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1.
Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences ; 20(3):117-118, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081594

ABSTRACT

Among all the multidisciplinary fields, biomedical is the fastest growing. Its diversified skills in biological as well as engineering sciences makes it a unique pillar of the any healthcare unit to create unique solutions while pertaining to healthcare standards. However, in Pakistan, the importance of biomedical field was recognized later.1 Here are several causes for this. First, we mix biomedical degree with pure medical science, and second, all relevant vacancies in Pakistan are filled by electronics and electrical engineers. It would be difficult to underline the importance of biomedical graduates in Pakistan without defining their employment positions and duties. Many companies who are working with biomedical equipment, in particular, have begun to provide special vacancies and quotas for biomedical graduates to emphasize the importance of biomedical field and to give it equal merit like all other fields. Many HEIs have started offering bachelors program in the biomedical field. Currently, the bachelor degree in Biomedical Engineering is offered by the University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore (KCK Campus), Riphah University, Lahore, Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Salim Habib University, Karachi, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, and Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro.2 Bachelor degrees in biomedical technology is offered by The University of Lahore, Lahore, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore (KSK Campus), Foundation University, Rawalpindi Campus, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, NFC Institute of Engineering & Technology, Multan, Superior University, Lahore, Ziauddin University, Karachi, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Punjab Tianjin University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, and National University of Technology, Islamabad.3 Defining the role of biomedical personnel in health-care enables them to serve for hospitals, firms working with equipment as well as in research and development and regulatory agencies. Biomedical personnel have a broad spectrum for their career prospect, and they have greater opportunities to pursue postgraduate studies in different countries around the globe. Their importance cannot be denied since they are a crucial pillar in healthcare in times of need, such as in times of COVID-19 when society as a whole went in recession and fell under the need for more biomedical personnel. The difference between biomedical engineering and biomedical technology is always a source of debate for students and parents. A student who graduates in biomedical engineering will receive a Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) registration number, whereas a biomedical technologist will receive a National Technology Council (NTC) registration number.2,3 Both PEC and the NTC are accreditation bodies in Pakistan that seek to ensure the quality of education and make it comparable to worldwide educational standards in higher education institutions. © 2022. Maria Shahzadi, et al.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066087

ABSTRACT

In this study, we surveyed 635 participants to determine: (a) major causes of mental stress during the pandemic and its future impacts, and (b) diversity in public perception of the COVID-19 vaccination and its acceptance (specifically for children). Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant associations between sociodemographic diversity, mental stress causes, and vaccination perception. For instance, statistical results indicate significant dependence between gender (we will use term 'sex' in the rest of the manuscript) and mental stress due to COVID-19 infection (p = 1.7 × 10-5). Over 25% of males indicated work-related stress compared to 35% in females, however, females indicated that they were more stressed (17%) due to relationships compared to males (12%). Around 30% of Asian/Arabic participants do not feel that the vaccination is safe as compared to 8% of white British and 22% of white Europeans, indicating significant dependence (p = 1.8 × 10-8) with ethnicity. More specifically, vaccination acceptance for children is significantly dependent with ethnicity (p = 3.7 × 10-5) where only 47% participants show willingness towards children's vaccination. The primary dataset in this study along with experimental outcomes identifying sociodemographic information diversity with respect to public perception and acceptance of vaccination in children and potential stress factors might be useful for the public and policymakers to help them be better prepared for future epidemics, as well as working globally to combat mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
3.
4th International Conference on Innovative Computing (ICIC) ; : 397-403, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1985463

ABSTRACT

The educational system in Pakistan relies on traditional methods of learning. Notably, only few institutions are prioritizing technological advancements and its implementation in education system. However, majority of the institutions adhere to conventional methods and ignoring its negative impacts. A sudden outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic is challenging for everyone. Specifically, the fear of pandemic particularly affected those students who were indulged in physical classes. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of already available studies discussing the challenges and role of Information Technology (IT) in the educational domain. The study mainly incorporated an online questionnaire-based survey among 400 university-going students of Punjab, Pakistan. Additionally, the study highlights the key challenges and essential IT platforms that helped students continue their education. Moreover, we analyzed the incorporated constructs with the assistance of using SPSS and AMOS. Besides, our results confirm that Information Technology (IT) played an essential role in students' lives in their education. Our research shows that the role of IT in our education system is highly essential to be implemented. Although there are innumerable challenges, yet IT has core importance in the education sector during the pandemic. Moreover, the research intends to safeguard the education budget for better learning outcomes in Pakistan Punjab's educational level COVID-19 pandemic. Institutions and students are encouraged to adopt IT, seeing its inevitable role in education.

