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1.
Eur Heart J ; 43(Suppl 2), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2107416

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical manifestations of children's coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) were initially considered less severe compared with adult patients. However, there is now increasing evidence of a “long-tail” of COVID-19 related symptoms lasting for several months after recovery from the acute infection. Long COVID-19-related symptoms and mechanisms are poorly characterized and understood, with several phenotypes reported, often driven by long-term tissue damage (such as lung, heart and brain) and pathological inflammation due to viral persistence and/or immune deregulation. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate atrio-ventricular mechanics, by means of two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography, in previously healthy children recovered from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a long-term follow-up. Methods: We analysed a cohort of 157 paediatric patients, mean age 7±4 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram and speckle tracking echocardiographic study 148±68 days after diagnosis. One hundred seven age, sex, and body surface area comparable healthy subjects were used as control group. Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal limits in postCOVID-19 cases and CTRL with no significant differences between the two groups (postCOVID-19: 65.6±4% vs CTRL: 65.0±5%, p=0.182).Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (postCOVID-19: −20.5±2.9%;CTRL: −21.8±1.7%;p<0.001) was significantly reduced in cases compared with CTRLs. An amount of 11 (7%) postCOVID-19 cases showed impaired GLS values < −17% and 95 subjects (60%) presented with a strain lower than −16% in more than 2 segments. These subjects did not show any difference regarding symptoms or serological findings. Moreover, GLS was significantly reduced in children with disease's onset during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with those during the first wave (second wave: −20.2±2.6%;first wave: −21.2±3.4%;p=0.048). Finally, peak left atrial systolic strain was within the normal range in the postCOVID-19 group with no significant differences compared to CTRL (postCOVID-19: 49.1±12%;CTRL: 49.5±18%). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in children despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. Our data show an amount of 60% of children, recovering from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19, with still mild subclinical systolic cardiac impairment in the mid- and long-term follow-up after the infection. This subtle impairment was seen to be worse in children recovering from the second wave of COVID-19 compared to the first one.A follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of these alterations and their impact on long-term outcomes. Funding Acknowledgement: Type of funding sources: None.

2.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S87, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062123

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Growing evidence has documented a severe systemic hyperinflammation syndrome affecting children previ-ously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, known as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Cardiovascular manifestations in MIS-C are frequent (34%-82%). The aim of our study was to describe the early and late cardiac abnormalities in patients with MIS-C, assessed by standard echocardiography, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), and cardiac MRI (CMR). Method(s): 32 consecutive patients (21M, 11F), mean age 8.25 +/- 4years (range 1.3-17.7), with confirmed MIS-C diagnosis were enrolled in this study. Clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were collected. At disease onset, all children underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography, STE with analysis of left ventricle global longitudinal strain (GLS) and 23 (75%) of them performed CMR. Patients underwent complete cardiological evaluation, including echocardiography and STE at two months (T1) and six months (T2) after diagnosis. CMR was repeated at six months after diagnosis. Result(s): Cardiovascular symptoms were present in 45.8% of cases. Thirteen children (40.6%) shared Kawasaki Disease-like symp-toms, and 5 (15.6%) needed ICU admission. Early survival was 100%. All patients showed an hyperinflammatory state. Tn-I was elevated in 20 (62.5%) and BNP in 28 (87.5%) patients. Mean LVEF at baseline was 58.8 +/- 10% with 10 patients (31%) below 55%. STE showed reduced mean LV GLS (-17.4 +/- 4%). On CMR, LGE with nonischemic pattern was evident in 8/23 patients (35%). Follow-up data showed rapid improvement of LVEF at T1 (62.5 +/- 7.5 vs. 58.8 +/- 10.6%, p value 0.044) with only three patients (10%) below <= 55% at T1 and one (4%) at T2. LV GLS remained impaired at T1 (-17.2 +/- 2.7 vs.-17.4 +/- 4, p value 0.71), and significantly improved at T2 (-19 +/- 2.6% vs.-17.4 +/- 4%, p value 0.009). LV GLS was impaired (gt;-18%) in 53% of patients at baseline and T1, while only 13% showed persistent LV GLS reduc-tion at T2. Follow-up CMR showed LGE persistence in 33.4% of cases. Conclusion(s): Even though, early cardiac involvement significantly improves during follow-up, subclinical myocardial damage seems to be still detectable 6 months follow up in one third of MIS-C patients.

