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2.
JCI Insight ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950563

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation may play a role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19; however, its role in the pediatric manifestations of this disease including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and chilblain-like lesions (CLL), otherwise known as "COVID toes", remains unclear. Studying multinational cohorts, we found that, in CLL, NETs were significantly increased in serum and skin. There was geographic variability in the prevalence of increased NETs in MIS-C, in association with disease severity. MIS-C and CLL serum samples displayed decreased NET degradation ability, in association with C1q and G-actin or anti-NET antibodies, respectively, but not with genetic variants of DNases. In adult COVID-19, persistent elevations in NETs post-disease diagnosis were detected but did not occur in asymptomatic infection. COVID-19-affected adults displayed significant prevalence of impaired NET degradation, in association with anti-DNase1L3, G-actin, and specific disease manifestations, but not with genetic variants of DNases. NETs were detected in many organs of adult patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Infection with the Omicron variant was associated with decreased levels of NETs when compared to other SARS-CoV-2 strains. These data support a role for NETs in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 in pediatric and adult patients.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948292

ABSTRACT

Given the highly variable clinical phenotype of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deeper analysis of the host genetic contribution to severe COVID-19 is important to improve our understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we describe an extended GWAS meta-analysis of a well-characterized cohort of 3255 COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure and 12 488 population controls from Italy, Spain, Norway and Germany/Austria, including stratified analyses based on age, sex and disease severity, as well as targeted analyses of chromosome Y haplotypes, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and the SARS-CoV-2 peptidome. By inversion imputation, we traced a reported association at 17q21.31 to a ~ 0.9-Mb inversion polymorphism that creates two highly differentiated haplotypes and characterized the potential effects of the inversion in detail. Our data, together with the 5th release of summary statistics from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative including non-Caucasian individuals, also identified a new locus at 19q13.33, including NAPSA, a gene which is expressed primarily in alveolar cells responsible for gas exchange in the lung.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329395

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation may play a role in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19;however, its role in the pediatric manifestations of this disease including MIS-C and chilblain-like lesions (CLL), otherwise known as COVID toes, remains unclear. Studying multinational cohorts, we found that, in CLL, NETs were significantly increased in serum and skin. There was geographic variability in the prevalence of increased NETs in MIS-C, in association with disease severity. MIS-C and CLL serum samples displayed decreased NET degradation ability, in association with C1q and G-actin or anti-NET antibodies, respectively, but not with genetic variants of DNases. In adult COVID-19, persistent elevations in NETs post-disease diagnosis were detected but did not occur in asymptomatic infection. COVID-19-affected adults displayed significant prevalence of impaired NET degradation, in association with anti-DNase1L3, G-actin, and specific disease manifestations, but not with genetic variants of DNases. NETs were detected in many organs of adult patients who died from COVID-19 complications. Infection with the Omicron variant was associated with decreased levels of NETs when compared to other SARS-CoV-2 strains. These data support a role for NETs in the pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 in pediatric and adult patients.

7.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1050-1062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701612

ABSTRACT

Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (pCOVID-19) is rarely severe; however, a minority of children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), with substantial morbidity. In this longitudinal multi-institutional study, we applied multi-omics (analysis of soluble biomarkers, proteomics, single-cell gene expression and immune repertoire analysis) to profile children with COVID-19 (n = 110) and MIS-C (n = 76), along with pediatric healthy controls (pHCs; n = 76). pCOVID-19 was characterized by robust type I interferon (IFN) responses, whereas prominent type II IFN-dependent and NF-κB-dependent signatures, matrisome activation and increased levels of circulating spike protein were detected in MIS-C, with no correlation with SARS-CoV-2 PCR status around the time of admission. Transient expansion of TRBV11-2 T cell clonotypes in MIS-C was associated with signatures of inflammation and T cell activation. The association of MIS-C with the combination of HLA A*02, B*35 and C*04 alleles suggests genetic susceptibility. MIS-C B cells showed higher mutation load than pCOVID-19 and pHC. These results identify distinct immunopathological signatures in pCOVID-19 and MIS-C that might help better define the pathophysiology of these disorders and guide therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , T-Lymphocytes
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317283