4.
Nanofabrication ; 7:19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1980003

ABSTRACT

With the exponential rise in infections by CoV-2 and the scarcity of antiviral therapeutics, the development of an effective vaccine for the SARS CoV-2 is critical. The emerging pandemic has prompted the international science community to seek answers in therapeutic agents, including vaccines, to battle the SARS CoV-2. The various scientific literature on SARS CoV, to a lesser degree, MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), has mentored vaccine techniques for the unique Coronavirus. This disease, COVID-19, is triggered by SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 that needs vaccine protection. Vaccines producing significant amounts of virus-neutralizing antibodies with high affinity may be the only way to combat infection while avoiding negative consequences. There is a summary of numerous vaccine contenders in the review, including nucleotide, vector-based vaccines, & subunit, and attenuated & killed types. That has previously shown preventive effects against the MERS-CoV & SARS-CoV, while suggesting that these candidates may yield a safe and efficient vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. Vector-based vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, genetic vaccines, and protein subunit types for passive immunization are among the vaccination platforms currently being evaluated for the CoV-2 virus;each has its own set of benefits and drawbacks. The clinical safety and effectiveness evidence is the main challenging research task for this possible vaccine developed in the lab. The most challenging aspect of production is constructing and validating distribution platforms worthy of mass-producing the vaccine on a larger scale. Since target vaccine groups include high-risk people above the age of 60, including severe co-morbid diseases, the healthcare staff, and those engaged in vital industries, an effective COVID-19 vaccine would need a careful confirmation of effectiveness and detrimental reactivity. The study summarises efforts devoted to developing an efficient vaccine for the new Coronavirus that devastated the global economy, people's health, and even their lives.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-564-S-565, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, the causative organism for COVID-19, uses ACE2 to enter human cells. Pancreatic ductal, acinar and islet cells also express ACE-2;therefore, involvement of the pancreas is plausible. Elevated lipase and cases of acute pancreatitis related to COVID-19 have been reported in previous studies. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) have a low-grade inflammatory state and pancreatic parenchymal fibrosis, which may predispose them to pancreatic injury and worse COVID-19 outcomes. However, large studies reporting the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with chronic pancreatitis are lacking. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using TriNetX (a multiinstitutional research network). Prevalence and Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) (cases/ personday) of COVID-19 were charted for patients with CP between January 2020 and July 2021. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during this period were stratified into two groups based on the presence of CP (CP cohort and non-CP cohort). Outcomes of COVID-19 in the CP cohort were compared to the non-CP cohort after 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) for age, gender, race, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, lung disease, cirrhosis, smoking, and alcohol abuse. Results: A total of 4420 patients with CP diagnosed with COVID-19 were identified and compared to 1,169,773 patients without CP. A large proportion of patients with CP were diagnosed with COVID-19 and the IRR peaked between December 2020-January 2021 and then declined subsequently (Figure 1). Patients in the CP cohort were older and had a higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities (Table 1). In crude, unmatched analysis, COVID-19 patients with CP had higher mortality (4.96% vs 2.16%;RR: 2.29, 95% CI:2.02-2.61), need for hospitalization (RR: 3.64, 95% CI:3.47-3.83), critical care need (RR: 3.16, 95% CI:2.86-3.50), and acute kidney injury (AKI) (RR: 3.96, 95% CI:3.71-4.24) compared to patients without CP (Table 1). No residual imbalance was noted (SMD <0.1 for all covariates) after PSM. After PSM, no difference in mortality or rate of mechanical ventilation was noted, however, patients with CP had a significantly higher risk of hospitalizations (RR: 1.51, 95% CI:1.39-1.64) and AKI (RR: 1.28, 95% CI:1.16-1.42) (Table 1). No difference in mortality, hospitalization, and critical care was noted for patients with alcohol-induced CP vs other etiologies. Conclusion: Patients with CP have high mortality and risk of poor outcomes after COVID-19 due to the presence of a significant burden of comorbidities and risk factors for severe COVID-19. In addition, CP is independently associated with higher healthcare utilization and complications such as AKI in patients with COVID-19. (Figure Presented) Figure 1: Prevalence and Incidence rate (cases/person-day) of COVID-19 in patients with chronic pancreatitis (Table Presented) Table 1. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in matched and unmatched Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) and non-CP cohorts

