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1.
Am Surg ; : 31348221101475, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854593

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 stay-at-home (SAH) orders were impactful on adolescence, when social interactions affect development. This has the potential to change adolescent trauma. A post-hoc multicenter retrospective analysis of adolescent (13-17 years-old) trauma patients (ATPs) at 11 trauma centers was performed. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on injury date: historical control (CONTROL:3/19/2019-6/30/2019, before SAH (PRE:1/1/2020-3/18/2020), and after SAH (POST:3/19/2020-6/30/2020). The POST group was compared to both PRE and CONTROL groups in separate analyses. 726 ATPs were identified across the 3 time periods. POST had a similar penetrating trauma rate compared to both PRE (15.8% vs 13.8%, P = .56) and CONTROL (15.8% vs 14.5%, P = .69). POST also had a similar rate of suicide attempts compared to both PRE (1.2% vs 1.5%, P = .83) and CONTROL (1.2% vs 2.1%, P = .43). However, POST had a higher rate of drug positivity compared to CONTROL (28.6% vs 20.6%, P = .032), but was similar in all other comparisons of alcohol and drugs to PRE and POST periods (all P > .05). Hence ATPs were affected differently than adults and children, as they had a similar rate of penetrating trauma, suicide attempts, and alcohol positivity after SAH orders. However, they had increased drug positivity compared to the CONTROL, but not PRE group.

2.
Am J Surg ; 224(1 Pt A): 90-95, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed hospitals, forcing adjustments including discharging patients earlier and limiting intensive care unit (ICU) utilization. This study aimed to evaluate ICU admissions and length of stay (LOS) for blunt trauma patients (BTPs). METHODS: A retrospective review of COVID (3/19/20-6/30/20) versus pre-COVID (3/19/19-6/30/19) BTPs at eleven trauma centers was performed. Multivariable analysis was used to identify risk factors for ICU admission. RESULTS: 12,744 BTPs were included (6942 pre-COVID vs. 5802 COVID). The COVID cohort had decreased mean LOS (3.9 vs. 4.4 days, p = 0.029), ICU LOS (0.9 vs. 1.1 days, p < 0.001), and rate of ICU admission (22.3% vs. 24.9%, p = 0.001) with no increase in complications or mortality compared to the pre-COVID cohort (all p > 0.05). On multivariable analysis, the COVID period was associated with decreased risk of ICU admission (OR = 0.82, CI 0.75-0.90, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: BTPs had decreased LOS and associated risk of ICU admission during COVID, with no corresponding increase in complications or mortality.

3.
Turk J Surg ; 37(4): 387-393, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689504

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, several studies have reported a decrease in in the admission surgical patients and emergency surgical procedures, and an increase in more severe septic surgical diseases, such as necrotic cholecystitis. It was probably due to to a critical delay in time-to- diagnosis and time-to-intervention resulting to limited access to the operating theatres as well as intensive care units. Early laparoscopic cholecystec- tomy is the standard of care for acute cholecystitis. Moreover early data from COVID-19 pandemic reported an increase in the incidence of necrotic cholecystitis among COVID-19 patients. The ChoCO-W prospective observational collaborative study was conceived to investigate the incidence and management of acute cholecystitis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: The present research protocol was. conceived and designed as a prospective observational international collaborative study focusing on the management of patients with to the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis under the COVID-19 pandemic. The study obtained the approval of the local Ethics Committee (Nimes, France) and meet and conform to the standards outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. Eligible patients will be prospectively enrolled in the recruitment period and data entered in an online case report form. Results: The ChoCO-W study will be the largest prospective study carried out during the first period of the COVID-19 pandemic with the aim to inves- tigate the management of patients with acute cholecystitis, in the lack of studies focusing on COVID-19 positive patients. Conclusion: The ChoCO-W study is conceived to be the largest prospective study to assess the management of patients presenting with acute chol- ecystitis during the COVID-19 pandemic and risk factors correlated with necrotic cholecystitis to improve the management of high-risk patients.

4.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 38(2): 307-315, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544430

