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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): JC17, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716078

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Spyropoulos AC, Goldin M, Giannis D, et al. Efficacy and safety of therapeutic-dose heparin vs standard prophylactic or intermediate-dose heparins for thromboprophylaxis in high-risk hospitalized patients with COVID-19: the HEP-COVID randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:1612-20. 34617959.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced
2.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): JC16, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708592

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Sholzberg M, Tang GH, Rahhal H, et al. Effectiveness of therapeutic heparin versus prophylactic heparin on death, mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission in moderately ill patients with covid-19 admitted to hospital: RAPID randomised clinical trial. BMJ. 2021;375:n2400. 34649864.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE)-including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST)-may occur early after vaccination against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We sought to describe the site, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of VTE after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In a prospective study using the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) platform, patients with VTE 4-30 days after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (1 February 2021 through 30 April 2021) were included. VTE patients recruited from the same centers into RIETE in the same months in 2018-2019 were selected as the reference group. All-cause mortality and major bleeding were the main study outcomes. RESULTS: As of 30 April 2020, 102 patients with post-vaccination VTEs had been identified (28 after adenovirus-based vaccination [ChAdOx1 nCov-19; AstraZeneca] and 74 after mRNA-based vaccination [mRNA-1273; Moderna, and BNT162b2; Pfizer]). Compared with 911 historical controls, patients with VTE after adenovirus-based vaccination more frequently had CVST (10.7% vs. 0.4%, p < 0.001) or thrombosis at multiple sites (17.9% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.001), more frequently had thrombocytopenia (40.7% vs. 14.7%, p < 0.001), and had higher 14-day mortality (14.3% vs. 0.7%; odds ratio [OR]: 25.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.7-94.9) and major bleeding rates (10.3% vs. 1.0%, OR: 12.03, 95% CI: 3.07-47.13). The site of thrombosis, accompanying thrombocytopenia, and 14-day mortality rates were not significantly different for patients with VTE after mRNA-based vaccination, compared with historical controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with historical controls, VTE after adenovirus-based vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is accompanied by thrombocytopenia, occurs in unusual sites, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Registries , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , /administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Time Factors , Vaccination/mortality
4.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569320

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop pulmonary embolism (PE) in the full spectrum of patient care settings need to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics, treatment, and 90-day outcomes in patients diagnosed with PE while recovering from COVID-19 in the outpatient setting versus those who were diagnosed with PE while being hospitalized with COVID-19. Data from the international Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry were used. The major study outcomes were all-cause death, major bleeding, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrences during the first 90 days after PE. From March 2020 to March 2021, 737 patients with COVID-19 experienced acute PE. Of these, 340 (46%) were recovering from COVID-19 as outpatients (267 patients who had been treated at home for COVID-19 and 73 discharged after being hospitalized with COVID-19). Compared with inpatients with COVID-19, those recovering in the outpatient setting upon PE were less likely to be men (odds ratio [OR]: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.72) and less likely to have hypertension (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41-0.74) or diabetes (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.33-0.76). At 90-day follow-up, eight patients (none recovering from COVID-19 as outpatient vs. 2.4% of inpatients with COVID-19) developed recurrent VTE, 34 (1.9 vs. 7.9%) had major bleeding, and 128 (10 vs. 24%) died. On multivariable analysis, inpatients with COVID-19 were at a higher risk of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 6.80; 95% CI: 1.52-30.4) or death (adjusted HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.40-3.58). In conclusion, using a large multinational registry of patients with COVID-19 who experienced PE, thromboembolic episodes occurring in those recovering from COVID-19 as outpatients were associated with less ominous outcomes than inpatients with COVID-19.