6.
Biomedical Applications of Light Scattering XII 2022 ; 11974, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a marked disruption in the delivery of medical care, resulting in significant negative consequences for patients. Considering Covid-19 spreads primarily through expelled respiratory droplets, the ability to detect and measure droplets is critical to the development of clinical protective practices. However, most available methods are either unsuitable for the clinical setting, or cannot distinguish solid particles from liquid droplets. We developed a robust and portable optical instrument capable of measuring the size and quantity of droplets generated during medical procedures. Here we outline the system design and describe our preclinical measurements, which showed that surgical masks significantly reduce the number of expelled speech droplets. Copyright © 2022 SPIE.

7.
Atmosphere ; 13(3):22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1785505

ABSTRACT

In recent years, air pollution has become a serious threat, causing adverse health effects and millions of premature deaths in China. This study examines the spatial-temporal characteristics of ambient air quality in five provinces (Shaanxi (SN), Xinjiang (XJ), Gansu (GS), Ningxia (NX), and Qinghai (QH)) of northwest China (NWC) from January 2015 to December 2018. For this purpose, surface-level aerosol pollutants, including particulate matter (PMx, x = 2.5 and 10) and gaseous pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O-3)) were obtained from China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC). The results showed that fine particulate matter (PM2.5), coarse particulate matter (PM10), SO2, NO2, and CO decreased by 28.2%, 32.7%, 41.9%, 6.2%, and 27.3%, respectively, while O-3 increased by 3.96% in NWC during 2018 as compared with 2015. The particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels exceeded the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) Grade II standards as well as the WHO recommended Air Quality Guidelines, while SO2 and NO2 complied with the CAAQS Grade II standards in NWC. In addition, the average air quality index (AQI), calculated from ground-based data, improved by 21.3%, the proportion of air quality Class I (0-50) improved by 114.1%, and the number of pollution days decreased by 61.8% in NWC. All the pollutants' (except ozone) AQI and PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed the highest pollution levels in winter and lowest in summer. AQI was strongly positively correlated with PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO, while negatively correlated with O-3. PM10 was the primary pollutant, followed by O-3, PM2.5, NO2, CO, and SO2, with different spatial and temporal variations. The proportion of days with PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO as the primary pollutants decreased but increased for NO2 and O-3. This study provides useful information and a valuable reference for future research on air quality in northwest China.

8.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 6(1):1266-1267, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1772282

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals throughout the world face a brand-new issue as SARS-CoV-2, a newly discovered coronavirus, spreads around the world. The study's primary goal is to find out how COVID-19 affects cardiac patients, as well as any potential effects on heart tissue and whether cardiologists should be notified. Faisalabad Medical University conducted this descriptive investigation between September 2021 and December 2021. Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science articles published up to June 20th, 2021, were used in this inquiry. Also checked for additional relevant research were referenced references from previously published articles and reviews. People with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a greater vulnerability to contracting COVID-19, and as a result, their condition is more severe, and their prognosis is worse. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) hurt the health of these individuals, but they do not appear to increase the chance of infection. The prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension in 1527 COVID-19 patients was 9.7 percent, 16.4 percent, and 17.1 percent, respectively, according to a meta-analysis of six published studies from China. Patients with COVID-19 are more likely to have pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or develop new heart dysfunction throughout their illness, based on the illness's striking clinical presentation and its considerable burden.

