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Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 20(2): 174-182, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455340


BACKGROUND: Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are acquired pathological shunting lesions between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). CCFs are commonly treated via endovascular embolization, which theoretically restores physiological pressure differentials. OBJECTIVE: To present our institutional data with CCF treated with embolization and discuss endovascular routes, recurrence rates, and dynamic IOP changes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 42 CCF patients who underwent Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, California) embolization and pre- and postoperative IOP measurement at a single institution. RESULTS: CCFs were 19.0% direct (type A) and 81.0% indirect (types B, C, or D). Onyx-18 liquid embolisate was used during all embolizations. Overall rate of total occlusion was 83.3% and was statistically similar between direct and indirect fistulas. Preoperative IOP was elevated in 37.5%, 100.0%, 75.0%, and 50% in type A, B, C, and D fistulas, respectively. Average ΔIOP was -7.3 ± 8.5 mmHg (range: -33 to +8). Follow-up time was 4.64 ± 7.62 mo. Full angiographic occlusion was a predictor of symptom resolution at 1 mo (P = .026) and 6 mo (P = .021). Partial occlusion was associated with persistent symptoms postoperatively at 1 mo (P = .038) and 6 mo follow-up (P = .012). Beyond 6 mo, negative ΔIOP was associated with continued symptom improvement. Recurrence occurred in 9.5% of patients, all of which were indirect CCFs. CONCLUSION: Onyx embolization of CCF is an effective treatment for CCF and often results in the reversal of IOP elevation. Full occlusion predicts favorable clinical outcomes up to 6 mo. Postoperative IOP reduction may indicate favorable long-term clinical outcomes.

Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula , Cavernous Sinus , Embolization, Therapeutic , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/therapy , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Retrospective Studies
Orbit ; 40(6): 532-535, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360232


A 44-year-old male patient developed proptosis, edema, and erythema progressing to complete ptosis and supraduction deficit 2 days after positive COVID-19 test. He failed to improve on systemic antibiotics. MRI showed thickening and T2 enhancement of the superior rectus/levator complex consistent with orbital myositis. He improved on intravenous corticosteroids and experienced continued gradual improvement on oral steroids.

COVID-19 , Exophthalmos , Orbital Myositis , Adult , Exophthalmos/diagnosis , Exophthalmos/drug therapy , Exophthalmos/etiology , Humans , Male , Oculomotor Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Myositis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Myositis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 201: 106440, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059540


BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Additional time is needed to determine the exact impact of COVID-19 on acute cerebrovascular disease incidence, but recently published data has correlated COVID-19 to large vessel occlusion strokes. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report the first case of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) as the initial manifestation of COVID-19 infection. Subsequent neuroimaging revealed a large thrombus extending into the internal carotid artery. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the need to suspect COVID-19 infection in patients presenting with retinal arterial occlusion, including individuals who are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic for COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Vision Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Vision, Monocular/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , Vision Disorders/etiology