6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(12): 3080-3089, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with macro- and micro-thromboses, which are triggered by endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, and uncontrolled inflammatory response. Conventional antithrombotic agents are under assessment in dozens of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with COVID-19, with preliminary results not demonstrating benefit in several studies. OBJECTIVES: Given the possibility that more novel agents with antithrombotic effects may have a potential utility for management of patients with COVID-19, we assessed ongoing RCTs including these agents with their potential mechanism of action in this population. METHODS: We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify RCTs of novel antithrombotic agents in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Based on a systematic literature search, 27 RCTs with 10 novel antithrombotic agents (including nafamostat, dociparstat, rNAPc2, and defibrotide) were identified. The results from these trials have not been disseminated yet. The studied drugs in the ongoing or completed RCTs include agents affecting the coagulation cascade, drugs affecting endothelial activation, and mixed acting agents. Their postulated antithrombotic mechanisms of action and their potential impact on patient management are summarized. CONCLUSION: Some novel antithrombotic agents have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, which may help reduce the viral load or fibrosis, and improve oxygenation. Results from ongoing RCTs will elucidate their actual role in the management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents , Antiviral Agents , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(16): 1635-1654, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation, endothelial activation, and multiorgan manifestations. Lipid-modulating agents may be useful in treating patients with COVID-19. These agents may inhibit viral entry by lipid raft disruption or ameliorate the inflammatory response and endothelial activation. In addition, dyslipidemia with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels portend worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Upon a systematic search, 40 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with lipid-modulating agents were identified, including 17 statin trials, 14 omega-3 fatty acids RCTs, 3 fibrate RCTs, 5 niacin RCTs, and 1 dalcetrapib RCT for the management or prevention of COVID-19. From these 40 RCTs, only 2 have reported preliminary results, and most others are ongoing. This paper summarizes the ongoing or completed RCTs of lipid-modulating agents in COVID-19 and the implications of these trials for patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fibric Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Niacin/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/pharmacology , Lipid Regulating Agents/therapeutic use , Niacin/pharmacology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use
10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(12): 3080-3089, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with macro- and micro-thromboses, which are triggered by endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, and uncontrolled inflammatory response. Conventional antithrombotic agents are under assessment in dozens of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with COVID-19, with preliminary results not demonstrating benefit in several studies. OBJECTIVES: Given the possibility that more novel agents with antithrombotic effects may have a potential utility for management of patients with COVID-19, we assessed ongoing RCTs including these agents with their potential mechanism of action in this population. METHODS: We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify RCTs of novel antithrombotic agents in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Based on a systematic literature search, 27 RCTs with 10 novel antithrombotic agents (including nafamostat, dociparstat, rNAPc2, and defibrotide) were identified. The results from these trials have not been disseminated yet. The studied drugs in the ongoing or completed RCTs include agents affecting the coagulation cascade, drugs affecting endothelial activation, and mixed acting agents. Their postulated antithrombotic mechanisms of action and their potential impact on patient management are summarized. CONCLUSION: Some novel antithrombotic agents have pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, which may help reduce the viral load or fibrosis, and improve oxygenation. Results from ongoing RCTs will elucidate their actual role in the management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents , Antiviral Agents , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of different prophylactic anticoagulation regimens among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. We pooled evidence from available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to provide insights on this topic. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched for RCTs comparing treatment with an escalated-dose (intermediate-dose or therapeutic-dose) versus a standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation regimen in critically and non-critically-ill COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization and without a formal indication for anticoagulation. The primary efficacy endpoint was all-cause death, and the primary safety endpoint was major bleeding. Seven RCTs were identified, including 5,154 patients followed on average of 33 days. Compared to standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation, escalated-dose prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with a reduction of all-cause death (17.8% vs. 18.6%; Risk Ratio [RR] 0.96, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.78-1.18) but was associated with an increase in major bleeding (2.4% vs. 1.4%; RR 1.73, 95%CI 1.15-2.60). Compared to prophylactic anticoagulation used at a standard-dose, an escalated-dose was associated with lower rates of venous thromboembolism (2.5% vs. 4.7%; RR 0.55, 95%CI 0.41-0.74) without a significant effect on myocardial infarction (RR 0.80, 95%CI 0.47-1.36), stroke (RR 0.94, 95%CI 0.43-2.09), or systemic arterial embolism (RR 1.20, 95%CI 0.29-4.95). There were no significant interactions in the subgroup analysis for critically and non-critically-ill patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide comprehensive and high-quality evidence for the use of standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation over an escalated-dose regimen as routine standard of care for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who do not have an indication for therapeutic anticoagulation, irrespective of disease severity. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021257203).

