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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 54-66, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894941

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Initial reports of case fatality rates (CFRs) among adults with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are highly variable.Objectives: To examine the CFR of patients with COVID-19 receiving IMV.Methods: Two authors independently searched PubMed, Embase, medRxiv, bioRxiv, the COVID-19 living systematic review, and national registry databases. The primary outcome was the "reported CFR" for patients with confirmed COVID-19 requiring IMV. "Definitive hospital CFR" for patients with outcomes at hospital discharge was also investigated. Finally, CFR was analyzed by patient age, geographic region, and study quality on the basis of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.Measurements and Results: Sixty-nine studies were included, describing 57,420 adult patients with COVID-19 who received IMV. Overall reported CFR was estimated as 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-52%). Fifty-four of 69 studies stated whether hospital outcomes were available but provided a definitive hospital outcome on only 13,120 (22.8%) of the total IMV patient population. Among studies in which age-stratified CFR was available, pooled CFR estimates ranged from 47.9% (95% CI, 46.4-49.4%) in younger patients (age ≤40 yr) to 84.4% (95% CI, 83.3-85.4%) in older patients (age >80 yr). CFR was also higher in early COVID-19 epicenters. Overall heterogeneity is high (I2 >90%), with nonsignificant Egger's regression test suggesting no publication bias.Conclusions: Almost half of patients with COVID-19 receiving IMV died based on the reported CFR, but variable CFR reporting methods resulted in a wide range of CFRs between studies. The reported CFR was higher in older patients and in early pandemic epicenters, which may be influenced by limited ICU resources. Reporting of definitive outcomes on all patients would facilitate comparisons between studies.Systematic review registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020186997).


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2210-2220, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893240

