies, an increasing number of women are providing their services in different sectors of the economy such as business and industry, entrepreneurship, and more specifically in health and education sectors. Women are also serving their remarkable contributions as leader as men do. This study investigates the potentially competitive relationship between women and their leadership competencies and the challenges that women face during their professional responsibilities especially in case of any global disaster like pandemic COVID-19. Where the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly. © 2021 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Ayub Medical College ; 33(Suppl. 1):717-720, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1970294

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic of COVID 19 has affected a number of people around the globe. The data from paediatric population is scarce. The present study is aimed to present the paediatric perspective of the disease in terms of different clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, complications, and outcomes so as to develop an insight into disease manifestations in children.

4.
LANCET ; 399(10342):2212-2225, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935221

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination of children and young people against SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in some countries. Scarce data have been published on immune responses induced by COVID-19 vaccines in people younger than 18 years compared with the same data that are available in adults. Methods COV006 is a phase 2, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) in children and adolescents at four trial sites in the UK. Healthy participants aged 6-17 years, who did not have a history of chronic respiratory conditions, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, or previously received capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (the control), were randomly assigned to four groups (4:1:4:1) to receive two intramuscular doses of 5 x 10(1)degrees viral particles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control, 28 days or 84 days apart. Participants, clinical investigators, and the laboratory team were masked to treatment allocation. Study groups were stratified by age, and participants aged 12-17 years were enrolled before those aged 6-11 years. Due to the restrictions in the use of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in people younger than 30 years that were introduced during the study, only participants aged 12-17 years who were randomly assigned to the 28-day interval group had received their vaccinations at the intended interval (day 28). The remaining participants received their second dose at day 112. The primary outcome was assessment of safety and tolerability in the safety population, which included all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, which was assessed in participants who were seronegative to the nucleocapsid protein at baseline and received both prime and boost vaccine. This study is registered with ISRCTN (15638344). Findings Between Feb 15 and April 2, 2021, 262 participants (150 [57%] participants aged 12-17 years and 112 [43%] aged 6-11 years;due to the change in the UK vaccination policy, the study terminated recruitment of the younger age group before the planned number of participants had been enrolled) were randomly assigned to receive vaccination with two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=211 [n=105 at day 28 and n=106 at day 84]) or control (n=51 [n=26 at day 28 and n=25 at day 84]). One participant in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 day 28 group in the younger age bracket withdrew their consent before receiving a first dose. Of the participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 169 (80%) of 210 participants reported at least one solicited local or systemic adverse event up to 7 days following the first dose, and 146 (76%) of 193 participants following the second dose. No serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration were recorded by the data cutoff date on Oct 28, 2021. Of the participants who received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, there were 128 unsolicited adverse events up to 28 days after vaccination reported by 83 (40%) of 210 participants. One participant aged 6-11 years receiving ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reported a grade 4 fever of 40.2 degrees C on day 1 following first vaccination, which resolved within 24 h. Pain and tenderness were the most common local solicited adverse events for all the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and capsular group B meningococcal groups following both doses. Of the 242 participants with available serostatus data, 14 (6%) were seropositive at baseline. Serostatus data were not available for 20 (8%) of 262 participants. Among seronegative participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and pseudoneutralising antibody titres at day 28 after the second dose were higher in participants aged 12-17 years with a longer interval between doses (geometric means of 73 371 arbitrary units [AU]/mL [95% CI 58 685-91 733] and 299 half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC 50;95% CI 230-390]) compared with those aged 12-17 years who received their vaccines 28 days apart (43 280 AU/mL [95% CI 35 852-52 246] and 150 IC 50 [95% CI 116-194]). Humoral responses were higher in those aged 6-11 years than in those aged 12-17 years receiving their second dose at the same 112-day interval (geometric mean ratios 1.48 [95% CI 1.07-2.07] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 2.96 [1.89-4.62] for pseudoneutralising antibody titres). Cellular responses peaked after a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 across all age and interval groups and remained above baseline after a second vaccination. Interpretation ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is well tolerated and immunogenic in children aged 6-17 years, inducing concentrations of antibody that are similar to those associated with high efficacy in phase 3 studies in adults. No safety concerns were raised in this trial. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

5.
SAGE Open ; 12(2), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840925

ABSTRACT

The rapid expansion in globalization, changing economic and political conditions, health crisis, advancement in technologies, and customer demand shift have highlighted the business model concept’s growing importance in every business life walk. Despite the agreement on the business model’s role in innovation and firm success, this concept is unnoticed in the legal industry. The growing digitalization has disrupted the legal industry business model by enabling various cooperation, collaboration, value proposition, and value capture mechanism. Digitalization has innovated the legal business model and engaged them in the mundane adaptation in response to external environment changes. However, literature trends reveal that innovation in the legal business model is overlooked by academia. This study applied a case study method to highlight business model innovation in legal firms in the proposed framework of the business model navigator/magic triangle and business model canvas. We also took the market and industry trends and COVID-19 into consideration in the legal business landscape. This study proposed a digital business model and innovation operating model for the legal firms based on the identified fundamental pillars of digital business model components. This study expands the literature on digitalization and business model innovation by focusing on an ignored industry with substantial disruptive potential. © The Author(s) 2022.

