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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335214

ABSTRACT

Importance Heterogeneous mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic are recognized in the general population, but it has not been systematically assessed in youth with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), including autism spectrum (ASD). Objective Identify subgroups of youth with ASD/NDD based on the pandemic impact on symptoms and service changes, as well as predictors of outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a naturalistic observational study conducted across 14 North American and European clinical and/or research sites. Parent responses on the Coronavirus Health and Impact Survey Initiative (CRISIS) adapted for Autism and Related Neurodevelopmental Conditions (AFAR) were cross-sectionally collected from April to October 2020. The sample included 1275, 5-21 year-old youth with ASD and/or NDD who were clinically well-characterized prior to the pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures To identify impact subgroups, hierarchical clustering analyzed eleven AFAR factors measuring pre- to pandemic changes in clinically relevant symptoms and service access. Random forest classification assessed the relative contribution in predicting subgroup membership of 20 features including socio-demographics, pre-pandemic service, and clinical severity along with indices of COVID-19 related experiences and environments empirically-derived from AFAR parent responses and global open sources. Results Clustering analyses revealed four ASD/NDD impact subgroups. One subgroup - broad symptom worsening only (20% of the aggregate sample) - included youth with worsening symptoms that were above and beyond that of their ASD/NDD peers and with similar service disruptions as those in the aggregate average. The three other subgroups showed symptom changes similar to the aggregate average but differed in service access: primarily modified services (23%), primarily lost services (6%), and average services/symptom changes (53%). Pre-pandemic factors (e.g., number of services), pandemic environments and experiences (e.g., COVID-19 cases, related restrictions, COVID-19 Worries), and age emerged in unique combinations as distinct protective or risk factors for each subgroup. Together they highlighted the role of universal risk factors, such as risk perception, and the protective role of services before and during the pandemic, in middle childhood. Conclusions and Relevance Concomitant assessment of changes in both symptoms and services access is critical to understand heterogeneous impact of the pandemic on ASD/NDD youth. It enabled the delineation of pathways to risk and resilience that include universal and ASD/NDD specific contributors.

2.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827088

ABSTRACT

We examined pathways from pre-existing psychosocial and economic vulnerability to mental health difficulties and stress in families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from two time points from a multi-cohort study initiated during the COVID-19 pandemic were used. Parents of children 6-18 years completed questionnaires on pre-COVID-19 socioeconomic and demographic factors in addition to material deprivation and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions, mental health, and family functioning. Youth 10 years and older also completed their own measures of mental health and stress. Using structural equation modelling, pathways from pre-existing vulnerability to material deprivation and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions, mental health, and family functioning, including reciprocal pathways, were estimated. Pre-existing psychosocial and economic vulnerability predicted higher material deprivation due to COVID-19 restrictions which in turn was associated with parent and child stress due to restrictions and mental health difficulties. The reciprocal effects between increased child and parent stress and greater mental health difficulties at Time 1 and 2 were significant. Reciprocal effects between parent and child mental health were also significant. Finally, family functioning at Time 2 was negatively impacted by child and parent mental health and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions at Time 1. Psychosocial and economic vulnerability is a risk factor for material deprivation during COVID-19, increasing the risk of mental health difficulties and stress, and their reciprocal effects over time within families. Implications for prevention policy and parent and child mental health services are discussed. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02459-z.

3.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(4): 125-128, 2022 Apr.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819024

ABSTRACT

Does the timing of when children, youth and adults participate in physical activity, sedentary behaviour (e.g. screen time) and sleep matter when it comes to their overall health? This special issue of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada includes four papers that present evidence and recommendations on the timing of movement behaviours: three separate systematic reviews exploring the associations between health indicators and the timing of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep; and a commentary that discusses the importance of this evidence in terms of practice, policy and research. This editorial sets the stage for this special issue, reflecting on the challenges posed by COVID-19-related public health restrictions on healthy movement. Perhaps now is the optimal time to reimagine how and when we engage in physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep to support our health.