4.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 23(8): 1066-1074, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873887

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with cardiovascular manifestations are frequent. However, there is lacking evidence regarding cardiological follow-up of this cohort of patients. The aim of our study was to describe the early and mid-term cardiac abnormalities assessed by standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), and cardiac MRI (CMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 32 patients (21 male, 11 female), mean age 8.25 ± 4years, with diagnosis of MIS-C. During admission, all children underwent TTE, STE with analysis of left ventricle global longitudinal strain (GLS) and CMR. Patients underwent cardiological evaluation at 2 (T1) and 6 months (T2) after discharge. Cardiac MRI was repeated at 6 months after discharge. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at baseline was 58.8 ± 10% with 10 patients (31%) below 55%. Speckle-tracking echocardiography showed reduced mean LV GLS (-17.4 ± 4%). On CMR, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with non-ischaemic pattern was evident in 8 of 23 patients (35%). Follow-up data showed rapid improvement of LVEF at T1 (62.5 ± 7.5 vs. 58.8 ± 10.6%, P-value 0.044) with only three patients (10%) below ≤ 55% at T1. Left ventricular (LV) GLS remained impaired at T1 (-17.2 ± 2.7 vs.-17.4 ± 4, P-value 0.71) and significantly improved at T2 (-19 ± 2.6% vs. -17.4 ± 4%, P-value 0.009). LV GLS was impaired (>-18%) in 53% of patients at baseline and T1, whereas only 13% showed persistent LV GLS reduction at T2. Follow-up CMR showed LGE persistence in 33.4% of cases. CONCLUSION: Early cardiac involvement significantly improves during follow-up of MIS-C patients. However, subclinical myocardial dysfunction seems to be still detectable after 6 months of follow-up in a not negligible proportion of them.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Contrast Media , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
5.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(SUPPL 1):S115-S116, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1852346

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Evidence suggests that, compared with adult patients, clinical manifestations of children's COVID-19 may be less severe. However, multiple reports have raised concern about the so called pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) which resembles other inflammatory conditions (i.e. Kawasaki disease, toxic shock). Patients affected by PIMS-TS showed cardiac involvement with myocardial injury, reduced left ventricle systolic function and coronary artery abnormalities, and in some cases, need for inotropes/ vasopressors and extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Little is known regarding cardiac involvement in pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and none or only mild symptoms of disease. Methods: We analyzed 52 pediatric patients (29males, 56%) with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on either PCR analysis of nasopharingeal swab (NPS), or serological finding of IgG on blood sample and asymptomatic (23%) or only mildly symptomatic (77%) for COVID-19. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) after a median time of 3.6 months from diagnosis and negative NPS for SARS-CoV-2. Offline analysis with GE EchoPAC software to measure global longitudinal strain (GLS) of the LV using 2D speckle tracking imaging. Therefore, we compared the results with an age-matched group of 32 controls (18males, 56%). Results: Cases and controls were similar regarding age and gender. LV biplane EF was significantly lower in the cases group, although still in the normal range (62.4±4.1% vs. 65.2±5.5%, p=0.012). TAPSE and LV-GLS were comparable between the two groups. GLS analysis showed significant strain reduction of the LV midwall segments and of the basal anterior, posterior and septal inferior segments among cases compared to controls. On the other hand, apical segments showed higher deformation in cases compared to controls. Furthermore, in the case group there were 14 subjects (27%) with a strain below 16% (mean value minus 2.5 SD) in at least 2 segments. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect LV deformation in asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic children, showing a peculiar pattern with lower longitudinal strain in all mid-wall segments of LV compared to control subjects. The clinical significance of this findings is unclear and follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of this alterations.

7.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 23(SUPPL C):C43, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1408987

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence suggests that, compared with adult patients, clinical manifestations of children's COVID-19 may be less severe. However, multiple reports have raised concern about the so called pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) which resembles other inflammatory conditions (i.e. Kawasaki disease, toxic shock). Patients affected by PIMS-TS showed cardiac involvement with myocardial injury, reduced left ventricle systolic function and coronary artery abnormalities, and in some cases, need for inotropes/vasopressors and extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Little is known regarding cardiac involvement in pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and none or only mild symptoms of disease. Methods: We analyzed 52 pediatric patients (29males, 56%) with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on either PCR analysis of nasopharingeal swab (NPS), or serological finding of IgG on blood sample and asymptomatic (23%) or only mildly symptomatic (77%) for COVID-19. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) after a median time of 3.6 months from diagnosis and negative NPS for SARS-CoV-2. Offline analysis with GE EchoPAC software to measure global longitudinal strain (GLS) of the LV using 2D speckle tracking imaging. Therefore, we compared the results with an age-matched group of 32 controls (18males, 56%). Results: Cases and controls were similar regarding age and gender. LV biplane EF was significantly lower in the cases group, although still in the normal range (62.4±4.1% vs. 65.2±5.5%, p=0.012). TAPSE and LV-GLS were comparable between the two groups. GLS analysis showed significant strain reduction of the LV mid-wall segments and of the basal anterior, posterior and septal inferior segments among cases compared to controls. On the other hand, apical segments showed higher deformation in cases compared to controls. Furthermore, in the case group there were 14 subjects (27%) with a strain below 16% (mean value minus 2.5 SD) in at least 2 segments. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect LV deformation in asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic children, showing a peculiar pattern with lower longitudinal strain in all mid-wall segments of LV compared to control subjects. The clinical significance of this findings is unclear and follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of this alterations.