6.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 15(12):3741-3744, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1668121

ABSTRACT

Objective: Main purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pandemic disease COVID-19 on first and second trimester pregnancies. Study Design: Cross-sectional/Descriptive study Place and Duration: Study was conducted at Gynae and Obs department of Jinnah International Hospital, Abbottabad for duration of 10 months from January to October, 2021. Methods: Total ninety pregnant women of ages 18- 35 years were presented in this study. All the presented women had pandemic disease COVID-19. Women had first and second trimester pregnancies. Patients' age, body mass index, parity, education status, socio-economic status and residency were calculated after taking informed written consent. Chi square and t-test was performed to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Outcomes were assessed in terms of stress, depression among mothers and low birth weight of infants, perinatal death, preterm delivery, and C-section. Data was analyzed by SPSS 23.0 version. Results: Among 90 pregnant women 40 (44.4%) patients had first trimester pregnancies and 50 (55.6%) females had second trimester pregnancies. Mean age of the patients was 29.16±6.34 years and had mean BMI 22.13±5.16 kg/m2. Majority of the patients 52 (57.8%) had parity primipara. 44 (48.9%) patients were educated and majority of the patients were financially weak 62 (68.9%). 55 (61.1%) females were from urban areas. 54 (60%) females were symptomatic and 36 (40%) were asymptomatic. Frequency of depression among females was 68 (75.6%) and depression was found in 61 (67.8%) cases. Low birth weight was found in 22 (24.4%) cases, prevalence of preterm delivery was among 38 (42.2%) cases, number of C-section among cases was 47 (52.2%). Perinatal death was found in 7 (7.8%) cases. Majority of the patients with infants were instantly discharged after delivery 75 (83.3%) and 8 patients were admitted because of severity of pandemic disease. Conclusion: We determined in this study that Covid-19 among females with trimester first and second pregnancies were highly affected and had severity of psychotic disorders at start of disease but had lower adverse outcomes with low perinatal mortality. Majority of the females were recovered and discharged safely after delivery.

7.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(Suppl 1)(4):S717-s720, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1651789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID 19 has affected a number of people around the globe. The data from paediatric population is scarce. The present study is aimed to present the paediatric perspective of the disease in terms of different clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, complications, and outcomes so as to develop an insight into disease manifestations in children. METHODS: This descriptive case series was conducted in the department of Paediatrics after approval of institutional review board. All children admitted in paediatric unit with confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection either by PCR or antibody test were included in the study. Patients' characteristics were documented on a predesigned proforma and analysed using SPSS 26.0. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients comprising 13 (76.5%) male and 4(23.5%) female were included in the study. The major clinical features were fever, cough and shortness of breath documented in 15 (88.2 %) patients. Major complications were shock in 13 (76.5%), respiratory complications in 16 (94.11%), CNS complications in 4 (23.5%), cardiac complications in 5 (29.4%), hepatic involvement in 3 (17.6%) Acute Kidney Injury in 4 (23.5%) patients and 9 (52.9 %) patients were labelled as having Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). A total of 7 (41.2%) patients had coexistent comorbid diseases. A total of 13 (76.47%) patients were discharged, 2 (11.8%) patients expired and 2 (11.8%) left against medical advice. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of paediatric patients with SARS-COV-2 infection is highly variable. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-COV-2 must be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with multiorgan dysfunction.

8.
European Journal of Management and Business Economics ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1541632

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the serially mediating effect of knowledge management (KM) practices (namely, knowledge creation, storage and sharing) on the organizational learning (OL) and organizational performance (OP) relationships during a crisis. Design/methodology/approach: Based on theories-of-action, knowledge-based and resource-based theories, this study proposed a sequential mediation model where OL underlying mechanisms through which KM practices have facilitated OP during the crisis. The sample dataset contains 440 responses collected from the managers of the software development companies in Pakistan. The authors used Hayes Process macro with SPSS to test the study hypotheses. Findings: The results of the study reveal that knowledge creation, storage and sharing serially mediate the relationships between OL and OP. These findings strengthen the argument suggesting that OL plays the key role in KM that helps software companies to mend their performance in times of crisis. Originality/value: This study contributes to the KM literature in two ways: (1) grounded on the study's proposed framework, organizations can improve and manage their businesses in times of crisis and (2) learn how to generate new knowledge in response to business crises. © 2021, Usman Ahmad Qadri, Mazuri Binti abd Ghani, Shumaila Bibi, Abdul Haseeb Tahir, Muhammad Imran Farooq and Abdul Rauf Kashif.

9.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293132

ABSTRACT

AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a replication-deficient simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine, has demonstrated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in clinical trials and real-world studies. We characterized CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses induced by AZD1222 vaccination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 280 unique vaccine recipients aged 18-85 years who enrolled in the phase 2/3 COV002 trial. Total spike-specific CD4+ T cell helper type 1 (Th1) and CD8+ T-cell responses were significantly increased in AZD1222-vaccinated adults of all ages following two doses of AZD1222. CD4+ Th2 responses following AZD1222 vaccination were not detected. Furthermore, AZD1222-specific Th1 and CD8+ T cells both displayed a high degree of polyfunctionality in all adult age groups. T-cell receptor (TCR) beta sequences from vaccinated participants mapped against TCR sequences known to react to SARS-CoV-2 revealed substantial breadth and depth across the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for the AZD1222-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Overall, AZD1222 vaccination induced a robust, polyfunctional Th1-dominated T-cell response, with broad CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell coverage across the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. One Sentence Summary: Polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses are elicited against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein following vaccination with AZD1222.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1477628

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , Incidence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Current Issues in Tourism ; 24(7):952-969, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1327287

ABSTRACT

This study explores the vulnerability and resilience of the US Leisure and Hospitality industry sector-wise by taking employment levels in seven different business segments. An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model approach was applied to daily time series data of employment and COVID-19 to assess each sector's fragility and resilience. The findings reveal that museums and historical places, performing arts, and sports are the worst influenced sectors and exhibit low resilience. The accommodation sector initially shows high vulnerability;however, it bounces back by showing high resilience compared to some of the other sectors. The rest of the sector presents the same story negatively influenced by pandemic but eventually reveals a sign of recovery. A detailed discussion with the theoretical and practical implications is provided.

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