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1.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(5): 1917-1931, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009203

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (CoV), called novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), belongs to the Coronaviridae family which was originated from the sea market in Wuhan city in China, at the end of the year 2019. COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are belonging to the same family (Coronaviridae). The current outbreak of COVID-19 creates public concern and threats all over the world and now it spreads out to more than 250 countries and territories. The researchers and scientists from all over the world are trying to find out the therapeutic strategies to abate the morbidity and mortality rate of the COVID-19 pandemic. The replication, spreading, and severity of SARS-CoV2 depend on environmental settings. Noteworthy, meteorological parameters are considered as crucial factors that affect respiratory infectious disorders, although the controversial effect of the meteorological parameter is exposed against COVID-19. Besides, COVID-19 accelerates the pathogenesis of the neurological disorders. However, the pathogenic mechanisms between COVID-19 and neurological disorders are still unclear. Hence, this review is focused on the genomics and ecology of SARS-CoV2 and elucidated the effects of climatic factors on the progression of COVID-19. This review also critically finds out the vulnerability between COVID-19 and neurological disorders based on the latest research data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Pandemics
2.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 563478, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909021

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) was found at the seafood market of Hubei province in Wuhan, China, and this virus was officially named coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 is mainly characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) and creates public health concerns as well as significant threats to the economy around the world. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unclear and there is no effective treatment of this newly life-threatening and devastating virus. Therefore, it is crucial to search for alternative methods that alleviate or inhibit the spread of COVID-19. In this review, we try to find out the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms as well as transmissions of this novel virus. We also summarize therapeutic interventions and suggest antiviral treatments, immune-enhancing candidates, general supplements, and CoV specific treatments that control replication and reproduction of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 582025, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890344

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the COVID-2019 (coronavirus disease 2019) due to the infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has realized the requirement of alternative therapeutics to mitigate and alleviate this lethal infection. These alternative therapies are effective when they are started at the initial stage of the infection. Some drugs that were used in previous other related infections SARS-CoV-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-2012 could be potentially active against currently emerging SARS-CoV-2. This fact imparts some rationale of current interventions, in the absence of any specific therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. It is imperative to focus on the available antimicrobial and adjunct therapies during the current emergency state and overcome the challenges associated with the absence of robust controlled studies. There is no established set of drugs to manage SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. However, closely following patients' conditions and responding with the dosage guidelines of available drugs may significantly impact our ability to slow down the infection. Of note, it depends upon the condition of the patients and associated comorbid; therefore, the health workers need to choose the drug combinations judiciously until COVID-19 specific drug or vaccine is developed with the collective scientific rigor. In this article, we reviewed the available antimicrobial drug, supportive therapies, and probable high importance vaccines for the COVID-19 treatment.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 616, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686482

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related epidemic was first observed in Wuhan, China. In 2020, owing to the highly infectious and deadly nature of the virus, this widespread novel coronavirus disease 2019 (nCOVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic. Studies have revealed that various environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and air pollution may also affect the transmission pattern of COVID-19. Unfortunately, still, there is no specific drug that has been validated in large-scale studies to treat patients with confirmed nCOVID-19. However, remdesivir, an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has appeared as an auspicious antiviral drug. Currently, a large-scale study on remdesivir (i.e., 200 mg on first day, then 100 mg once/day) is ongoing to evaluate its clinical efficacy to treat nCOVID-19. Good antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was not observed with the use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Nonetheless, the combination of umifenovir and LPV/r was found to have better antiviral activity. Furthermore, a combination of hydroxychloroquine (i.e., 200 mg 3 times/day) and azithromycin (i.e., 500 mg on first day, then 250 mg/day from day 2-5) also exhibited good activity. Currently, there are also ongoing studies to evaluate the efficacy of teicoplanin and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in this article, we have analyzed the genetic diversity and molecular pathogenesis of nCOVID-19. We also present possible therapeutic options for nCOVID-19 patients.

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