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1.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 160-166, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rapidly spread globally. Due to different testing strategies, under-detection of positive subjects and COVID-19-related-deaths remains common. Aim of this analysis was to assess the real impact of COVID-19 through the analysis of 2020 Italian all-cause mortality data compared to historical series. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 2020 and 2015-2019 all-cause mortality data released by the Italian National Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) for the time period January 1st-March 21st. This preliminary sample included 1084 Italian municipalities showing at least 10 deaths during the above-mentioned timeframe and an increase in mortality of more than 20% as compared to the previous five years (2015-2019), with a resulting coverage of 21% of Italian population. The difference between 2020 observed and expected deaths (mean of weekly deaths in 2015-2019) was computed, together with mortality rate ratio (MRR) for each of the four weeks following detection of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Italy (February 23rd, 2020 - March 21st, 2020), as well as for this entire timeframe. Subgroup analysis by age groups was also performed. RESULTS: Overall MRR was 1.79 [1.75-1.84], with an observed excess mortality of 8750 individuals in the investigated sample, which in itself outweighs Italian Civil Protection report of only 4,825 COVID-19-related deaths across Italy, as of March 21. Subgroup analysis did not show any difference in mortality rate in '0-14 years' age group, while MRRs were significantly increased in older age groups, in particular in patients >75 years (MRR 1.84 [1.79-1.89]). In addition, week-by-week analysis showed a progressive increase in MRR during this period, peaking in the last week (March 15th, 2020 - March 21st, 2020) with an estimated value of 2.65 [2.53-2.78]. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of all-cause mortality data in Italy indicates that reported COVID-19-related deaths are an underestimate of the actual death toll. All-cause death should be seen as the epidemiological indicator of choice to assess the real mortality impact exerted by SARS-CoV-2, given that it also best reflects the toll on frail patient subsets (e.g. the elderly or those with cardiovascular disease).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
3.
Pharmacol Ther ; 236: 108053, 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559421

ABSTRACT

The NACHT, leucine-rich repeat (LRR), and pyrin domain (PYD)-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular sensing protein complex that plays a major role in innate immunity. Following tissue injury, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in cytokine production, primarily interleukin(IL)-1ß and IL-18, and, eventually, inflammatory cell death - pyroptosis. While a balanced inflammatory response favors damage resolution and tissue healing, excessive NLRP3 activation causes detrimental effects. A key involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported across a wide range of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Several pharmacological agents selectively targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome system have been developed and tested in animals and early phase human studies with overall promising results. While the NLRP3 inhibitors are in clinical development, multiple randomized trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of IL-1 blockade in atherothrombosis, heart failure and recurrent pericarditis. Furthermore, the non-selective NLRP3 inhibitor colchicine has been recently shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary disease. In this review, we will outline the mechanisms driving NLRP3 assembly and activation, and discuss the pathogenetic role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in CVDs, providing an overview of the current and future therapeutic approaches targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome.

4.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement significantly contributes to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)mortality.12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) represents a fast, cheap, and easy to perform exam with the adjunctive advantage of the remote reporting possibility. In this study, we sought to investigate if electrocardiographic parameters are able to identify patients, deemed at low-risk at admission,who will face in-hospital unfavourable course. METHODS: From March 1, 2020 through March 30, 2021, 384 consecutive patients with confirmed low-risk COVID-19 were hospitalized at the AziendaOspedalieroUniversitariaPoliclinico di Bari (Italy). Criteria for low-risk were: admission to the division of Pneumology or Infectious Diseases, no need for immediate (within 24 hours from admission) transfer to Intensive Care Unit or for respiratory support with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or for circulation support (either mechanical or pharmacological). Admission ECGs were reviewed and interpreted by two expert cardiologists. The primary outcomes were in-hospital death and the composite outcome of in-hospitaldeath and IMV. RESULTS: In low-risk COVID-19 patients, atrial fibrillation (AF), poor R wave progression (PRWP), tachycardia, and right bundle branch block (RBBB) resulted as statistically significant and independent predictors of in-hospital all-cause mortality; AF, PRWP, Tachycardia, RBBB, and corrected QT interval showed to be statistically significant and independent risk factors for the occurrence of the composite endpoint of death and IMV. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated for the first time that RBBB and PRWP, assessed upon admission with ECG, are associated with unfavourable clinical course in a baseline low-risk population hospitalized for COVID-19.