ABSTRACT

Background: Children are relatively spared from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but some severe cases have been reported. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children may affect the cardiovascular system. We hereby report about a case of myocarditis evolving to cardiogenic shock in a SARS-CoV-2 positive child. Case presentation An otherwise healthy 12-year-old patient was admitted with fever, vomiting, diarrhoea and drowsiness, without any respiratory symptoms. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 on nasopharyngeal swab. He developed hypotension and cardiogenic shock. Bedside echocardiography revealed left ventricular impairment with an ejection fraction (LVEF) below 25%. Plasmatic markers of myocardial injury were remarkably raised, as well as inflammatory biomarkers, including procalcitonin (highest recorded value: 66 ng/mL) and interleukin-6 (8209 pg/mL). The child was transferred to Intensive Care Unit and he was treated with catecholamine support, mechanical ventilation and empiric anti-infectious therapy, including broad spectrum antibiotics and the antiviral agent remdesivir. All additional microbiological investigations yielded negative results. We observed a gradual improvement of LVEF within 5 days. A cardiac magnetic resonance confirmed the suspicion of myocarditis. After 21 days of hospitalisation, the child was discharged without sequelae . Conclusions: Our hypothesis is that the child suffered from SARS-CoV-2-induced fulminant myocarditis, probably in the setting of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). The peculiarity of this SARS-CoV-2 infection is the presence of cardiac failure in a previously healthy child without a respiratory illness. The positive outcome is in line with published Literature about the overall better prognosis of COVID-19 children compared to adults. Remdesivir, an investigational antiviral therapy, may have played a role on the clinical improvement of the child.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308761

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with high mortality and may overwhelm health care systems, due to the surge patients requiring advanced respiratory support. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds required many patients to be treated outside the ICU despite severe gas exchange impairment. Helmet is as effective interface to provide Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) non-invasively. We report data about the usefulness of helmet CPAP during pandemic, either as an effective treatment, a bridge to intubation or a rescue therapy for patients with care limitations (DNI). Methods: In this observational study we collected data regarding patients failing standard oxygen therapy (i.e. non-rebreathing mask) due to COVID-19 pneumonia treated with a free flow helmet CPAP system. Patients’ data were recorded before, at initiation of CPAP treatment and once a day, thereafter. CPAP failure was defined as a composite outcome of intubation or death. Results: A total of 306 patients were included;42% were deemed as DNI. Helmet CPAP treatment was successful in 69% of the full-treatment and 28% of the DNI patients ( P< 0.001). With helmet CPAP, PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio doubled from about 100 to 200 mmHg ( P< 0.001);respiratory rate decreased from 28 [22-32] to 24 [20-29] breaths per minute, P <0.001). C-Reactive Protein, time to oxygen mask failure, age, PaO 2 /FiO 2 during CPAP, number of comorbidities were independently associated with CPAP failure. Helmet CPAP was maintained for 6 [3-9] days, almost continuously during the first two days. None of the full treatment patients died before intubation in the wards. Conclusions: : Helmet CPAP treatment is feasible for several days outside the ICU, despite persistent impairment in gas exchange. It was used, without escalating to intubation, in the majority of full treatment patients after standard oxygen therapy failed. DNI patients could benefit from helmet CPAP as rescue therapy to improve survival. Trial Registration: NCT04424992

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306939

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on the transformations and changes in the area of state aid control prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It attempts to provide a first assesment on the European Commission Temporary Framework on state aid measures to support the economy in the outbreak. It discusses whether the measures adopted have been effective and managed to guarantee on the one side the possibility of Member States to take swift and effective action as to ensure short and long term liquidity to undertakings affected by COVID 19 and on the other to preserve fair competition an respect of state aid rules control.

