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1.
Cancer Sci ; 113(4): 1531-1534, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779205

ABSTRACT

According to the current international guidelines, high-risk patients diagnosed with pathological T1 (pT1) colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent complete local resection but may have risk of developing lymph node metastasis (LNM) are recommended additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection. However, around 90% of the patients without LNM are exposed to the risk of being overtreated due to the insufficient pathological criteria for risk stratification of LNM. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a noninvasive biomarker for molecular residual disease and relapse detection after treatments including surgical and endoscopic resection of solid tumors. The CIRCULATE-Japan project includes a large-scale patient-screening registry of the GALAXY study to track ctDNA status of patients with stage II to IV or recurrent CRC that can be completely resected. Based on the CIRCULATE-Japan platform, we launched DENEB, a new prospective study, within the GALAXY study for patients with pT1 CRC who underwent complete local resection and were scheduled for additional intestinal resection with lymph node dissection based on the standard pathologic risk stratification criteria for LNM. The aim of this study is to explore the ability of predicting LNM using ctDNA analysis compared with the standard pathological criteria. The ctDNA assay will build new evidence to establish a noninvasive personalized diagnosis in patients, which will facilitate tailored/optimal treatment strategies for CRC patients.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA , Colorectal Neoplasms , Circulating Tumor DNA/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Liquid Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Transplant Proc ; 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant (KT) recipients are at high risk for developing severe COVID-19. Lowering immunosuppression levels in KT recipients with COVID-19 encourages native immune responses but can raise the risk of rejection. Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA), reported as a fraction of total cfDNA, is a proven biomarker for KT rejection. Total cfDNA levels are elevated in patients with COVID-19, which may depress dd-cfDNA fractions, potentially leading to missed rejections. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 29 KT recipients hospitalized with COVID-19 between April and November 2020 examined total and dd-cfDNA levels. Blood samples were collected after onset of COVID-19, with follow-up samples collected from a subset of patients, when infection had likely subsided. RESULTS: After COVID-19 diagnosis, the median total cfDNA level was elevated (7.9 multiples of median [MoM]). A significant decrease in total cfDNA levels was observed between the first and second time points (6.2 MoM, 1.0 MoM; P <001). A significant positive association was identified between total cfDNA levels and COVID-19 severity (P = .02; R2 = .19). Two patients with biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection had dd-cfDNA fractions below the 1% cutoff for rejection (0.20% and 0.78%), with elevated total cfDNA levels of 7.9 MoM and 41.8 MoM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, total cfDNA levels were elevated in KT patients with COVID-19, subsiding after resolution of infection. High total cfDNA levels may confound dd-cfDNA results, leading to failure to identify rejection. Considering total cfDNA levels is important in interpretation of dd-cfDNA tests for assessment of rejection in KT patients with COVID-19 or other infection.

3.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2915-2920, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294969

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant chemotherapy has reduced the risk of tumor recurrence and improved survival in patients with resected colorectal cancer. Potential utility of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) prior to and post surgery has been reported across various solid tumors. We initiated a new type of adaptive platform trials to evaluate the clinical benefits of ctDNA analysis and refine precision adjuvant therapy for resectable colorectal cancer, named CIRCULATE-Japan including three clinical trials. The GALAXY study is a prospectively conducted large-scale registry designed to monitor ctDNA for patients with clinical stage II to IV or recurrent colorectal cancer who can undergo complete surgical resection. The VEGA trial is a randomized phase III study designed to test whether postoperative surgery alone is noninferior to the standard therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for 3 months in patients with high-risk stage II or low-risk stage III colon cancer if ctDNA status is negative at week 4 after curative surgery in the GALAXY study. The ALTAIR trial is a double-blind, phase III study designed to establish the superiority of trifluridine/tipiracil as compared with placebo in patients with resected colorectal cancer who show circulating tumor-positive status in the GALAXY study. Therefore, CIRCULATE-Japan encompasses both "de-escalation" and "escalation" trials for ctDNA-negative and -positive patients, respectively, and helps to answer whether measuring ctDNA postoperatively has prognostic and/or predictive value. Our ctDNA-guided adaptive platform trials will accelerate clinical development toward further precision oncology in the field of adjuvant therapy. Analysis of ctDNA status could be utilized as a predictor of risk stratification for recurrence and to monitor the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy. ctDNA is a promising, noninvasive tumor biomarker that can aid in tumor monitoring throughout disease management.


Subject(s)
Circulating Tumor DNA/blood , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colonic Neoplasms/blood , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Japan , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Oxaliplatin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Pyrrolidines/administration & dosage , Thymine/administration & dosage , Trifluridine/administration & dosage
4.
Transplant Direct ; 7(5): e691, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207367

ABSTRACT

Beyond its widely recognized morbidity and mortality, coronavirus disease 2019 poses an additional health risk to renal allograft recipients. Detection and measurement of donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA), expressed as a fraction of the total cell-free DNA (cfDNA), has emerged as a noninvasive biomarker for allograft rejection. Here, we present a case report of a patient who was infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, 11 mo post-kidney transplant. The patient was serially monitored using an analytically and clinically validated massively multiplex PCR-based dd-cfDNA assay to assess allograft injury and risk for rejection. Over the course of infection, low dd-cfDNA fractions were observed (below the 1% cutoff) and were accompanied by unusually highly elevated levels of total cfDNA, which gradually declined as the infection resolved. The case study highlights the variability in total cfDNA levels during and after viral infection, and the need to consider both total and dd-cfDNA levels when clinically interpreting the results for allograft rejection. Furthermore, the study highlights the importance of serial testing, wherein an interplay between total cfDNA and dd-cfDNA can inform the optimization of a patient's immunosuppressive treatment regimen in response to infection.

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