5.
Panminerva Med ; 63(3): 324-331, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus-based vaccines (AdV) against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have entered large scale clinical trials. Since healthcare professionals (HCPs) and armed forces personnel (AFP) represent a high-risk category, they act as a suitable target population to investigate vaccine-related side effects, including headache, which has emerged as a common complaint. METHODS: We investigated the side-effects of COVID-19 vaccines among HCPs and AFP through a 38 closed-question international survey. The electronic link was distributed via e-mail or via Whatsapp to more than 500 contacts. Responses to the survey questions were analyzed with bivariate tests. RESULTS: A total of 375 complete surveys have been analyzed. More than 88% received an mRNA vaccine and 11% received AdV first dose. A second dose of mRNA vaccine was administered in 76% of individuals. No severe adverse effects were reported, whereas moderate reactions and those lasting more than 1 day were more common with AdV (P=0.002 and P=0.024 respectively). Headache was commonly reported regardless of the vaccine type, but less frequently, with shorter duration and lower severity that usually experienced by participants, without significant difference irrespective of vaccine type. CONCLUSIONS: Both mRNA and AdV COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated in a real-life subset of HCPs and AFP subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Headache/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(1): 40-55, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498264

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular medicine is facing several challenges in the current era, dominated by the rapid spread of a previously unknown virus around the world. Indeed, the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic set the course of cardiovascular science and education in an extraordinary way, hogging the attention of the medical community. Notably, while COVID-19 impacted research progress, there has been considerable effort in exploring topics of great interest, from the management of acute coronary syndromes to new horizons in the treatment of heart failure, from novelties in the surgical treatment of cardiovascular disease to new data on implantable cardiac devices, and from new diagnostic applications of multimodal imaging techniques to relevant basic science findings. Minerva Cardiology and Angiology, formerly Minerva Cardioangiologica, has strived to inform its readers on these topics and novelties, aiming for a succinct yet poignant melding of timeliness and accuracy. Accordingly, the purpose of this narrative review is to highlight and summarize the major research and review articles published during 2020. In particular, we provide a broad overview of the novelties identifying six major areas of interest in the field of cardiovascular sciences in which new evidences have contributed to improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart and vessels diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 29-39, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487626

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 can affect the cardiovascular system yielding a wide range of complications, including acute myocardial injury. The myocardium can be damaged by direct viral invasion or indirect mechanisms, sustained by systemic inflammation, immune-mediated response, and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Myocardial injury affects about one-quarter of patients with COVID-19, can manifest even in the absence of previous cardiovascular disease, and is associated to higher mortality rates and long-term sequelae. This review describes the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial injury and infarction and discusses the main clinical outcomes and diagnostic challenges associated with myocardial damage during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Infarction , Myocardium , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
World J Cardiol ; 13(9): 438-445, 2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458050

ABSTRACT

Experiencing various forms of violence in either childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease, both shortly after the event and during follow-up, particularly in women. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has heightened the risk of domestic violence with serious sequelae for mental and cardiovascular health in women, possibly due to several contributing factors, ranging from lockdown, stay at home regulations, job losses, anxiety, and stress. Accordingly, it remains paramount to enforce proactive preventive strategies, at both the family and individual level, maintain a high level of attention to recognize all forms of violence or abuse, and guarantee a multidisciplinary team approach for victims of interpersonal or domestic violence in order to address physical, sexual, and emotional domains and offer a personalized care.

9.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collective risk factors such as climate and pollution impact on the risk of acute cardiovascular events, including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). There is limited data however on the precise temporal and independent association between these factors and STEMI, and the potentially interacting role of government policies against Coronavrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially for Latin America. METHODS: We retrospectively collected aggregate data on daily STEMI admissions at 10 tertiary care centers in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area, Argentina, from January 1, 2017 to November 30, 2020. Daily measurements for temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind direction, wind speed, and rainfall, as well as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter <10 µm (PM10), were retrieved. Exploratory analyses focused on key COVID-19-related periods (eg first case, first lockdown), and stringency index quantifying the intensity of government policy response against COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1498 STEMI occurred over 1430 days, for an average of 0.12 STEMI per center (decreasing from 0.130 in 2018 to 0.102 in 2020, p=0.016). Time series analysis showed that lower temperature and higher concentration of CO and PM10 were all significantly associated with an increased rate of STEMI (all p<0.05), whereas COVID-19 outbreak, lockdown, and stringency of government policies were all inversely associated with STEMI (all p<0.05). Notably, environmental features impacted as early as 28 days before the event (all p<0.05), even if same or prior day associations proved stronger (all p<0.05). Multivariable analysis suggested that maximum temperature (p=0.001) and PM10 (p=0.033) were the strongest predictor of STEMI, even after accounting for COVID-19-related countermeasures (p=0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Lower temperature and higher concentrations of CO and PM10 are associated with significant increases in the rate of STEMI in a large Latin American metropolitan area. The reduction in STEMI cases seen during the COVID-19 pandemic is at least in part mediated by improvements in pollution, especially reductions in PM10.

