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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488583

ABSTRACT

Rapid and unchecked industrialization and the combustion of fossil fuels have engendered a state of fear in urban settlements. Smog is a visible form of air pollution that arises due to the over-emissions of some primary pollutants like volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrocarbons, SO2, NO, and NO2 which further react in the atmosphere and give rise to toxic and carcinogenic secondary smog components. Smog reduces the visibility on roads and results in road accidents and cancellation of flights. Uptake of primary and secondary pollutants of smog is responsible for several deleterious diseases of which respiratory disorders, cardiovascular dysfunction, neurological disorders, and cancer are discussed here. Children and pregnant women are more prone to the hazards of smog. The worsening menace of smog on one hand and occurrence of pandemic i.e., COVID-19 on the other may increase the mortality rate. But the implementation of lockdown during pandemics has favored the atmosphere in some ways, which will be highlighted in the article. On the whole, the focus of this article will be on the dubious relationship between smog and coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Smog/analysis
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 44812-44817, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303355

ABSTRACT

The infectiousness of COVID-19 is high among the susceptible population, making the calculation of the reproduction number (R) an essential step to implement preventive measures. We aim to estimate COVID-19 transmission to determine if the disease is successfully controlled or extra measured should be adopted to attain this goal. The daily incidence data of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia from March 2nd, 2020, to April 4th, 2021, were obtained from the continuously updated Saudi Ministry of Health COVID-19 repository. To get accurate estimation of the situation over the last 4 months (from December 1st, 2020, to April 4th, 2021), we calculated the weekly (every 7 days) R starting from March 2nd, 2020, and till the last week of the available data. The calculated values of R were represented as median, first quantile (Q1), and third quantile (Q3). As early as the first week of December 2020, the median R was 0.81 (0.80-0.83) which means that each existing infected case would transmit infection to only one person. This was followed by fluctuations over the next few weeks around R value of 1, reaching its highest level of 1.45 (1.42-1.47) between December 31st, 2020, and January 6th, 2021. This was followed by a relatively steady decline over the following weeks, with some till mid-March where the R values started to slightly rise again. Social distancing, protective precautions, avoiding abuse of the partial lifting, expanding the screening process, and other Saudi measures sound to be successful and should be replicated in similar communities. This measure should be continued till the vaccination process is completed, to reduce the number of contacts and to avoid uncontrolled transmission of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(44): 62266-62273, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286177

ABSTRACT

We conducted the current analysis to determine the potential role of measles vaccination in the context of the spread of COVID-19. Data were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory data repository about the measles immunization coverage estimates and correlated to overall morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 among different countries. Data were statistically analyzed to calculate the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho). There was a significant positive correlation between the vaccine coverage (%) and new cases per one million populations (rho = 0.24; p-value = 0.025); however, this correlation was absent in deaths per one million populations (rho = 0.17; p-value = 0.124). On further analysis of the effect of first reported year of vaccination policy, there was no significant correlation with both of total cases per one million populations (rho = 0.11; p-value = 0.327) and deaths per one million populations (rho = -0.02; p-value = 0.829). Claims regarding the possible protective effect of measles vaccination seem to be doubtful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
5.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(2): 231-241, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266069

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Global emergence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has clearly shown variable severity, mortality, and frequency between and within populations worldwide. These striking differences have made many biological variables attractive for future investigations. One of these variables, vitamin D, has been implicated in COVID-19 with rapidly growing scientific evidence. AREAS COVERED: The review intended to systematically explore the sources, and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in COVID-19. Search engines and data sources including Google Scholar, PubMed, NCBI, Scopus, and Web of Science were used for data collection. The search terms used were Vitamin D, COVID-19, immune system, and antiviral mechanism. Overall, 232 sources of information were collected and 188 were included in this review. EXPERT OPINION: Interaction of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) triggers the cellular events to modulate the immune system by regulation of many genes. Vitamin D operates as a double-edged sword against COVID-19. First, in macrophages, it promotes the production of antimicrobial and antiviral proteins like ß-defensin 2 and cathelicidin, and these proteins inhibit the replication of viral particles and promote the clearance of virus from the cells by autophagy. Second, it suppresses cytokine storm and inflammatory processes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Autophagy , COVID-19 , Cytokines/immunology , Vitamin D , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Receptors, Calcitriol , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(26): 34611-34618, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111322