RÉSUMÉ: Est-ce que l'horaire auquel les enfants, les adolescents et les adultes sont actifs, demeurent sédentaires (par exemple devant un écran) et dorment ont une influence sur leur état de santé général? Ce numéro spécial de Promotion de la santé et prévention des maladies chroniques au Canada rassemble quatre articles qui présentent des données probantes et des recommandations concernant l'horaire des comportements en matière de mouvement : trois revues systématiques portant sur les associations entre les indicateurs de l'état de santé et les horaires d'activité physique, de sédentarité et de sommeil et un commentaire sur l'importance de ces données probantes pour les pratiques, les politiques et la recherche. Cet éditorial prépare le terrain pour ce numéro spécial en décrivant les effets des restrictions de santé publique liées à la COVID-19 sur un rythme favorable à la santé. Maintenant semble un moment idéal pour réévaluer de quelle manière et selon quel horaire nous devrions être physiquement actifs, demeurer sédentaires et dormir pour favoriser notre santé.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Exercise , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sedentary Behavior
4.
Healthc Q ; 24(SP): 31-34, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811399

ABSTRACT

This article describes the methods, successes and challenges of engaging parents while studying the impacts of COVID-19 on healthy children and families. Parent partners in a Parent and Clinician Team (PACT) informed study aims, supported feasibility and recommended changes to enhance participation. PACT members stated that they felt a sense of connectedness and purpose by contributing to COVID-19 research. Engagement increased by parents acquiring new roles, attending more frequent meetings and co-creating alternative methods of engagement. Recruiting new PACT members was challenging, likely due to limited time and resources available to parents of young children during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Parents
5.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 126-134, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In many jurisdictions, routine medical care was reduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to determine whether the frequency of on-time routine childhood vaccinations among children age 0-2 years was lower following the COVID-19 declaration of emergency in Ontario, Canada, on March 17, 2020, compared to prior to the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of healthy children aged 0-2 years participating in the TARGet Kids! primary care research network in Toronto, Canada. A logistic mixed effects regression model was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) for delayed vaccination (> 30 days vs. ≤ 30 days from the recommended date) before and after the COVID-19 declaration of emergency, adjusted for confounding variables. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore the relationship between the declaration of emergency and time to vaccination. RESULTS: Among 1277 children, the proportion of on-time vaccinations was 81.8% prior to the COVID-19 declaration of emergency and 62.1% after (p < 0.001). The odds of delayed vaccination increased (odds ratio = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.86-4.96), and the hazard of administration of recommended vaccinations decreased after the declaration of emergency (hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.60-0.92). The median vaccination delay time was 5 days (95% CI: 4-5 days) prior to the declaration of emergency and 17 days (95% CI: 12-22 days) after. CONCLUSION: The frequency of on-time routine childhood vaccinations was lower during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustained delays in routine vaccinations may lead to an increase in rates of vaccine-preventable diseases.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Dans plusieurs juridictions, les soins médicaux systématiques étaient réduits à cause de la pandémie de COVID-19. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer si la fréquence de donner les vaccinations systématiques aux enfants de l'âge de 0 à 2 ans était réduite en conséquence de la déclaration d'urgence de COVID-19 en Ontario, Canada dès le 17 mars 2020, comparer avec la fréquence avant la pandémie. MéTHODES: Nous avons mené une étude de cohorte longitudinale des enfants en bonne santé âgés de 0 à 2 ans qui participent dans le réseau de recherche en soins primaires TARGet Kids! à Toronto, Canada. Un modèle de régression logistique à effets mixtes était utilisé pour déterminer le rapport de cotes (RC) pour les vaccinations retardées (> 30 jours c. ≤ 30 jours de la date recommandée) et était équilibré pour les variables confondantes. Le modèle à risques proportionnels de Cox était utilisé pour examiner le lien entre la déclaration d'urgence et le temps jusqu'à la vaccination. RéSULTATS: Parmi 1 277 enfants, la proportion de vaccination à l'heure était 81,8 % avant la déclaration d'urgence de COVID-19 et 62,1 % après (p < 0,001). La possibilité de vaccination retardée était augmentée (RC = 3,77; IC95% : 2,86­4,96), et le taux d'administration recommandé pour les vaccinations était réduit après la déclaration d'urgence (ratio de hasard = 0,75; IC95% : 0,60­0,92). Le médian temps de retard pour les vaccinations était 5 jours (IC95% : 4­5 jours) avant la déclaration d'urgence et 17 jours (IC95% : 12­22 jours) après. CONCLUSION: La fréquence de vaccinations systématiques aux enfants à l'heure était inférieure pendant la première vague de la pandémie COVID-19. Des retards soutenus pour recevoir les vaccinations systématiques peuvent entrainer une augmentation des taux de maladies évitables par la vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e057248, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723819