11.
Acta Biomed ; 92(6): e2021464, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: our study aimed to investigate the association between anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine and the previously infected/infection-naïve status, age, and gender in a population of health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: all the population of immunocompetent HCWs were vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 based on a technical data sheet. SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay was performed 25 to 32 days after the second dose. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was used as a categorical variable, since 2080 BAU/ml was the median IgG value. The multivariate logistic regression model included the previously infected/infection-naïve status, age groups, and gender. RESULTS: All HCWs tested were seropositive. The odds ratio (OR) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG> 2080 BAU / ml between previously infected and infection-naïve HCWs was 2.05 [95% CI 1.1-3.8].  Older age groups had lower percentage of HCWs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG> 2080 BAU / mL than younger groups. Finally, no association between gender and IgG level was found. CONCLUSIONS: our study showed an excellent antibody response to vaccination with BNT162b2 after two doses. A significant difference was observed between anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level with age and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S77-S77, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602523

ABSTRACT

Background T cells are central to the early identification and clearance of viral infections and support antibody generation by B cells, making them desirable for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines. We combined 2 high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response that is highly sensitive, durable, diagnostic, and discriminatory between natural infection and vaccination. Methods We deeply characterized 116 convalescent COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses via antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I and 284 class II viral peptides. We also performed T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing on 1815 samples from 1521 PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 3500 controls to identify shared public TCRs from SARS-CoV-2-associated CD8 and CD4 T cells. Combining these approaches with additional samples from vaccinated individuals, we characterized the response to natural infection as well as vaccination by separating responses to spike protein from other viral targets. Results We find that T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response peaks about 1-2 weeks after infection and is detectable at least several months after recovery. Applying these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose past SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3–7 = 85.1%;Day 8–14 = 94.8%) that persists after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 95.4%). Finally, by evaluating TCRs binding epitopes targeting all non-spike SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we were able to separate natural infection from vaccination with > 99% specificity. Conclusion TCR repertoire sequencing from whole blood reliably measures the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points, and distinguishes post-infection vs. vaccine immune responses with high specificity. This approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in clinical diagnostics as well as vaccine development and monitoring. Disclosures Thomas M. Snyder, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Rachel M. Gittelman, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Mark Klinger, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Damon H. May, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Edward J. Osborne, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ruth Taniguchi, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) H. Jabran Zahid, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Rebecca Elyanow, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Sudeb C. Dalai, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ian M. Kaplan, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Jennifer N. Dines, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Matthew T. Noakes, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder) Ravi Pandya, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Lance Baldo, MD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Employee, Shareholder, Leadership Interest) James R. Heath, PhD, Merck (Research Grant or Support, Funding (from BARDA) for the ISB INCOV project, but had no role in planning the research or in writing the paper.) Joaquin Martinez-Lopez, MD, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Consultant) Jonathan M. Carlson, PhD, Microsoft Research (Employee, Shareholder) Harlan S. Robins, PhD, Adaptive Biotechnologies (Board Member, Employee, Shareholder)

13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295412

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) undergo aberrant maturation in COVID-19 and this negatively affects T cell activation. The presence of functional effector T cells in mild patients and dysfunctional T cells in severely ill patients suggests that adequate T cell responses are needed to limit disease severity. Therefore, understanding how cDCs cope with SARS-CoV-2 infections can help elucidate the mechanism of generation of protective immune responses. Here, we report that cDC2 subtypes exhibit similar infection-induced gene signatures with the up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes and IL-6 signaling pathways. The main difference observed between DC2s and DC3s is the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes in DC3s, which explains their accumulation during infection. Furthermore, comparing cDCs between severe and mild patients, we find in the former a profound down-regulation of genes encoding molecules involved in antigen presentation, such as major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules, β 2 microglobulin, TAP and costimulatory proteins, while an opposite trend is observed for proinflammatory molecules, such as complement and coagulation factors. Therefore, as the severity of the disease increases, cDC2s enhance their inflammatory properties and lose their main function, which is the antigen presentation capacity. In vitro, direct exposure of cDC2s to the virus recapitulates the type of activation observed in vivo. Our findings provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can interact directly with cDC2s and, by inducing the down-regulation of crucial molecules required for T cell activation, implements an efficient immune escape mechanism that correlates with disease severity.