10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110851, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 is an extremely challenging disease, both from a clinical and forensic point of view, and performing autopsies of COVID-19 deceased requires adequately equipped sectorial rooms and exposes health professionals to the risk of contagion. Among one of the categories that are most affected by SARS-Cov-2 infection are the elderly residents. Despite the need for prompt diagnoses, which are essential to implement all isolation measures necessary to contain the infection spread, deceased subjects in long-term care facilities are still are often diagnosed post-mortem. In this context, our study focuses on the use of post-mortem computed tomography for the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, in conjunction with post-mortem swabs. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of post-mortem whole CT-scanning in identifying COVID-19 pneumonia as a cause of death, by comparing chest CT-findings of confirmed COVID-19 fatalities to control cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 24 deceased subjects: 13 subjects coming from long-term care facility and 11 subjects died at home. Whole body CT scans were performed within 48 h from death in all subjects to evaluate the presence and distribution of pulmonary abnormalities typical of COVID-19-pneumonia, including: ground-glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, and pleural effusion to confirm the post-mortem diagnosis. RESULTS: Whole-body CT scans was feasible and allowed a complete diagnosis in all subjects. In 9 (69%) of the 13 cases from long-term care facility the cause of death was severe COVID 19 pneumonia, while GGO were present in 100% of the study population. CONCLUSION: In the context of rapidly escalating COVID-19 outbreaks, given that laboratory tests for the novel coronavirus is time-consuming and can be falsely negative, the post-mortem CT can be considered as a reliable and safe modality to confirm COVID-19 pneumonia. This is especially true for specific postmortem chest CT-findings that are rather characteristic of COVID-19 fatalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy/methods , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Whole Body Imaging
11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(30): 2876-2879, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231028

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 9, 2020, the Italian government imposed a national lockdown to tackle the COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, including stay at home recommendations. The precise impact of COVID-19 scare and lockdown on emergency access for acute myocardial infarction (MI) is still subject to debate. METHODS: Data on all patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography at 9 hospitals in the greater area of Rome, Italy, between February 19, 2020 and March 29, 2020, 9, 2020, were retrospectively collected. Incidence of ST-elevation MI (STEMI), and non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI), as well as corresponding percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), was compared distinguishing two different 20-day time periods (before vs on or after March 10, 2020). RESULTS: During the study period, 1,068 patients underwent coronary angiography, 142 (13%) with STEMI and 169 (16%) with NSTEMI. The average daily number of STEMI decreased from 4.3 before the lockdown to 2.9 after the lockdown (p=0.021). Similarly, the average daily number of NSTEMI changed from 5.0 to 3.5 (p=0.028). The average daily number of primary PCI changed from 4.2 to 2.9 (p=0.030), while the average daily number of PCI for NSTEMI changed from 3.5 to 2.5 (p=0.087). For STEMI patients, the time from symptom onset to hospital arrival (onset-to-door time less than three hours) showed a significant increase after the lockdown (p=0.018), whereas door-to-balloon time did not change significantly from before to after the lockdown (p=0.609). CONCLUSIONS: The present study, originally reporting on the trends in STEMI and NSTEMI in the Rome area, highlights that significant decreases in the incidence of both acute coronary syndromes occurred between February 19, 2020 and March 29, 2020, together with increases in time from symptom onset to hospital arrival, luckily without changes in door-to-balloon time.