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health (MH) of children, adolescents and parents. Whereas youth with MH disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) may be at higher risk for exacerbations in emotional and behavioural distress, children and adolescents without pre-existing MH disorders or NDD may also experience MH deterioration due to increases in stress, changes in health behaviours, loss of activities/school closures or loss of resources. Little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 emergency measures (EMs) on children's MH over the course of the pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Longitudinal study of four well-established, pre-existing cohorts in Ontario (two recruited in clinical settings, two recruited in community settings). Primary outcomes include the impact of EMs on six MH domains: depression, anxiety, irritability, inattention, hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive behaviours. Risk and protective factors related to youth MH profiles and trajectories will be identified. In addition, the effects of school mitigation strategies, changes in MH services and family factors (ie, parental MH, economic deprivation and family functioning) on children's MH will be examined. Data will be collected via repeated online survey measures selected to ensure reliability and validity for the proposed populations and distributed through the pandemic periods. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by institutional research ethics boards at participating research sites. Results will be disseminated through a robust knowledge translation partnership with key knowledge users. Materials to inform public awareness will be co-developed with educators, public health, and MH and health service providers. Connections with professional associations and MH advocacy groups will be leveraged to support youth MH policy in relation to EMs. Findings will further be shared through conference presentations, peer-reviewed journals and open-access publications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Ontario/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
7.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E82-E89, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital-based food insecurity is defined as the inability of caregivers to obtain adequate food during their child's hospital admission. We aimed to measure the prevalence of household and hospital-based food insecurity, and to explore the associations with caregiver distress in an academic pediatric hospital setting. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children admitted to the general pediatric ward of an academic pediatric hospital in Toronto, Ontario, from April to October 2020. We measured household food insecurity using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and included 3 adapted questions about hospital-based food insecurity. We measured caregiver distress with the Distress Thermometer for Parents. We used descriptive statistics to assess the proportion of respondents with food insecurity, and linear regression models to explore the relation of household (adult and child) and hospital-based food insecurity with caregiver distress. We used thematic analysis to explore caregivers' feedback. RESULTS: We contacted 851 caregivers, and 775 (91.1%) provided consent to participate. Overall, 430 (50.5%) caregivers completed at least part of the survey. Caregivers described a high prevalence of household (34.2%) and hospital-based (38.1%) food insecurity. Adult (ß = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.36), child (ß = 0.38, 95% CI 0.10-0.66) and hospital-based (ß = 0.56, 95% CI 0.30-0.83) food insecurity were significantly associated with caregiver distress, independent of covariates. We identified financial burden, emotional and practical barriers, stress obtaining food and advocacy for food as important themes in caregiver feedback. INTERPRETATION: Both household and hospital-based food insecurity were highly prevalent among caregivers. To reduce caregiver distress, hospitals need to consider reducing barriers for caregivers in obtaining food for themselves during their child's admission.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Hospitals, Pediatric , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1647550

ABSTRACT

Objectives In many jurisdictions, routine medical care was reduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to determine whether the frequency of on-time routine childhood vaccinations among children age 0–2 years was lower following the COVID-19 declaration of emergency in Ontario, Canada, on March 17, 2020, compared to prior to the pandemic. Methods We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of healthy children aged 0–2 years participating in the TARGet Kids! primary care research network in Toronto, Canada. A logistic mixed effects regression model was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) for delayed vaccination (> 30 days vs. ≤ 30 days from the recommended date) before and after the COVID-19 declaration of emergency, adjusted for confounding variables. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore the relationship between the declaration of emergency and time to vaccination. Results Among 1277 children, the proportion of on-time vaccinations was 81.8% prior to the COVID-19 declaration of emergency and 62.1% after (p < 0.001). The odds of delayed vaccination increased (odds ratio = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.86–4.96), and the hazard of administration of recommended vaccinations decreased after the declaration of emergency (hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.60–0.92). The median vaccination delay time was 5 days (95% CI: 4–5 days) prior to the declaration of emergency and 17 days (95% CI: 12–22 days) after. Conclusion The frequency of on-time routine childhood vaccinations was lower during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustained delays in routine vaccinations may lead to an increase in rates of vaccine-preventable diseases. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.17269/s41997-021-00601-9.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140875, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595340