14.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292804

ABSTRACT

T cells are involved in the early identification and clearance of viral infections and also support the development of antibodies by B cells. This central role for T cells makes them a desirable target for assessing the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we combined two high-throughput immune profiling methods to create a quantitative picture of the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2. First, at the individual level, we deeply characterized 3 acutely infected and 58 recovered COVID-19 subjects by experimentally mapping their CD8 T-cell response through antigen stimulation to 545 Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I presented viral peptides (class II data in a forthcoming study). Then, at the population level, we performed T-cell repertoire sequencing on 1,015 samples (from 827 COVID-19 subjects) as well as 3,500 controls to identify shared "public" T-cell receptors (TCRs) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from both CD8 and CD4 T cells. Collectively, our data reveal that CD8 T-cell responses are often driven by a few immunodominant, HLA-restricted epitopes. As expected, the T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 peaks about one to two weeks after infection and is detectable for several months after recovery. As an application of these data, we trained a classifier to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection based solely on TCR sequencing from blood samples, and observed, at 99.8% specificity, high early sensitivity soon after diagnosis (Day 3-7 = 83.8% [95% CI = 77.6-89.4];Day 8-14 = 92.4% [87.6-96.6]) as well as lasting sensitivity after recovery (Day 29+/convalescent = 96.7% [93.0-99.2]). These results demonstrate an approach to reliably assess the adaptive immune response both soon after viral antigenic exposure (before antibodies are typically detectable) as well as at later time points. This blood-based molecular approach to characterizing the cellular immune response has applications in vaccine development as well as clinical diagnostics and monitoring.

15.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(1): 109-122, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332967

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) undergo aberrant maturation in COVID-19, which negatively affects T-cell activation. The presence of effector T cells in patients with mild disease and dysfunctional T cells in severely ill patients suggests that adequate T-cell responses limit disease severity. Understanding how cDCs cope with SARS-CoV-2 can help elucidate how protective immune responses are generated. Here, we report that cDC2 subtypes exhibit similar infection-induced gene signatures, with the upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and IL-6 signaling pathways. Furthermore, comparison of cDCs between patients with severe and mild disease showed severely ill patients to exhibit profound downregulation of genes encoding molecules involved in antigen presentation, such as MHCII, TAP, and costimulatory proteins, whereas we observed the opposite for proinflammatory molecules, such as complement and coagulation factors. Thus, as disease severity increases, cDC2s exhibit enhanced inflammatory properties and lose antigen presentation capacity. Moreover, DC3s showed upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes and accumulated during infection. Direct exposure of cDC2s to the virus in vitro recapitulated the activation profile observed in vivo. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 interacts directly with cDC2s and implements an efficient immune escape mechanism that correlates with disease severity by downregulating crucial molecules required for T-cell activation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans
16.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 99(9): 917-921, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325006

ABSTRACT

Type-I interferons (IFNs) mediate antiviral activity and have emerged as important immune mediators during coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Several lines of evidence suggest that impaired type-I IFN signaling may predispose to severe COVID-19. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to illness severity remain unclear. In this study, our goal was to gain insight into how type-I IFNs influence outcomes in patients with COVID-19. To achieve this goal, we compared clinical outcomes between 26 patients with neutralizing type-I IFN autoantibodies (AAbs) and 192 patients without AAbs who were hospitalized for COVID-19 at three Italian hospitals. The presence of circulating AAbs to type-I IFNs was associated with an increased risk of admission to the intensive care unit and a delayed time to viral clearance. However, survival was not adversely affected by the presence of type-I IFN AAbs. Our findings provide further support for the role of type-I IFN AAbs in impairing host antiviral defense and promoting the development of critical COVID-19 pneumonia in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy
17.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 629240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231364

