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2.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 65, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 12-month from discharge. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational study, patients hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only", "continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)" and "invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)") and followed up at 12 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6 min walking test, high resolution CT (HRCT) scan, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale were collected. RESULTS: Out of 287 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and followed up at 1 year, DLCO impairment, mainly of mild entity and improved with respect to the 6-month follow-up, was observed more frequently in the "oxygen only" and "IMV" group (53% and 49% of patients, respectively), compared to 29% in the "CPAP" group. Abnormalities at chest HRCT were found in 46%, 65% and 80% of cases in the "oxygen only", "CPAP" and "IMV" group, respectively. Non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities, in particular reticulations and ground-glass attenuation, were the main finding, while honeycombing was found only in 1% of cases. Older patients and those requiring IMV were at higher risk of developing radiological pulmonary sequelae. Dyspnea evaluated through mMRC scale was reported by 35% of patients with no differences between groups, compared to 29% at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: DLCO alteration and non-fibrotic interstitial lung abnormalities are common after 1 year from hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, particularly in older patients requiring higher ventilatory support. Studies with longer follow-ups are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/virology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
3.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1078-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia are not yet confirmed; however, preliminary observations suggest a possible relevant clinical, functional, and radiological impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only," "continuous positive airway pressure," and "invasive mechanical ventilation") and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walking test, chest X-ray, physical examination, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median interquartile range age 61.1 [53.4, 69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥1, or showed restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as a comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalization appeared as a protective factor. The need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalization was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
6.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-358612.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are not yet confirmed, however preliminary observations suggests a possible relevant clinical, functional and radiological impairment. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. Methods: . In this multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support (“oxygen only”, “continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)” and “invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)”) and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6 minutes walking test, chest X-ray, physical exam and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. Results: . Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median [IQR] age 61.1 [53.4,69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest-X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥ 1, or showed a restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalisation appeared as a protective factor. Need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalisation was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. Conclusions: . DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with COVID-19 during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04435327


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , COVID-19 , Lung Diseases
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136514

ABSTRACT

Obesity as well as metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities are established, significant predictors of worse prognosis in the overall COVID-19 population, but limited information is available on their roles in young and middle-aged adults (aged ≤ 50 years). The main objectives of the present Italian multi-center study were to describe clinical characteristics and role of selected prognostic predictors in a large cohort of young and middle-aged hospitalized patients. Nine pulmonology units, across north and center of Italy, were involved in this retrospective study. Comorbidities were classified according to their known or potential association with COVID-19. A total of 263 subjects were included. The prevalence of obesity was 25.9%, mechanical ventilation (MV) was needed in 27.7%, and 28 in-hospital deaths occurred (10.6%). Obesity and older age were the only independent, significant predictors for MV. Comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, and increased D-dimer levels were significantly associated with higher mortality risk, regardless of age, body mass index, and MV. Obesity in young and middle-aged adults is a strong predictor of a more complicated COVID-19, without, however, evidence of a significant effect on in-hospital mortality. Selected comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes and asthma, significantly impact survival even in a younger population, suggesting the need for prompt recognition of these conditions.

11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(2): 306-310, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809644

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The most typical presentation of COVID-19 is an acute respiratory syndrome whose most common symptoms include fever, cough, and dyspnea. However, gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea and nausea/vomiting, are increasingly reported in patients affected by COVID-19. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and time of onset of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients affected by COVID-19 and to find potential associations between gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-center cohort study, enrolling patients who received diagnosis of COVID-19 at our institution between March 23, 2020, and April 5, 2020. We collected patient demographics and medical history, laboratory data, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we used a specifically designed questionnaire, administered to patients at time of diagnosis, to obtain data on the presence and time of onset of fever, typical respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and other symptoms (fatigue, headache, myalgia/arthralgia, anosmia, ageusia/dysgeusia, sore throat, and ocular symptoms). RESULTS: In our cohort, 138 (69%) of 190 patients showed at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom at diagnosis; if excluding hyporexia/anorexia, 93 patients (48.9%) showed at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhea, were associated with a lower mortality. At multivariate analysis, diarrhea was confirmed as independent predictive factor of lower mortality. DISCUSSION: Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in patients with COVID-19 and may be associated with a better prognosis. These data suggest that, in some patients, the gastrointestinal tract may be more involved than the respiratory system in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and this could account for the less severe course of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Italy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
12.
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