8.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 22(SUPPL 1):i193, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185662

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence suggests that clinical manifestations of children's COVID-19 may be less severe. However, it has been described the pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) which resembles other inflammatory conditions (i.e. Kawasaki disease). Patients affected by PIMS-TS showed cardiac involvement with myocardial injury, reduced left ventricle systolic function and coronary artery abnormalities. Little is known regarding cardiac involvement in pediatric patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We analyzed 23 pediatric patients (13males, 56%) with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on PCR analysis of nasopharin-geal swab (NPS), and asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) within 2-3 month from diagnosis and after negative NPS for SARS-CoV-2. We performed offline analysis with GE EchoPAC software to measure global longitudinal strain (GLS) of the LV using 2D speckle tracking imaging. Therefore, we compared the results with a matched group of 23 controls (13males, 56%). Results: Cases and controls were similar regarding age (5.9 ± 4.1years vs. 6.4 ± 4.4 years, p = 0.63), body surface area (0.98 ± 0.3m2 vs. 0.8 ± 0.4m2, p = 0.17), LV FS (37.9 ± 5.9% vs. 36.4 ± 8.3%, p = 0.74) and LV biplane EF (63.9 ± 5.2% vs. 66.4 ± 5.3%, p = 0.11). GLS analysis showed significant strain reduction of the LV mid-wall segments and of the basal anterior, posterior and septal inferior segments among cases compared to controls. Furthermore, in the case group there were 7 subjects (30%) with a strain below 16.5% in at least 3 segments. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect LV deformation in asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic children, showing a peculiar pattern with lower longitudinal strain in all mid-wall segments of LV compared to control subjects. The clinical significance of this findings is unclear and follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of this alterations.

9.
Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia ; 21(12 SUPPL 2):e75, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1145789

ABSTRACT

Introduction. CHB is a rare disease due to the immune-mediated injury of the conduction system, as result of the transplacental passage of maternal anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies to the fetus. High rates of mortality and pacemaker (PM) implantation have been observed. Specific long-term management recommendations are not yet available. Methods. Consecutive patients with autoimmune-mediated CHB referred to our Center from 2008 to 2019 were prospectively enrolled. In utero diagnosis was assessed by fetal echocardiography and confirmed at birth by electrocardiography (ECG). Serial clinical evaluation, ECG-monitoring and echocardiography were performed during follow-up. In patients with PM, a periodical device-monitoring was obtained. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term cardiovascular outcome and the clinical management of CHB. Data on self-perception of exercise tolerance were considered. CHB degree and mean ventricular heart rate (HR) in utero, at birth and during the latest follow-up were assessed. Pacing characteristics and device-related adverse events were also evaluated, involving LV dyssynchrony obtained by echocardiography. Results. 22 cases of CHB from 21 anti-SSA/Ro antibody-positive mothers were enrolled (67% III-degree CHB at fetal diagnosis;33% II-degree CHB). One intra-uterine death occurred. 16 cases were treated with a combination therapy protocol of steroids, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Among the 20 live births, 5 cases of incomplete CHB were observed (3 cases of I-degree and 2 cases of II-degree CHB). Patients with III-degree CHB at birth most often presented LV dilation (p=0,03;incomplete CHB 1 vs III-degree CHB 15 patients). HR at birth was for I-degree 135 bpm [127,5-147,5], for II-degree 75 bpm [72,5-77,5] and for III-degree CHB 58 bpm [50-65]. Long-term follow-up was obtained in 21 patients (one late-diagnosis presented to our Institution at the age of 8 years) at 6,9 years [4,3-8,5]. HR remained stable over time (I-degree p=0,1;II-degree p=0,18;III-degree CHB p=0,14). No cases of impaired exercise tolerance were observed. LV dilation was detected in 4 patients. 1 patient with severe LV dilation and preserved ejection fraction presented non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. A borderline QT interval was observed in a child with LV dilation. No cases of R-R interval >3 sec were revealed. QRS interval was normal in all patients with spontaneous rhythm. 6 patients underwent PM implantation (5 within the first year and 1 within the fifth year): 2 epicardial dual chamber DDD, 1 endocardial dual chamber DDD, 1 epicardial biventricular CRT-P PM and 2 epicardial single-chamber VVI-R PM were implanted. Last device follow-up showed a range of ventricular pacing of 98-100%. PM dependency was confirmed in all cases. An early abdominal PM pocket infection was successfully treated with antibiotics. Endocarditis, pneumothorax and macroscopic lead fracture or dislodgment have all been excluded. All patients presented a recovery of LV dilation and no cases of LV dyssynchrony were observed. Conclusions. In our experience, autoimmune-mediated CHB presented with a favorable long-term cardiovascular outcome. An adequate exercise tolerance was observed also in patients with spontaneous rhythm. Considering the stability of HR over time, an accurate selection of patients that need for PM should be performed. Long-term management of CHB should evaluate LV dyssynchrony in patients with PM and the presence of ventricular arrhythmias and LV dilation/dysfunction in patients with spontaneous rhythm. COVID-19.

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