ABSTRACT

Importance: Longitudinal research on specific forms of electronic screen use and mental health symptoms in children and youth during COVID-19 is minimal. Understanding the association may help develop policies and interventions targeting specific screen activities to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth. Objective: To determine whether specific forms of screen use (television [TV] or digital media, video games, electronic learning, and video-chatting time) were associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, irritability, hyperactivity, and inattention in children and youth during COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in children and youth aged 2 to 18 years in Ontario, Canada, between May 2020 and April 2021 across 4 cohorts of children or youth: 2 community cohorts and 2 clinically referred cohorts. Parents were asked to complete repeated questionnaires about their children's health behaviors and mental health symptoms during COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The exposure variables were children's daily TV or digital media time, video game time, electronic-learning time, and video-chatting time. The mental health outcomes were parent-reported symptoms of child depression, anxiety, conduct problems and irritability, and hyperactivity/inattention using validated standardized tools. Results: This study included 2026 children with 6648 observations. In younger children (mean [SD] age, 5.9 [2.5] years; 275 male participants [51.7%]), higher TV or digital media time was associated with higher levels of conduct problems (age 2-4 years: ß, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.10-0.35]; P < .001; age ≥4 years: ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.11]; P = .007) and hyperactivity/inattention (ß, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.006-0.14]; P = .04). In older children and youth (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [3.3] years; 844 male participants [56.5%]), higher levels of TV or digital media time were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and inattention; higher levels of video game time were associated with higher levels of depression, irritability, inattention, and hyperactivity. Higher levels of electronic learning time were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, higher levels of screen use were associated poor mental health of children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings suggest that policy intervention as well as evidence-informed social supports are needed to promote healthful screen use and mental health in children and youth during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Pandemics , Screen Time , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Child , Conduct Disorder/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530416

ABSTRACT

We examined pathways from pre-existing psychosocial and economic vulnerability to mental health difficulties and stress in families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from two time points from a multi-cohort study initiated during the COVID-19 pandemic were used. Parents of children 6-18 years completed questionnaires on pre-COVID-19 socioeconomic and demographic factors in addition to material deprivation and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions, mental health, and family functioning. Youth 10 years and older also completed their own measures of mental health and stress. Using structural equation modelling, pathways from pre-existing vulnerability to material deprivation and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions, mental health, and family functioning, including reciprocal pathways, were estimated. Pre-existing psychosocial and economic vulnerability predicted higher material deprivation due to COVID-19 restrictions which in turn was associated with parent and child stress due to restrictions and mental health difficulties. The reciprocal effects between increased child and parent stress and greater mental health difficulties at Time 1 and 2 were significant. Reciprocal effects between parent and child mental health were also significant. Finally, family functioning at Time 2 was negatively impacted by child and parent mental health and stress due to COVID-19 restrictions at Time 1. Psychosocial and economic vulnerability is a risk factor for material deprivation during COVID-19, increasing the risk of mental health difficulties and stress, and their reciprocal effects over time within families. Implications for prevention policy and parent and child mental health services are discussed. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02459-z.