15.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic with the stay-at-home orders and lockdown has dramatically forced athletes to stop team training and competitions, causing deep changes in habits and lifestyle. Aim of this study was to evaluate in a retrospective single center study the cardiovascular (CV) health and fitness of elite football player after COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and to compare such findings with the 2019 off-season period, in order to identify potential differences in the CV features and outcomes. METHODS: All 29 professional Football players of the first male team were enrolled before resuming training and competition after COVID-19 lockdown and underwent several exams including physical examination, resting and stress electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, spirometry and blood tests. RESULTS: Median age was 27 years (23; 31), with no athlete being COVID-19 positive at the time of the evaluation. In comparison with the usual off-season 2-month detraining, significant differences were found for left ventricular (LV) mass (189g [172; 212] vs. 181g [167; 206], p=0.024) and LV mass index for body surface area (94g/m2 [85; 104] vs 88g/m2 [79.5; 101.5], p=0.017), while LV mass/fat free mass remained unchanged (2.8 g/Kg [2.6; 2.9] vs 2.9 g/Kg [2.6; 3.2], p=0.222). Respiratory function and metabolic profile were improved, while no significant changes were found in ECG findings, at rest and during exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged abstinence from training and competitions induced by lockdown elicited significant changes in comparison with off-season in parameters ascribable to detraining, as the changes in LV mass, in respiratory function and in metabolic profile.

16.
Clin Exp Med ; 21(2): 249-268, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068751

ABSTRACT

There is limited information on the presenting characteristics, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches of young patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to investigate the baseline characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes of a wide cohort < 65 years admitted for COVID-19. Using the international multicenter HOPE-COVID-19 registry, we evaluated the baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, therapeutic approach, and prognosis of patients < 65 years discharged (deceased or alive) after hospital admission for COVID-19, also compared with the elderly counterpart. Of the included 5746 patients, 2676 were < 65 and 3070 ≥ 65 years. All risk factors and several parameters suggestive of worse clinical presentation augmented through increasing age classes. In-hospital mortality rates were 6.8% and 32.1% in the younger and older cohort, respectively (p < 0.001). Among young patients, mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMVwere positively correlated with age. Contrariwise, over 65 years of age this trend was broken so that only the association between age and mortality was persistent, while the rates of access to ICU and IMV started to decline. Younger patients also recognized specific predictors of case fatality, such as obesity and gender. Age negatively impacts on mortality, access to ICU and treatment with IMV in patients < 65 years. In elderly patients only case fatality rate keeps augmenting in a stepwise manner through increasing age categories, while therapeutic approaches become more conservative. Besides age, obesity, gender, history of cancer, and severe dyspnea, tachypnea, chest X-ray bilateral abnormalities, abnormal level of creatinine and leucocyte among admission parameters seem to play a central role in the outcome of patients younger than 65 years.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Panminerva Med ; 63(1): 62-74, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068212

