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1.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 74(2):4363-4379, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2242182

ABSTRACT

Over the last several years, remote collaboration has been getting more attention in the research community because of the COVID-19 pandemic. In previous studies, researchers have investigated the effect of adding visual communication cues or shared views in collaboration, but there has not been any previous study exploring the influence between them. In this paper, we investigate the influence of view types on the use of visual communication cues. We compared the use of the three visual cues (hand gesture, a pointer with hand gesture, and sketches with hand gesture) across two view types (dependent and independent views), respectively. We conducted a user study, and the results showed that hand gesture and sketches with the hand gesture cues were well matched with the dependent view condition, and using a pointer with the hand gesture cue was suited to the independent view condition. With the dependent view, the hand gesture and sketch cues required less mental effort for collaborative communication, had better usability, provided better message understanding, and increased feeling of co-presence compared to the independent view. Since the dependent view supported the same viewpoint between the remote expert and a local worker, the local worker could easily understand the remote expert's hand gestures. In contrast, in the independent view case, when they had different viewpoints, it was not easy for the local worker to understand the remote expert's hand gestures. The sketch cue had a benefit of showing the final position and orientation of the manipulating objects with the dependent view, but this benefit was less obvious in the independent view case (which provided a further view compared to the dependent view) because precise drawing in the sketches was difficult from a distance. On the contrary, a pointer with the hand gesture cue required less mental effort to collaborate, had better usability, provided better message understanding, and an increased feeling of co-presence in the independent view condition than in the dependent view condition. The pointer cue could be used instead of a hand gesture in the independent view condition because the pointer could still show precise pointing information regardless of the view type. © 2023 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

2.
Computers, Materials and Continua ; 74(2):4363-4379, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146422

ABSTRACT

Over the last several years, remote collaboration has been getting more attention in the research community because of the COVID-19 pandemic. In previous studies, researchers have investigated the effect of adding visual communication cues or shared views in collaboration, but there has not been any previous study exploring the influence between them. In this paper, we investigate the influence of view types on the use of visual communication cues. We compared the use of the three visual cues (hand gesture, a pointer with hand gesture, and sketches with hand gesture) across two view types (dependent and independent views), respectively. We conducted a user study, and the results showed that hand gesture and sketches with the hand gesture cues were well matched with the dependent view condition, and using a pointer with the hand gesture cue was suited to the independent view condition. With the dependent view, the hand gesture and sketch cues required less mental effort for collaborative communication, had better usability, provided better message understanding, and increased feeling of co-presence compared to the independent view. Since the dependent view supported the same viewpoint between the remote expert and a local worker, the local worker could easily understand the remote expert’s hand gestures. In contrast, in the independent view case, when they had different viewpoints, it was not easy for the local worker to understand the remote expert’s hand gestures. The sketch cue had a benefit of showing the final position and orientation of the manipulating objects with the dependent view, but this benefit was less obvious in the independent view case (which provided a further view compared to the dependent view) because precise drawing in the sketches was difficult from a distance. On the contrary, a pointer with the hand gesture cue required less mental effort to collaborate, had better usability, provided better message understanding, and an increased feeling of co-presence in the independent view condition than in the dependent view condition. The pointer cue could be used instead of a hand gesture in the independent view condition because the pointer could still show precise pointing information regardless of the view type. © 2023 Tech Science Press. All rights reserved.

3.
20th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) ; : 57-62, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1746051

ABSTRACT

Eye-gaze plays an essential role in interpersonal communication. Its role in face-to-face interactions and those in virtual environments (VE) has been extensively explored. However, the neural correlates of eye-gaze in inter-personal communication have not been explored exhaustively. The research detailed in this paper is an attempt to explore the neural correlates of eye gaze among two interacting individuals in a VE. The choice of using a VE has been motivated by the increasing frequency with which we use a desktop or Head Mounted Display (HMD) based VEs to interact with each other. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the pace at which these technologies are being adopted for the purpose of remote collaboration. The pilot study described in this paper is an attempt to explore the effects of eye gaze on face-to-face interaction in a VE using the hyperscanning technique. This technique is used to measure neural activity and determine empirically whether the participants being measured display neural synchrony. Our results demonstrated that eye gaze directions appear to play a significant role in determining whether interacting individuals exhibit inter-brain synchrony. Results from this study can significantly benefit and contribute to positive outcomes for individuals with mental health disorders. We believe the techniques described here can be used to extend a high-quality mental health care to individuals irrespective of their geographical location.

4.
18th International Conference on Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering, CDVE 2021 ; 12983 LNCS:271-283, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1479463

ABSTRACT

Remote collaboration is becoming increasingly crucial, especially currently when travel is restricted because of the Covid-19 pandemic. People are looking for real-time and no-travel solutions to enable remote collaboration with colleagues and experts. A lot of research has been conducted on how to support remote guidance on physical tasks. However, these studies have mainly focused on development of technical components to support collaboration, while less attention has been paid into exploring and evaluating human factors that could influence remote collaboration. The aim of this paper is to identify human factors including culture, language, trust and social status for their possible effects on remote collaboration by reviewing their effects on computer-supported collaboration. This review adds more critical views of human perspectives into the current research mostly-focused on the technical side of remote guidance. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

5.
13th ACM SIGCHI Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems, EICS 2021 ; : 6-11, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1280489

ABSTRACT

Mental health conditions pose a major challenge for individuals, healthcare systems and society-and the COVID-19 pandemic has likely worsened this issue. According to the Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand, one in five people will develop a serious mood disorder, including depression, at some time in their life. Co-designed solutions to increase resilience and well-being in young people have specifically been recognised as part of the National Suicide Prevention Strategy and the New Zealand Health Strategy. Virtual Reality (VR) in mental health is an innovative field. Recent studies support the use of VR technology in the treatment of anxiety, phobia, and pain management. However, there is little research on using VR for supporting, treating and preventing depression. There is also very little work done in offering an individualised VR experience to improve mental health. In our earlier work, we presented iVR, a novel individualised VR experience for enhancing peoples' self-compassion, and in the long run, their mental health, and described its design and architecture. In this paper, we outline the results of a feasibility study conducted recently. Most participants believed introducing elements of choice within iVR enhanced their user experience and that iVR had the potential to enhance people's self-compassion. We also approached seven mental health professionals for feedback, who felt that introducing elements of choice within iVR would increase their knowledge of clients. Our contribution can pave the way for large-scale efficacy testing, clinical use, and cost-effective delivery of intelligent individualised VR technology for mental health therapy in future. © 2021 ACM.

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