9.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(1):322, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1754334
10.
CHEST ; 161(1):A229-A229, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1625405
11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-28, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594773

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with underlying malignancy are considered to be at a higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19. However, the data on the COVID-19 related outcomes in patients diagnosed with major gastrointestinal cancers is lacking. We aimed to investigate the patients' characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 infection in patients with a preexisting diagnosis of GI cancer. Methods: A search query was performed to identify all adult patients (≥ 18 years) diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 15, 2020, and July 15, 2020, on TriNet Database. The search criteria to identify potential COVID-19 patients were based on specific COVID-19 diagnosis codes or positive laboratory confirmation of COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 and a diagnosis of the malignant esophagus, gastric, pancreatobiliary, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer ever were included in the GI cancer group. Patients with COVID-19 who never had a diagnosis of GI cancer were included in the control group. The main outcomes were the 30-day risk for mortality, mechanical ventilation, and hospitalization after adjusting for confounding factors with 1:1 propensity score matching. For each outcome, the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to compare the outcomes. Results: A total of 434,375 adult patients from 40 HCO’s diagnosed with major GI cancers were identified in the Research Network. We identified a total of 1043 patients in the cancer group and 111,373 patients in the control group. Baseline demographics are described in the Table. More than half of the patients (53%) had a preexisting diagnosis of colorectal cancer while 19% of the patients had liver & intrahepatic bile duct cancers, and 15% had pancreato-biliary and 13% of patients were diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancers. In crude analysis, COVID-19 patients with pre-existing GI cancers had a significantly higher risk of hospitalization (RR 2.37, 95% CI 2.19-2.55), mechanical ventilation (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.69-2.75) and mortality (RR 3.81, 95% 3.14-4.63) compared to the control group. After PSM, the risk of hospitalization (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41) and mortality (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.06-1.93) was still higher in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing GI cancers. However, mechanical ventilation was not significantly different in the matched groups (RR 1.91, 95% CI 0.84-1.71). Conclusion: Our study found that outcomes in patients with pre-existing GI cancers who had COVID-19 infection were worse in regard to hospitalizations and mortality. This difference persisted even after robust propensity score matching. COVID-19 patients with pre-existing GI cancers should be aggressively managed with close monitoring and can be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination programs.(table presented) Baseline patient characteristics and 30 day outcomes in patients diagnosed with major GI cancers infected with COVID-19.

12.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-214, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594772

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an extraordinary burden on the healthcare system and has dramatically impacted the delivery of health care services including endoscopy procedures and routine gastroenterology inpatient and ambulatory care. This has led to significant concerns that major gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis can be delayed as a consequence of this pandemic. We aimed to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnoses of major GI cancers. Methods: Search queries were performed on the TriNetX platform to estimate the number of patient encounters, procedures, and diagnoses of new GI cancers per 100,000 patients at participating HCOs in the US between March 15, 2020, and July 15, 2020, and March 15, 2019, to July 15, 2019. Differences in the number of encounters, procedure volume, and new diagnoses before and during the pandemic are compared and reported as a percentage increase or decrease. Results: During the pandemic, major declines were seen in both the inpatient (13,334.50 vs. 22,256.57;%change: -42.99% per HCO) and emergency department (21,933.06 vs.35,225.72;% change: -40.09% per HCO) in comparison to the same interval in 2019. A relatively smaller decline was seen in the ambulatory visits (130,245.84 vs. 159,996.81;% change -22.55% per HCO) during the pandemic compared to 2019. A large increase in virtual or telehealth visits (7,266 vs. 14,612.67;% change +4465.02%) was seen during the pandemic compared to 2019. The volume of the upper endoscopies per 100,000 patients had a decline of 71.84% (52.47 per 100,000 vs. 186.38 per 100,000) with 2019. Similarly, a decline of 84.66% (46.02 per 100,000 vs. 299.95 per 100,000) was seen in the volume of colonoscopies during the pandemic compared with 2019. The number of right upper quadrant abdominal ultrasounds (344.74 vs. 536.79;% change = -35.78%) decreased during the pandemic in comparison to the same duration in 2019. The new diagnoses of the liver and intrahepatic cancers declined to almost one-third (34.13%) during the pandemic while the diagnoses of colorectal cancers decreased by 30.91 % as compared to the similar duration in 2019. We also noticed a decline in the number of new diagnoses in the esophageal and gastric cancers (26.96%) followed by pancreato-biliary cancers (-22.81%). Conclusion: Our study showed that the health care encounters and major GI procedures declined during the pandemic leading to a reduction of new diagnoses GI cancer cases among the patients who had health care encounters during the pandemic that could have led to missed opportunities for a new diagnosis of cancers. Delay in diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to an increase in late-stage cancer cases and poor cancer outcomes. Urgent policy and practice interventions are needed to address the consequences of delays in the diagnosis of these can-cers.(Table Presented)Number of patient encounters, endoscopic procedures and new diagnoses of major GI cancers per 100,000 patients with a percentage change before and during the pandemic.