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has wreaked havoc globally, challenging the healthcare, economical, technological and social status quo of developing but also developed countries. For instance, the COVID-19 scare has reduced timely hospital admissions for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Europe and the USA, causing unnecessary deaths and disabilities. While the emergency is still ongoing, enough efforts have been put to study and tackle this condition such that a comprehensive perspective and synthesis on the potential role of breakthrough healthcare technologies is possible. Indeed, current state-of-the-art information technologies can provide a unique opportunity to adapt and adjust to the current healthcare needs associated with COVID-19, either directly or indirectly, and in particular those of cardiovascular patients and practitioners. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched several biomedical databases, websites and social media, including PubMed, Medscape, and Twitter, for smartcare approaches suitable for application in the COVID-19 pandemic. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We retrieved details on several promising avenues for present and future healthcare technologies, capable of substantially reduce the mortality, morbidity, and resource use burden of COVID-19 as well as that of cardiovascular disease. In particular, we have found data supporting the importance of data sharing, model sharing, preprint archiving, social media, medical case sharing, distance learning and continuous medical education, smartphone apps, telemedicine, robotics, big data analysis, machine learning, and deep learning, with the ultimate goal of optimization of individual prevention, diagnosis, tracing, risk-stratification, treatment and rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: We are confident that refinement and command of smartcare technologies will prove extremely beneficial in the short-term, but also dramatically reshape cardiovascular practice and healthcare delivery in the long-term future, for COVID-19 as well as other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Panminerva Med ; 62(4): 252-259, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strong epidemiologic evidence has highlighted the role of pollution, on top of adverse climate features, as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. However, mechanistic proof that reducing pollution may be beneficial to prevent atherothrombotic events is limited. We aimed at appraising the impact of temporary traffic bans in a large metropolitan area on the risk of acute coronary syndromes. METHODS: Aggregate and anonymized data from 15 tertiary cardiac care centers were obtained detailing precoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) daily cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), including those treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Data on pollutants and climate were sought for the same days. Mixed level regression was used to compare the week before vs after the traffic ban (Fortnight analysis), the 3 days before vs. after (Weekly analysis) and the Sunday before vs. after (Sunday analysis). RESULTS: A total of 8 days of temporary traffic bans were included, occurring between 2017 and 2020, totaling 802 STEMI and 1196 NSTEMI in the Fortnight analysis, 382 STEMI and 585 in the Weekly analysis, and 148 STEMI and 210 NSTEMI in the Sunday analysis.Fortnight and Sunday analyses did not disclose a significant impact of traffic ban on STEMI or NSTEMI (all P>0.05). Conversely, Weekly analysis showed non-significant changes for STEMI, but a significant decrease in daily NSTEMI when comparing the 3 days before the traffic ban with the ban day (P=0.043), as well as the 3 days before vs. the 3 days after the ban (P=0.025). No statistically significant effect of traffic ban was found at Fortnight, Weekly or Sunday analyses for daily mean concentrations of benzene, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) <2.5 µm or PM <10 µm (all P>0.05). However, minimum daily concentrations showed a significant reduction of ozone during the ban in comparison to the week preceding it (P=0.034), nitric oxide during the ban in comparison to the 3 days preceding it (P=0.046), and an increase in benzene during the ban in comparison to the Sunday before (P=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Temporary traffic ban may favorably reduce coronary atherothrombotic events, and in particular NSTEMI, even if not globally and immediately impacting on environmental pollution. Further controlled studies are required to confirm and expand this hypothesis-generating results.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 329: 251-259, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented change in the apparent epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the interplay between this disease, changes in pollution, climate, and aversion to activation of emergency medical services represents a challenging conundrum. We aimed at appraising the impact of COVID-19, weather, and environment features on the occurrence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in a large Italian region and metropolitan area. METHODS AND RESULTS: Italy was hit early on by COVID-19, such that state of emergency was declared on January 31, 2020, and national lockdown implemented on March 9, 2020, mainly because the accrual of cases in Northern Italy. In order to appraise the independent contribution on changes in STEMI and NSTEMI daily rates of COVID-19, climate and pollution, we collected data on these clinical events from tertiary care cardiovascular centers in the Lazio region and Rome metropolitan area. Multilevel Poisson modeling was used to appraise unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates for the daily incidence of STEMI and NSTEMI cases. The sample included 1448 STEMI and 2040 NSTEMI, with a total of 2882 PCI spanning 6 months. Significant reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI were evident already in early February 2020 (all p<0.05), concomitantly with COVID-19 spread and institution of national countermeasures. Changes in STEMI and NSTEMI were inversely associated with daily COVID-19 tests, cases, and/or death (p<0.05). In addition, STEMI and NSTEMI incidences were associated with daily NO2, PM10, and O3 concentrations, as well as temperature (p<0.05). Multi-stage and multiply adjusted models highlighted that reductions in STEMI were significantly associated with COVID-19 data (p<0.001), whereas changes in NSTEMI were significantly associated with both NO2 and COVID-19 data (both p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in STEMI and NSTEMI in the COVID-19 pandemic may depend on different concomitant epidemiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms. In particular, recent changes in STEMI may depend on COVID-19 scare, leading to excess all-cause mortality, or effective reduced incidence, whereas reductions in NSTEMI may also be due to beneficial reductions in NO2 emissions in the lockdown phase.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Weather , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 105-110, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002136

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus-associated disease-2019 (COVID-19) display alterations of the hemostatic system and the presence of a prothrombotic status frequently leading to vascular complications. However, the impact of COVID-19 on platelet activity, aggregation and agglutination still needs to be clarified. We measured total levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vWF binding to the platelet glycoprotein (Gp) complex (GPIb-IX-V), in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our Institution. Moreover, we evaluated platelet aggregation in response to agonists (ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid) and platelet agglutination in response to ristocetin. We found that levels of vWF antigen and the active form of vWF binding to platelets (vWF:RCo), were markedly increased in these patients. These results were associated with higher agglutination rates induced by ristocetin, thereby indirectly indicating an increased capability of vWF to bind to platelets. Conversely, we found that platelet aggregation in response to both ADP and collagen was lower in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers. This study shows that COVID-19 is associated with increased vWF-induced platelet agglutination but reduced platelet responsivity to aggregation stimuli. Our findings have translational relevance since platelet adhesion to vWF may represent a marker to predict possible complications and better delineate therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Platelet Aggregation , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Agglutination , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Function Tests , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/virology
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