ABSTRACT

Following the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a global pandemic, concerns have arisen for the disease impact in at-risk populations, especially in immunocompromised hosts. On the other hand, clinical studies have clarified that the COVID-19 clinical burden is mostly due to over-inflammation and immune-mediated multiorgan injury. This has led to downsizing the role of immunosuppression as a determinant of outcome, and early reports confirm the hypothesis that patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatments do not have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 with respect to the general population. Intriguingly, SARS-CoV-2 natural reservoirs, such as bats and mice, have evolved mechanisms of tolerance involving selection of genes optimizing viral clearance through interferon type I and III responses and also dampening inflammasome response and cytokine expression. Children exhibit resistance to COVID-19 severe manifestations, and age-related features in innate and adaptive response possibly explaining this difference are discussed. A competent recognition by the innate immune system and controlled pro-inflammatory signaling seem to be the pillars of an effective response and the premise for pathogen clearance in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunosuppression-if not associated with other elements of fragility-do not represent per se an obstacle to this competent/tolerant phenotype in children. Several reports confirm that children receiving immunosuppressive medications have similar clinical involvement and outcomes as the pediatric general population, indicating that maintenance treatments should not be interrupted in suspect or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 80, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with high mortality and may overwhelm health care systems, due to the surge of patients requiring advanced respiratory support. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds required many patients to be treated outside the ICU despite severe gas exchange impairment. Helmet is an effective interface to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) noninvasively. We report data about the usefulness of helmet CPAP during pandemic, either as treatment, a bridge to intubation or a rescue therapy for patients with care limitations (DNI). METHODS: In this observational study we collected data regarding patients failing standard oxygen therapy (i.e., non-rebreathing mask) due to COVID-19 pneumonia treated with a free flow helmet CPAP system. Patients' data were recorded before, at initiation of CPAP treatment and once a day, thereafter. CPAP failure was defined as a composite outcome of intubation or death. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients were included; 42% were deemed as DNI. Helmet CPAP treatment was successful in 69% of the full treatment and 28% of the DNI patients (P < 0.001). With helmet CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio doubled from about 100 to 200 mmHg (P < 0.001); respiratory rate decreased from 28 [22-32] to 24 [20-29] breaths per minute, P < 0.001). C-reactive protein, time to oxygen mask failure, age, PaO2/FiO2 during CPAP, number of comorbidities were independently associated with CPAP failure. Helmet CPAP was maintained for 6 [3-9] days, almost continuously during the first two days. None of the full treatment patients died before intubation in the wards. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet CPAP treatment is feasible for several days outside the ICU, despite persistent impairment in gas exchange. It was used, without escalating to intubation, in the majority of full treatment patients after standard oxygen therapy failed. DNI patients could benefit from helmet CPAP as rescue therapy to improve survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04424992.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Hypoxia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Treatment Outcome
19.
JCI Insight ; 6(1)2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027164

ABSTRACT

Immune and inflammatory responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contribute to disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the utility of specific immune-based biomarkers to predict clinical outcome remains elusive. Here, we analyzed levels of 66 soluble biomarkers in 175 Italian patients with COVID-19 ranging from mild/moderate to critical severity and assessed type I IFN-, type II IFN-, and NF-κB-dependent whole-blood transcriptional signatures. A broad inflammatory signature was observed, implicating activation of various immune and nonhematopoietic cell subsets. Discordance between IFN-α2a protein and IFNA2 transcript levels in blood suggests that type I IFNs during COVID-19 may be primarily produced by tissue-resident cells. Multivariable analysis of patients' first samples revealed 12 biomarkers (CCL2, IL-15, soluble ST2 [sST2], NGAL, sTNFRSF1A, ferritin, IL-6, S100A9, MMP-9, IL-2, sVEGFR1, IL-10) that when increased were independently associated with mortality. Multivariate analyses of longitudinal biomarker trajectories identified 8 of the aforementioned biomarkers (IL-15, IL-2, NGAL, CCL2, MMP-9, sTNFRSF1A, sST2, IL-10) and 2 additional biomarkers (lactoferrin, CXCL9) that were substantially associated with mortality when increased, while IL-1α was associated with mortality when decreased. Among these, sST2, sTNFRSF1A, IL-10, and IL-15 were consistently higher throughout the hospitalization in patients who died versus those who recovered, suggesting that these biomarkers may provide an early warning of eventual disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Calgranulin B/genetics , Calgranulin B/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Chemokine CCL2/immunology , Chemokine CXCL9/genetics , Chemokine CXCL9/immunology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Ferritins/genetics , Ferritins/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/immunology , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-15/genetics , Interleukin-15/immunology , Interleukin-2/genetics , Interleukin-2/immunology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lactoferrin/genetics , Lactoferrin/immunology , Lipocalin-2/genetics , Lipocalin-2/immunology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/immunology , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology
20.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-747

ABSTRACT

Italy is the second exposed Country worldwide, after China, and Lombardia is the most affected Region in Italy, with more than half of the National cases, with

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