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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502438


Neutrophils form sticky web-like structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as part of innate immune response. NETs are decondensed extracellular chromatin filaments comprising nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. NETs have been implicated in many gastrointestinal diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the regulatory mechanisms of NET formation and potential pharmacological inhibitors in the context of CRC have not been thoroughly discussed. In this review, we intend to highlight roles of NETs in CRC progression and metastasis as well as the potential of targeting NETs during colon cancer therapy.

Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Animals , Disease Progression , Extracellular Traps/physiology , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis/immunology
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(23): 28993-29008, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193152


Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an inevitable by-product of human activity and a major crisis for communities across the globe. In recent times, the recycling of MSW has drawn attention as the process can add value through resources from the recovered waste materials and facilitates the process of circular economy. However, during the unprecedented coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, the risk of infection with the highly contagious virus has proven detrimental to the continuation of MSW as a valuable resource. The volume of waste, especially household waste, is higher; face masks, PPE (personal protective equipment), and hazardous materials such as batteries and empty chlorine bottles are examples of extra waste that have arisen during the pandemic. Various countries have set up initiatives for MSW management, including safety measurements for employees in the MSW management sector. The use of disinfectant prior to sorting waste, as well as storing waste for 9 days, may help to inactivate the COVID-19 virus, ensuring an appropriate safety level for MSW management. This work aimed at studying different MSW management strategies, specific challenges, and possible solutions for better understanding for those involved in waste management, in addition to providing a possible management strategy during and post-COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste/analysis
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146220, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117648


Healthcare waste comprises the waste generated by healthcare facilities, medical laboratories and biomedical research facilities. Improper treatment of this waste poses serious risks of disease transmission to waste pickers, waste workers, health workers, patients, and the community in general through exposure to infectious agents. Poor management of the waste emits harmful and deleterious contaminants into society. However, contamination of highly contagious agents such as the COVID-19 virus has created enormous instability in healthcare waste handling and subsequent recycling because of the volume of the waste generated and its contagious nature. Several countries have adopted safety measures to combat this contamination and manage healthcare waste; however, these measures are insufficient and vary depending on the context of the country. In addition, the WHO has set out guidelines for management of healthcare waste. These guidelines are helping to manage the highly contagious healthcare waste resulting from the current pandemic. Proper healthcare waste management may add value by reducing the spread of the COVID-19 virus and increasing the recyclability of materials instead of sending them to landfill. Disinfecting and sorting out healthcare waste facilitates sustainable management and allows their utilization for valuable purposes. This review discusses the different healthcare solid waste management strategies practiced in different countries, the challenges faced during this management, and the possible solutions for overcoming these challenges. It also provides useful insights into healthcare solid waste management scenarios during the COVID-19 pandemic and a possible way forward.

COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Recycling , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste/analysis