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of new therapeutic resources against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a priority in clinical research considering the minimal options currently available. To evaluate the adjuvant use of systemic oxygen-ozone administration in the early control of disease progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. PROBIOZOVID is an ongoing, interventional, randomized, prospective, and double-arm trial enrolling patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. From a total of 85 patients screened, 28 were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into ozone-autohemotherapy group (14) and control group (14). The procedure consisted in a daily double-treatment with systemic Oxygen-ozone administration for 7 days. All patients were treated with ad interim best available therapy. The primary outcome was delta in the number of patients requiring orotracheal-intubation despite treatment. Secondary outcome was the difference of mortality between the two groups. Moreover, hematological parameters were compared before and after treatment. No differences in the characteristics between groups were observed at baseline. As a preliminary report we have observed that one patient for each group needed intubation and was transferred to ITU. No deaths were observed at 7-14 days of follow up. Thirty-day mortality was 8.3% for ozone group and 10% for controls. Ozone therapy did not significantly influence inflammation markers, hematology profile, and lymphocyte subpopulations of patients treated. Ozone therapy had an impact on the need for the ventilatory support, although did not reach statistical significance. Finally, no adverse events related to the use of ozone-autohemotherapy were reported. Preliminary results, although not showing statistically significant benefits of ozone on COVID-19, did not report any toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Ozone/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/adverse effects , Ozone/adverse effects , Probiotics/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 33(1): 82-86, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is an international crisis placing tremendous strain on medical systems around the world. Like other specialties, neuroanesthesiology has been adversely affected and training programs have had to quickly adapt to the constantly changing environment. METHODS: An email-based survey was used to evaluate the effects of the pandemic on clinical workflow, clinical training, education, and trainee well-being. The impact of the International Council on Perioperative Neuroscience Training (ICPNT) accreditation was also assessed. RESULTS: Responses were received from 14 program directors (88% response rate) in 10 countries and from 36 fellows in these programs. Clinical training was adversely affected because of the cancellation of elective neurosurgery and other changes in case workflow, the introduction of modified airway and other protocols, and redeployment of trainees to other sites. To address educational demands, most programs utilized online platforms to organize clinical discussions, journal clubs, and provide safety training modules. Several initiatives were introduced to support trainee well-being during the pandemic. Feelings of isolation and despair among trainees varied from 2 to 8 (on a scale of 1 to 10). Fellows all reported concerns that their clinical training had been adversely affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because of decreased exposure to elective subspecialty cases and limited opportunities to complete workplace-based assessments and training portfolio requirements. Cancellation of examination preparation courses and delayed examinations were cited as common sources of stress. Programs accredited by the ICPNT reported that international networking and collaboration was beneficial to reduce feelings of isolation during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Neuroanesthesia fellowship training program directors introduced innovative ways to maintain clinical training, educational activity and trainee well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Accreditation/trends , Anesthesiology/education , Anesthesiology/trends , COVID-19 , Fellowships and Scholarships/trends , Neurology/education , Neurology/trends , Pandemics , Clinical Competence , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/trends
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239692, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov2 infection may trigger lung inflammation and acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome (ARDS) that requires active ventilation and may have fatal outcome. Considering the severity of the disease and the lack of active treatments, 14 patients with Covid-19 and severe lung inflammation received inhaled adenosine in the attempt to therapeutically compensate for the oxygen-related loss of the endogenous adenosine→A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated mitigation of the lung-destructing inflammatory damage. This off label-treatment was based on preclinical studies in mice with LPS-induced ARDS, where inhaled adenosine/A2AR agonists protected oxygenated lungs from the deadly inflammatory damage. The treatment was allowed, considering that adenosine has several clinical applications. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT: Fourteen consecutively enrolled patients with Covid19-related interstitial pneumonitis and PaO2/FiO2 ratio<300 received off-label-treatment with 9 mg inhaled adenosine every 12 hours in the first 24 hours and subsequently, every 24 days for the next 4 days. Fifty-two patients with analogue features and hospitalized between February and April 2020, who did not receive adenosine, were considered as a historical control group. Patients monitoring also included hemodynamic/hematochemical studies, CTscans, and SARS-CoV2-tests. RESULTS: The treatment was well tolerated with no hemodynamic change and one case of moderate bronchospasm. A significant increase (> 30%) in the PaO2/FiO2-ratio was reported in 13 out of 14 patients treated with adenosine compared with that observed in 7 out of52 patients in the control within 15 days. Additionally, we recorded a mean PaO2/FiO2-ratio increase (215 ± 45 vs. 464 ± 136, P = 0.0002) in patients receiving adenosine and no change in the control group (210±75 vs. 250±85 at 120 hours, P>0.05). A radiological response was demonstrated in 7 patients who received adenosine, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA load rapidly decreased in 13 cases within 7 days while no changes were recorded in the control group within 15 days. There was one Covid-19 related death in the experimental group and 11in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our short-term analysis suggests the overall safety and beneficial therapeutic effect of inhaled adenosine in patients with Covid-19-inflammatory lung disease suggesting further investigation in controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 299, 2020 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity and steatosis are associated with COVID-19 severe pneumonia. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced immune response are typical of these patients. In particular, adipose tissue is the organ playing the crucial role. So, it is necessary to evaluate fat mass and not simpler body mass index (BMI), because BMI leaves a portion of the obese population unrecognized. The aim is to evaluate the relationship between Percentage of Fat Mass (FM%) and immune-inflammatory response, after 10 days in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: Prospective observational study of 22 adult patients, affected by COVID-19 pneumonia and admitted to the ICU and classified in two sets: (10) lean and (12) obese, according to FM% and age (De Lorenzo classification). Patients were analyzed at admission in ICU and at 10th day. RESULTS: Obese have steatosis, impaired hepatic function, compromise immune response and higher inflammation. In addition, they have a reduced prognostic nutritional index (PNI), nutritional survival index for ICU patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study evaluating FM% in COVID-19 patient. We underlined obese characteristic with likely poorly prognosis and an important misclassification of obesity. A not negligible number of patients with normal BMI could actually have an excess of adipose tissue and therefore have an unfavorable outcome such as an obese. Is fundamental personalized patients nutrition basing on disease phases.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Male , Nutrition Assessment , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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