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in increased penetrating trauma and decreased length of stay (LOS) amongst the adult trauma population, findings important for resource allocation. Studies regarding the pediatric trauma population are sparse and mostly single-center. This multicenter study examined pediatric trauma patients, hypothesizing increased penetrating trauma and decreased LOS after the 3/19/2020 stay-at-home (SAH) orders. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis of trauma patients ≤ 17 years old presenting to 11 centers in California was performed. Demographic data, injury characteristics, and outcomes were collected. Patients were divided into three groups based on injury date: 3/19/2019-6/30/2019 (CONTROL), 1/1/2020-3/18/2020 (PRE), 3/19/2020-6/30/2020 (POST). POST was compared to PRE and CONTROL in separate analyses. RESULTS: 1677 patients were identified across all time periods (CONTROL: 631, PRE: 479, POST: 567). POST penetrating trauma rates were not significantly different compared to both PRE (11.3 vs. 9.0%, p = 0.219) and CONTROL (11.3 vs. 8.2%, p = 0.075), respectively. POST had a shorter mean LOS compared to PRE (2.4 vs. 3.3 days, p = 0.002) and CONTROL (2.4 vs. 3.4 days, p = 0.002). POST was also not significantly different than either group regarding intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, ventilator days, and mortality (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter retrospective study demonstrated no difference in penetrating trauma rates among pediatric patients after SAH orders but did identify a shorter LOS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , California/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
5.
Chest ; 161(3): 710-727, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vascular microthrombi are a proposed mechanism of COVID-19 respiratory failure. We hypothesized that early administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) followed by therapeutic heparin would improve pulmonary function in these patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does tPA improve pulmonary function in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure, and is it safe? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure were randomized from May14, 2020 through March 3, 2021, in two phases. Phase 1 (n = 36) comprised a control group (standard-of-care treatment) vs a tPA bolus (50-mg tPA IV bolus followed by 7 days of heparin; goal activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], 60-80 s) group. Phase 2 (n = 14) comprised a control group vs a tPA drip (50-mg tPA IV bolus, followed by tPA drip 2 mg/h plus heparin 500 units/h over 24 h, then heparin to maintain aPTT of 60-80 s for 7 days) group. Patients were excluded from enrollment if they had not undergone a neurologic examination or cross-sectional brain imaging within the previous 4.5 h to rule out stroke and potential for hemorrhagic conversion. The primary outcome was Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement from baseline at 48 h after randomization. Secondary outcomes included Pao2 to Fio2 ratio improvement of > 50% or Pao2 to Fio2 ratio of ≥ 200 at 48 h (composite outcome), ventilator-free days (VFD), and mortality. RESULTS: Fifty patients were randomized: 17 in the control group and 19 in the tPA bolus group in phase 1 and eight in the control group and six in the tPA drip group in phase 2. No severe bleeding events occurred. In the tPA bolus group, the Pao2 to Fio2 ratio values were significantly (P < .017) higher than baseline at 6 through 168 h after randomization; the control group showed no significant improvements. Among patients receiving a tPA bolus, the percent change of Pao2 to Fio2 ratio at 48 h (16.9% control [interquartile range (IQR), -8.3% to 36.8%] vs 29.8% tPA bolus [IQR, 4.5%-88.7%]; P = .11), the composite outcome (11.8% vs 47.4%; P = .03), VFD (0.0 [IQR, 0.0-9.0] vs 12.0 [IQR, 0.0-19.0]; P = .11), and in-hospital mortality (41.2% vs 21.1%; P = .19) did not reach statistically significant differences when compared with those of control participants. The patients who received a tPA drip did not experience benefit. INTERPRETATION: The combination of tPA bolus plus heparin is safe in severe COVID-19 respiratory failure. A phase 3 study is warranted given the improvements in oxygenation and promising observations in VFD and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04357730; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
7.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 30, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280596

ABSTRACT

Bile duct injury (BDI) is a dangerous complication of cholecystectomy, with significant postoperative sequelae for the patient in terms of morbidity, mortality, and long-term quality of life. BDIs have an estimated incidence of 0.4-1.5%, but considering the number of cholecystectomies performed worldwide, mostly by laparoscopy, surgeons must be prepared to manage this surgical challenge. Most BDIs are recognized either during the procedure or in the immediate postoperative period. However, some BDIs may be discovered later during the postoperative period, and this may translate to delayed or inappropriate treatments. Providing a specific diagnosis and a precise description of the BDI will expedite the decision-making process and increase the chance of treatment success. Subsequently, the choice and timing of the appropriate reconstructive strategy have a critical role in long-term prognosis. Currently, a wide spectrum of multidisciplinary interventions with different degrees of invasiveness is indicated for BDI management. These World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines have been produced following an exhaustive review of the current literature and an international expert panel discussion with the aim of providing evidence-based recommendations to facilitate and standardize the detection and management of BDIs during cholecystectomy. In particular, the 2020 WSES guidelines cover the following key aspects: (1) strategies to minimize the risk of BDI during cholecystectomy; (2) BDI rates in general surgery units and review of surgical practice; (3) how to classify, stage, and report BDI once detected; (4) how to manage an intraoperatively detected BDI; (5) indications for antibiotic treatment; (6) indications for clinical, biochemical, and imaging investigations for suspected BDI; and (7) how to manage a postoperatively detected BDI.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts/injuries , Cholecystectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease , Intraoperative Period , Quality of Life
8.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(5): 605-611, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258627