13.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-582, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1592251

ABSTRACT

Introduction The use of social media (SM) as an educational and networking platform is rapidly growing among healthcare professionals (HCPs), with Twitter being a preferred media for gastroenterologists. This has led to the development of organized gastroenterology (GI)-focused weekly Twitter chats (GIT) to promote medical education while enhancing user engagement. Methods A survey instrument was designed to evaluate the use and effectiveness of GIT as an educational resource for HCPs and to ascertain its perceived value relative to more traditional sources of education. The survey was distributed via Twitter from the official accounts of #MondayNightIBD and #ScopingSundays. Questions regarding participant demographics, area of clinical practice, participation and effectiveness of GIT were included. Level of agreement was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. Results Of the 237 respondents, 49.8% were GI attending physicians, and 32.5% were GI fellows/trainees;75.5% currently practice in an academic medical center/hospital and 21.9% in a community hospital/private practice. 61.4% of respondents reported actively participating in GIT while 21.2% reported leading a weekly discussion/s. Regarding the impact of GIT on practice, majority of the respondents (89.1%) agreed/strongly agreed that it has improved their understanding of evidence-based treatment strategies, and their comfort level in navigating complex cases (90.3%), managing clinical scenarios not discussed in guidelines or textbooks (91.9%), and interpreting the results of new and emerging data and their implications (86.3%;Table 1). Respondents agreed/strongly agreed that GIT enhances expertise (90.3%), promotes decision making based on others’ expertise (88.9%), while also facilitating community building and /collegiality (95.3%), and networking (92.8%). Respondents selected GI journals (61.6%), GIT (62.3%), and conferences/symposia (51.9%) as the most effective tools to help improve their practice (Table 2). They also reported increasing use of the following educational platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic: SM including GIT (84.8%), webinars (80%), virtual conferences (65.8%), journals (24.1%), and podcasts (21.5%). Conclusions Among gastroenterologists who use Twitter, organized educational Twitter chats #MondayNightIBD and #ScopingSundays, rank high or highest as compared to other educational resources for evidence-based learning and clinical practice impact, while providing opportunities for community building and networking. The success of these educational platforms is likely due in part to the interactive and open access format that facilitates effective learner engagement. The use of Twitter in medical education is an emerging field of scholarship that merits further study.(Image Presented)

15.
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 8(1):364-384, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550441

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the most critical universal health disaster of this century. Millions of people are staying at home obeying lockdown to halt the spread of this novel virus. The spread of the virus has forced people to use the mask, gloves, hand sanitizer, etc. daily, and healthcare workers to use personal protection equipment following the WHO guidelines, resulting in huge amounts of medical waste. This pandemic has led to a slowdown of economic activities significantly, and consequently, stock markets have nosedived beyond speculation. Although the deadly coronavirus has taken away millions of precious lives and the livelihood of many sections of people worldwide, it has brought several positive changes in the world. Furthermore, it has led to a massive restoration of the environment and improved air and water quality. Pandemic showed the resilient nature of the environment, including air and water, when human activities are paused. In addition, we also discussed how this pandemic affects human lifestyle behavior. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7162-7184, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552083

ABSTRACT

The last two decades have witnessed the emergence of three deadly coronaviruses (CoVs) in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are still no reliable and efficient therapeutics to manage the devastating consequences of these CoVs. Of these, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the currently ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has posed great global health concerns. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented crisis with devastating socio-economic and health impacts worldwide. This highlights the fact that CoVs continue to evolve and have the genetic flexibility to become highly pathogenic in humans and other mammals. SARS-CoV-2 carries a high genetic homology to the previously identified CoV (SARS-CoV), and the immunological and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS contain key similarities and differences that can guide therapy and management. This review presents salient and updated information on comparative pathology, molecular pathogenicity, immunological features, and genetic characterization of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2; this can help in the design of more effective vaccines and therapeutics for countering these pathogenic CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pathology, Molecular/methods , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Global Health/economics , Humans , Male , Mammals , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence
17.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 15(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1535222