12.
Chest ; 159(6): 2513, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290754
14.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 131-141, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic complications are considered among the main extrapulmonary manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal type and duration of prophylactic antithrombotic therapy in these patients remain unknown. METHODS: This article reports the final (90-day) results of the Intermediate versus Standard-dose Prophylactic anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents with COVID-19: An opeN label randomized controlled trial (INSPIRATION) study. Patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care were randomized to intermediate-dose versus standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation for 30 days, irrespective of hospital discharge status. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of adjudicated venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or all-cause death. The main safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 600 randomized patients, 562 entered the modified intention-to-treat analysis (median age [Q1, Q3]: 62 [50, 71] years; 237 [42.2%] women), of whom 336 (59.8%) survived to hospital discharge. The primary outcome occurred in 132 (47.8%) of patients assigned to intermediate dose and 130 (45.4%) patients assigned to standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1.55, p = 0.11). Findings were similar for other efficacy outcomes, and in the landmark analysis from days 31 to 90 (HR: 1.59, 95% CI: 0.45-5.06). There were 7 (2.5%) major bleeding events in the intermediate-dose group (including 3 fatal events) and 4 (1.4%) major bleeding events in the standard-dose group (none fatal) (HR: 1.82, 95% CI: 0.53-6.24). CONCLUSION: Intermediate-dose compared with standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation did not reduce a composite of death, treatment with ECMO, or venous or arterial thrombosis at 90-day follow-up.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Iran/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/mortality
15.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(8): 1981-1989, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Some local protocols suggest using intermediate or therapeutic doses of anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the incidence of bleeding, predictors of major bleeding, or the association between bleeding and mortality remain largely unknown. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 that received intermediate or therapeutic doses of anticoagulants from March 25 to July 22, 2020, to identify those at increased risk for major bleeding. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to explore the risk factors associated with major bleeding. RESULTS: During the study period, 1965 patients were enrolled. Of them, 1347 (69%) received intermediate- and 618 (31%) therapeutic-dose anticoagulation, with a median duration of 12 days in both groups. During the hospital stay, 112 patients (5.7%) developed major bleeding and 132 (6.7%) had non-major bleeding. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate for major bleeding was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36%-54%) and for non-major bleeding 32% (95% CI: 24%-40%). Multivariable analysis showed increased risk for in-hospital major bleeding associated with D-dimer levels >10 times the upper normal range (hazard ratio [HR], 2.23; 95% CI, 1.38-3.59), ferritin levels >500 ng/ml (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.02-3.95), critical illness (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.14-3.18), and therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.01-1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 receiving intermediate- or therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation, a major bleeding event occurred in 5.7%. Use of therapeutic-intensity anticoagulation, critical illness, and elevated D-dimer or ferritin levels at admission were associated with increased risk for major bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(15): 1903-1921, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235916

ABSTRACT

Endothelial injury and microvascular/macrovascular thrombosis are common pathophysiological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, the optimal thromboprophylactic regimens remain unknown across the spectrum of illness severity of COVID-19. A variety of antithrombotic agents, doses, and durations of therapy are being assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focus on outpatients, hospitalized patients in medical wards, and patients critically ill with COVID-19. This paper provides a perspective of the ongoing or completed RCTs related to antithrombotic strategies used in COVID-19, the opportunities and challenges for the clinical trial enterprise, and areas of existing knowledge, as well as data gaps that may motivate the design of future RCTs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Thromboembolism/virology
18.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1325, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104490

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in a hyperinflammatory state, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial injury, and thrombotic complications, among other sequelae. Statins, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties, have been studied in the setting of other viral infections, but their benefit has not been assessed in COVID-19. This is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with COVID-19 from February 1st through May 12th, 2020 with study period ending on June 11th, 2020. Antecedent statin use was assessed using medication information available in the electronic medical record. We constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to predict the propensity of receiving statins, adjusting for baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and outpatient medications. The primary endpoint includes in-hospital mortality within 30 days. A total of 2626 patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 951 (36.2%) were antecedent statin users. Among 1296 patients (648 statin users, 648 non-statin users) identified with 1:1 propensity-score matching, statin use is significantly associated with lower odds of the primary endpoint in the propensity-matched cohort (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.36-0.62, p < 0.001). We conclude that antecedent statin use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is associated with lower inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Thrombosis Update ; : 100029, 2020.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-989353

ABSTRACT

Background Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and raised D-dimer levels have high rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods We used data from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 that were tested for pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) because of raised D-dimer levels. We aimed to identify patients at increased risk for VTE. Results From March 25 to July 5th 2020, 1,306 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and raised D-dimer levels underwent testing for VTE in 12 centers. In all, 171 of 714 (24%) had PE, and 161 of 810 (20%) had DVT. The median time elapsed from admission to VTE testing was 12 days, and the median time from D-dimer measurement to testing 2 days. Most patients with VTE were men (62%), mean age was 62±15 years, 45% were in an intensive care unit. Overall, 681 patients (52%) received VTE prophylaxis with standard doses, 241 (18%) with intermediate doses and 100 (7.7%) with therapeutic doses of anticoagulants. On multivariable analysis, patients with D-dimer levels >20 times the upper normal range (19% of the whole cohort) were at increased risk for VTE (odds ratio [OR]: 3.24;95%CI: 2.18-4.83), as were those with a platelet count <100,000/μL (OR: 4.17;95%CI: 1.72-10.0). Conclusions Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and D-dimer levels >20 times the upper normal range were at an increased risk for VTE. This may help to identify what patients could likely benefit from the use of higher than recommended doses of anticoagulants for VTE prophylaxis.

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