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 related stay-at-home (SAH) orders created many economic and social stressors, possibly increasing the risk of drug/alcohol abuse in the community and trauma population.Objectives: Describe changes in alcohol/drug use in traumatically injured patients after SAH orders in California and evaluate demographic or injury pattern changes in alcohol or drug-positive patients.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 11 trauma centers in Southern California (1/1/2020-6/30/2020) was performed. Blood alcohol concentration, urine toxicology results, demographics, and injury characteristics were collected. Patients were grouped based on injury date - before SAH (PRE-SAH), immediately after SAH (POST-SAH), and a historical comparison (3/19/2019-6/30/2019) (CONTROL) - and compared in separate analyses. Groups were compared using chi-square tests for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables.Results: 20,448 trauma patients (13,634 male, 6,814 female) were identified across three time-periods. The POST-SAH group had higher rates of any drug (26.2% vs. 21.6% and 24.7%, OR = 1.26 and 1.08, p < .001 and p = .035), amphetamine (10.4% vs. 7.5% and 9.3%, OR = 1.43 and 1.14, p < .001 and p = .023), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (13.8% vs. 11.0% and 11.4%, OR = 1.30 and 1.25, p < .001 and p < .001), and 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA) (0.8% vs. 0.4% and 0.2%, OR = 2.02 and 4.97, p = .003 and p < .001) positivity compared to PRE-SAH and CONTROL groups. Alcohol concentration and positivity were similar between groups (p > .05).Conclusion: This Southern California multicenter study demonstrated increased amphetamine, MDMA, and THC positivity in trauma patients after SAH, but no difference in alcohol positivity or blood concentration. Drug prevention strategies should continue to be adapted within and outside of hospitals during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance Abuse Detection/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers , Young Adult
9.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(5): 1335-1342, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241588