ABSTRACT

We conducted the current analysis to determine the potential role of polio vaccination in the context of the spread of COVID-19. Data were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory data repository regarding the polio immunization coverage estimates and correlated to the overall morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 among different countries. Data were analyzed using R software version 4.0.2. Mean and standard deviation were used to represent continuous variables while we used frequencies and percentages to represent categorical variables. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for continuous variables since they were not normally distributed. Moreover, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rho) was used to determine the relationship between different variables. There was a significantly positive correlation between the vaccine coverage (%) and both of total cases per one million populations (rho = 0.37; p-value < 0.001) and deaths per one million populations (rho = 0.30; p-value < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between different income groups and each of vaccine coverage (%) (rho = 0.71; p-value < 0.001), total cases per one million populations (rho = 0.50; p-value < 0.001), and deaths per one million populations (rho = 0.39; p-value < 0.001). All claims regarding the possible protective effect of Polio vaccination do not have any support when analyzing the related data. Polio vaccination efforts should be limited to eradicate the disease from endemic countries; however, there is no evidence to support the immunization with live-attenuated vaccines for the protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Humans , Morbidity , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
7.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(5): 1917-1931, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009203

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (CoV), called novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), belongs to the Coronaviridae family which was originated from the sea market in Wuhan city in China, at the end of the year 2019. COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are belonging to the same family (Coronaviridae). The current outbreak of COVID-19 creates public concern and threats all over the world and now it spreads out to more than 250 countries and territories. The researchers and scientists from all over the world are trying to find out the therapeutic strategies to abate the morbidity and mortality rate of the COVID-19 pandemic. The replication, spreading, and severity of SARS-CoV2 depend on environmental settings. Noteworthy, meteorological parameters are considered as crucial factors that affect respiratory infectious disorders, although the controversial effect of the meteorological parameter is exposed against COVID-19. Besides, COVID-19 accelerates the pathogenesis of the neurological disorders. However, the pathogenic mechanisms between COVID-19 and neurological disorders are still unclear. Hence, this review is focused on the genomics and ecology of SARS-CoV2 and elucidated the effects of climatic factors on the progression of COVID-19. This review also critically finds out the vulnerability between COVID-19 and neurological disorders based on the latest research data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Pandemics
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 563478, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909021

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) was found at the seafood market of Hubei province in Wuhan, China, and this virus was officially named coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) by World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 is mainly characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) and creates public health concerns as well as significant threats to the economy around the world. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unclear and there is no effective treatment of this newly life-threatening and devastating virus. Therefore, it is crucial to search for alternative methods that alleviate or inhibit the spread of COVID-19. In this review, we try to find out the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms as well as transmissions of this novel virus. We also summarize therapeutic interventions and suggest antiviral treatments, immune-enhancing candidates, general supplements, and CoV specific treatments that control replication and reproduction of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 582025, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890344

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the COVID-2019 (coronavirus disease 2019) due to the infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has realized the requirement of alternative therapeutics to mitigate and alleviate this lethal infection. These alternative therapies are effective when they are started at the initial stage of the infection. Some drugs that were used in previous other related infections SARS-CoV-2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-2012 could be potentially active against currently emerging SARS-CoV-2. This fact imparts some rationale of current interventions, in the absence of any specific therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. It is imperative to focus on the available antimicrobial and adjunct therapies during the current emergency state and overcome the challenges associated with the absence of robust controlled studies. There is no established set of drugs to manage SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. However, closely following patients' conditions and responding with the dosage guidelines of available drugs may significantly impact our ability to slow down the infection. Of note, it depends upon the condition of the patients and associated comorbid; therefore, the health workers need to choose the drug combinations judiciously until COVID-19 specific drug or vaccine is developed with the collective scientific rigor. In this article, we reviewed the available antimicrobial drug, supportive therapies, and probable high importance vaccines for the COVID-19 treatment.

10.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 616, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-686482

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related epidemic was first observed in Wuhan, China. In 2020, owing to the highly infectious and deadly nature of the virus, this widespread novel coronavirus disease 2019 (nCOVID-19) became a worldwide pandemic. Studies have revealed that various environmental factors including temperature, humidity, and air pollution may also affect the transmission pattern of COVID-19. Unfortunately, still, there is no specific drug that has been validated in large-scale studies to treat patients with confirmed nCOVID-19. However, remdesivir, an inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), has appeared as an auspicious antiviral drug. Currently, a large-scale study on remdesivir (i.e., 200 mg on first day, then 100 mg once/day) is ongoing to evaluate its clinical efficacy to treat nCOVID-19. Good antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 was not observed with the use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). Nonetheless, the combination of umifenovir and LPV/r was found to have better antiviral activity. Furthermore, a combination of hydroxychloroquine (i.e., 200 mg 3 times/day) and azithromycin (i.e., 500 mg on first day, then 250 mg/day from day 2-5) also exhibited good activity. Currently, there are also ongoing studies to evaluate the efficacy of teicoplanin and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in this article, we have analyzed the genetic diversity and molecular pathogenesis of nCOVID-19. We also present possible therapeutic options for nCOVID-19 patients.

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