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1.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071654

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), an acid-fast bacillus that causes Tuberculosis (TB), is a pathogen that caused 1.5 million deaths in 2020. As per WHO estimates, another 4.1 million people are suffering from latent TB, either asymptomatic or not diagnosed, and the frequency of drug resistance is increasing due to intrinsically linked factors from both host and bacterium. For instance, poor access to TB diagnosis and reduced treatment in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more TB deaths and an 18% reduction in newly diagnosed cases of TB. Additionally, the detection of Mtb isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drugs (MDR, XDR, and TDR) has complicated the scenario in the pathogen's favour. Moreover, the conventional methods to detect drug resistance may miss mutations, making it challenging to decide on the treatment regimen. However, owing to collaborative initiatives, the last two decades have witnessed several advancements in both the detection methods and drug discovery against drug-resistant isolates. The majority of them belong to nucleic acid detection techniques. In this review, we highlight and summarize the molecular mechanism underlying drug resistance in Mtb, the recent advancements in resistance detection methods, and the newer drugs used against drug-resistant TB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Nucleic Acids , Tuberculosis , Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
3.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(4)2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178386

ABSTRACT

Sialic acid that presents on the surface of lung epithelial cells is considered as one of the main binding targets for many respiratory viruses, including influenza and the current coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) through the viral surface protein hemagglutinin. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are extensively used in the diagnostic field owing to a phenomenon known as 'surface plasmonic resonance' in which the scattered light is absorbed by these NPs and can be detected via UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Consequently, sialic acid conjugated Au NPs (SA-Au NPs) were utilized for their plasmonic effect against SARS-CoV-2, influenza B virus, and Middle-East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS) in patients' swab samples. The SA-Au NPs system was prepared by a one-pot synthesis method, through which the NPs solution color changed from pale yellow to dark red wine color, indicting its successful preparation. In addition, the SA-Au NPs had an average particle size of 30 ± 1 nm, negative zeta potential (-30 ± 0.3 mV), and a UV absorbance of 525 nm. These NPs have proven their ability to change the color of the NPs solutions and patients' swabs that contain SARS-CoV-2, influenza B, and MERS viruses, suggesting a rapid and straightforward detection tool that would reduce the spread of these viral infections and accelerate the therapeutic intervention.

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