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the outcomes in term of hospital stay and mortality between vaccinated and nonvaccinated covid-19 patients. Study Design: Prospective/Observational Place and Duration: The study was conducted at Medicine department of Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi and Pak International Medical College Hayatabad Peshawar for six months duration from December 2020 to May 2021. Methodology: One hundred ten patients of either gender with covid-19 disease were enrolled. All the patients were confirmed with RT PCR. Patients were randomly divided in to two groups. Group I (vaccinated) comprised of 45 patients and group II (non-vaccinated) comprised of 65 patients. Severity of disease, hospital stay and mortality were compared between both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 24.0. Results: There were 74 (67.27%) males while 36 (32.73%) patients were females. Mean age of patients was 50.54±12.76 years. Mean BMI was 26.23±2.44 kg/m2. 10 (22.22%) patients in vaccinated group and 40 (61.54%) in nonvaccinated group had severe covid-19 disease, a significant difference was observed regarding severity of disease between both groups with p-value <0.05. Mortality rate and hospital stay were also high in nonvaccinated patients as compared to vaccinated (p-value <0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that non-vaccinated patients of covid-19 had prolonged hospital stay and high rate of severity of disease and mortality as compared to vaccinated patients.

18.
American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 116(SUPPL):S604, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1534741

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Occupational noise exposure can lead to noise-induced hearing loss (NHL) with serious health and economic consequences for workers. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have published a recommended exposure limit of 85-decibels (dB) for workplace exposure to prevent NHL. Despite these recommendations for workplace noise exposure, little is known about the noise levels generated during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. We aimed to investigate the noise generated by suction during GI endoscopy. Methods: Sound levels were measured using the “NIOSH Sound Level Meter” smart phone application. The noise generated from an adult colonoscope (Olympus HQ190) at various levels of suction were measured using Neptune 3 (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) mobile surgical suction device (SSD) that allows a wide range of suction pressure levels versus “traditional” wall suction (WS). Measurements were obtained as average levels over a 30-second interval in a quiet, outpatient ambulatory endoscopy room. Noise measurements were obtained at various positions within the room (endoscopist, nurse/ technician) as well as next to the endoscope suction button. The measurements were obtained with the endoscopist applying no suction, partial suction and complete suction. Results: With the SSD, sound levels increased as suction pressure increased. The highest sound levels were generated when no endoscopic suction was applied. None of the measurements exceeded recommended exposure limits set by the NIOSH (Table 1). With pressure levels set at 200 mmHg (traditional wall suction maximums) sound levels at the endoscopist for SSD and WS were 54.3 dB and 47.1 dB, respectively, e.g. more than 7 times louder. Conclusion: Little is known about the occupational safety of noise levels in endoscopy nor the contribution suction contributes. In this study, noise levels did not exceed the recommended exposure limit set by the NIOSH. However, SSD generates significantly more noise than WS at the same pressure levels. While these levels may not constitute an occupational hazard, they make communication more difficult especially in the COVID era of enhanced PPE (e.g. face shield, N95). The techniques developed during the study offer a simple process that can be implemented in any GI endoscopy suite to assess the contributions of suction to workplace noise..

19.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 13(10):10977-10993, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1498738

ABSTRACT

Rapid infectivity of SARS-CoV2 with recent viral variants is posing a challenge in the development of robust therapeutic strategies. On the other hand, microbiota is debated for its involvement in SARS-CoV2 infection with varied opinions. Although ample data about the role of microbiota and probiotics in respiratory viral infections are available, their role in COVID-19 is limited albeit emerging rapidly. The utilization of probiotics for the management of COVID-19 is still under investigation in many clinical trials. Existing information coupled with recent COVID-19 related studies can suggest various ways to use microbiota modulation and probiotics for managing this pandemic. Present article indicates the role of microbiota modulation and probiotics in respiratory infections. In addition, scattered evidence was gathered to understand the potential of microbiota and probiotics in the management of SARS-CoV2. Gut-airway microbiota connection is already apparent in respiratory tract viral infections, including SARS-CoV2. Though few clinical trials are evaluating microbiota and probiotics for COVID-19 management, the safety evaluation must be given more serious consideration because of the possibility of opportunistic infections among COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, the information about microbiota modulation using probiotics and prebiotics can be helpful to manage this outbreak and this review presents different aspects of this idea.

20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478937

ABSTRACT

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
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