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is mounting evidence that surgical patients with COVID-19 have higher morbidity and mortality than patients without COVID-19. Infection is prevalent amongst the trauma population, but any effect of COVID-19 on trauma patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on a trauma population, hypothesizing increased mortality and pulmonary complications for COVID-19-positive (COVID) trauma patients compared to propensity-matched COVID-19-negative (non-COVID) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of trauma patients presenting to 11 Level-I and II trauma centers in California between 1/1/2019-6/30/2019 and 1/1/2020-6/30/2020 was performed. A 1:2 propensity score model was used to match COVID to non-COVID trauma patients using age, blunt/penetrating mechanism, injury severity score, Glasgow Coma Scale score, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 20,448 trauma patients were identified during the study period. 53 COVID trauma patients were matched with 106 non-COVID trauma patients. COVID patients had higher rates of mortality (9.4% vs 1.9%, p = 0.029) and pneumonia (7.5% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.011), as well as a longer mean length of stay (LOS) (7.47 vs 3.28 days, p < 0.001) and intensive care unit LOS (1.40 vs 0.80 days, p = 0.008), compared to non-COVID patients. CONCLUSION: This multicenter retrospective study found increased rates of mortality and pneumonia, as well as a longer LOS, for COVID trauma patients compared to a propensity-matched cohort of non-COVID patients. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings and to elucidate the underlying pathways responsible for higher mortality in COVID trauma patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
11.
Surgery ; 170(3): 962-968, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 in the United States led to a variety of mandates intended to decrease population movement and "flatten the curve." However, there is evidence some are not able to stay-at-home due to certain disadvantages, thus remaining exposed to both coronavirus disease 2019 and trauma. We therefore sought to identify any unequal effects of the California stay-at-home orders between races and insurance statuses in a multicenter study utilizing trauma volume data. METHODS: A posthoc multicenter retrospective analysis of trauma patients presenting to 11 centers in Southern California between the dates of January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, and January 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019, was performed. The number of trauma patients of each race/insurance status was tabulated per day. We then calculated the changes in trauma volume related to stay-at-home orders for each race/insurance status and compared the magnitude of these changes using statistical resampling. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, there was a 40.1% drop in total trauma volume, which occurred 20 days after stay-at-home orders. During stay-at-home orders, the average daily trauma volume of patients with Medicaid increased by 13.7 ± 5.3%, whereas the volume of those with Medicare, private insurance, and no insurance decreased. The average daily trauma volume decreased for White, Black, Asian, and Latino patients with the volume of Black and Latino patients dropping to a similar degree compared to White patients. CONCLUSION: This retrospective multicenter study demonstrated that patients with Medicaid had a paradoxical increase in trauma volume during stay-at-home orders, suggesting that the most impoverished groups remain disproportionately exposed to trauma during a pandemic, further exacerbating existing health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/ethnology , California/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Retrospective Studies
12.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 14, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic has occurred, nations showed their unpreparedness to deal with a mass casualty incident of this proportion and severity, which resulted in a tremendous number of deaths even among healthcare workers. The World Society of Emergency Surgery conceived this position paper with the purpose of providing evidence-based recommendations for the management of emergency surgical patients under COVID-19 pandemic for the safety of the patient and healthcare workers. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) through the MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and SCOPUS databases. Synthesis of evidence, statements and recommendations were developed in accordance with the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: Given the limitation of the evidence, the current document represents an effort to join selected high-quality articles and experts' opinion. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this position paper is to provide an exhaustive guidelines to perform emergency surgery in a safe and protected environment for surgical patients and for healthcare workers under COVID-19 and to offer the best management of COVID-19 patients needing for an emergency surgical treatment. We recommend screening for COVID-19 infection at the emergency department all acute surgical patients who are waiting for hospital admission and urgent surgery. The screening work-up provides a RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab test and a baseline (non-contrast) chest CT or a chest X-ray or a lungs US, depending on skills and availability. If the COVID-19 screening is not completed we recommend keeping the patient in isolation until RT-PCR swab test result is not available, and to manage him/she such as an overt COVID patient. The management of COVID-19 surgical patients is multidisciplinary. If an immediate surgical procedure is mandatory, whether laparoscopic or via open approach, we recommend doing every effort to protect the operating room staff for the safety of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Perioperative Care/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Emergencies , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laparoscopy/methods , Laparoscopy/standards , Pandemics , Perioperative Care/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 714-721, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a statewide stay-at-home (SAH) order in California beginning March 19, 2020, forcing large-scale behavioral changes and taking an emotional and economic toll. The effects of SAH orders on the trauma population remain unknown. We hypothesized an increase in rates of penetrating trauma, gunshot wounds, suicide attempts, and domestic violence in the Southern California trauma population after the SAH order. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis of all trauma patients presenting to 11 American College of Surgeons levels I and II trauma centers spanning seven counties in California was performed. Demographic data, injury characteristics, clinical data, and outcomes were collected. Patients were divided into three groups based on injury date: before SAH from January 1, 2020, to March 18, 2020 (PRE), after SAH from March 19, 2020, to June 30, 2020 (POST), and a historical control from March 19, 2019, to June 30, 2019 (CONTROL). POST was compared with both PRE and CONTROL in two separate analyses. RESULTS: Across all periods, 20,448 trauma patients were identified (CONTROL, 7,707; PRE, 6,022; POST, 6,719). POST had a significantly increased rate of penetrating trauma (13.0% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001 and 13.0% vs. 9.9%, p < 0.001) and gunshot wounds (4.5% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002 and 4.5% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.025) compared with PRE and CONTROL, respectively. POST had a suicide attempt rate of 1.9% and a domestic violence rate of 0.7%, which were similar to PRE (p = 0.478, p = 0.514) and CONTROL (p = 0.160, p = 0.618). CONCLUSION: This multicenter Southern California study demonstrated an increased rate of penetrating trauma and gunshot wounds after the COVID-19 SAH orders but no difference in attempted suicide or domestic violence rates. These findings may provide useful information regarding resource utilization and a target for societal intervention during the current or future pandemic(s). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , California/epidemiology , Female , Historically Controlled Study , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 13, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143232

ABSTRACT

We present the New Year letter from the WSES board to wish everyone a new year full of positive surprises and good news, despite COVID-19 pandemic.We confirm the WSES primary aim: to promote education in emergency surgery putting together all the world experts on emergency surgery without restrictions or boundaries, in inclusivity, equality, and equal opportunities. This will be the year of innovations and WSES will assess the application of artificial intelligence technologies in emergency and trauma surgery.Thank you All for trusting us with your collaboration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Emergency Medicine/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 26, 2020 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47590

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world is potentially facing one of the most difficult infectious situations of the last decades. COVID-19 epidemic warrants consideration as a mass casualty incident (MCI) of the highest nature. An optimal MCI/disaster management should consider all four phases of the so-called disaster cycle: mitigation, planning, response, and recovery. COVID-19 outbreak has demonstrated the worldwide unpreparedness to face a global MCI.This present paper thus represents a call for action to solicitate governments and the Global Community to actively start effective plans to promote and improve MCI management preparedness in general, and with an obvious current focus on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense/standards , Coronavirus Infections , Disaster Planning/standards , Mass Casualty Incidents , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Global Health , Human Rights/standards , Humans , Mass Casualty Incidents/classification , Risk Assessment
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