11.
Can J Public Health ; 112(5): 831-842, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the association between public health preventive measures and children's outdoor time, sleep duration, and screen time during COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort study using repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in healthy children (0 to 10 years) through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) COVID-19 Study of Children and Families in Toronto, Canada, between April 14 and July 15, 2020. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires about adherence to public health measures and children's health behaviours. The primary exposure was the average number of days that children practiced public health preventive measures per week. The three outcomes were children's outdoor time, total screen time, and sleep duration during COVID-19. Linear mixed-effects models were fitted using repeated measures of primary exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: This study included 554 observations from 265 children. The mean age of participants was 5.5 years, 47.5% were female and 71.6% had mothers of European ethnicity. Public health preventive measures were associated with shorter outdoor time (-17.2; 95% CI -22.07, -12.40; p < 0.001) and longer total screen time (11.3; 95% CI 3.88, 18.79; p = 0.003) during COVID-19. The association with outdoor time was stronger in younger children (<5 years), and the associations with total screen time were stronger in females and in older children (≥5 years). CONCLUSION: Public health preventive measures during COVID-19 were associated with a negative impact on the health behaviours of Canadian children living in a large metropolitan area.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: L'objectif principal était de déterminer la relation entre les mesures préventives de la santé publique et le temps passé en plein air, la durée du sommeil ainsi que le temps passé devant l'écran par les enfants pendant COVID-19. MéTHODES: Une étude de cohorte utilisant des mesures répétées des expositions et des effets a été menée chez des enfants en bonne santé (0 à 10 ans) par l'entremise de l'Étude COVID-19 sur les Enfants et Familles du Groupe de Recherche Appliquée pour les Enfants (TARGet Kids!) à Toronto, au Canada, entre le 14 avril et le 15 juillet 2020. Les parents ont été invités à remplir des questionnaires sur adhésion aux mesures préventives de la santé publique et les comportements de santé des enfants. La principale exposition était le nombre moyen de jours par semaine durant lesquels les enfants pratiquaient des mesures préventives de la santé publique. Les trois effets étaient le temps passé en plein air par les enfants, le temps total passé devant l'écran et la durée du sommeil pendant le COVID-19. Des modèles linéaires à effets mixtes ont été ajustés en utilisant des mesures répétées d'exposition primaire et des effets. RéSULTATS: Cette étude comprend 554 observations sur 265 enfants. L'âge moyen des participants était de 5,5 ans, 47,5 % étaient des femmes et 71,6 % avaient des mères d'origine européenne. Les mesures préventives de la santé publique ont été associées à un temps passé en plein air plus court (-17,2 ; IC 95% -22,07, -12,40; p < 0,001) et à un temps total devant l'écran plus long (11,3 ; IC 95% 3,88, 18,79; p = 0,003) pendant la COVID-19. La relation avec le temps passé en plein air était plus importante chez les jeunes enfants (<5 ans), et les relations avec le temps total passé devant l'écran étaient plus importantes chez les enfants de sexe féminin et les enfants plus âgés (≥5 ans). CONCLUSION: Les mesures préventives de la santé publique prises lors de COVID-19 ont été associées à un impact négatif sur les comportements de santé des enfants canadiens vivant dans une grande région métropolitaine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male
12.
Can J Public Health ; 112(5): 831-842, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the association between public health preventive measures and children's outdoor time, sleep duration, and screen time during COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort study using repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in healthy children (0 to 10 years) through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) COVID-19 Study of Children and Families in Toronto, Canada, between April 14 and July 15, 2020. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires about adherence to public health measures and children's health behaviours. The primary exposure was the average number of days that children practiced public health preventive measures per week. The three outcomes were children's outdoor time, total screen time, and sleep duration during COVID-19. Linear mixed-effects models were fitted using repeated measures of primary exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: This study included 554 observations from 265 children. The mean age of participants was 5.5 years, 47.5% were female and 71.6% had mothers of European ethnicity. Public health preventive measures were associated with shorter outdoor time (-17.2; 95% CI -22.07, -12.40; p < 0.001) and longer total screen time (11.3; 95% CI 3.88, 18.79; p = 0.003) during COVID-19. The association with outdoor time was stronger in younger children (<5 years), and the associations with total screen time were stronger in females and in older children (≥5 years). CONCLUSION: Public health preventive measures during COVID-19 were associated with a negative impact on the health behaviours of Canadian children living in a large metropolitan area.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: L'objectif principal était de déterminer la relation entre les mesures préventives de la santé publique et le temps passé en plein air, la durée du sommeil ainsi que le temps passé devant l'écran par les enfants pendant COVID-19. MéTHODES: Une étude de cohorte utilisant des mesures répétées des expositions et des effets a été menée chez des enfants en bonne santé (0 à 10 ans) par l'entremise de l'Étude COVID-19 sur les Enfants et Familles du Groupe de Recherche Appliquée pour les Enfants (TARGet Kids!) à Toronto, au Canada, entre le 14 avril et le 15 juillet 2020. Les parents ont été invités à remplir des questionnaires sur adhésion aux mesures préventives de la santé publique et les comportements de santé des enfants. La principale exposition était le nombre moyen de jours par semaine durant lesquels les enfants pratiquaient des mesures préventives de la santé publique. Les trois effets étaient le temps passé en plein air par les enfants, le temps total passé devant l'écran et la durée du sommeil pendant le COVID-19. Des modèles linéaires à effets mixtes ont été ajustés en utilisant des mesures répétées d'exposition primaire et des effets. RéSULTATS: Cette étude comprend 554 observations sur 265 enfants. L'âge moyen des participants était de 5,5 ans, 47,5 % étaient des femmes et 71,6 % avaient des mères d'origine européenne. Les mesures préventives de la santé publique ont été associées à un temps passé en plein air plus court (-17,2 ; IC 95% -22,07, -12,40; p < 0,001) et à un temps total devant l'écran plus long (11,3 ; IC 95% 3,88, 18,79; p = 0,003) pendant la COVID-19. La relation avec le temps passé en plein air était plus importante chez les jeunes enfants (<5 ans), et les relations avec le temps total passé devant l'écran étaient plus importantes chez les enfants de sexe féminin et les enfants plus âgés (≥5 ans). CONCLUSION: Les mesures préventives de la santé publique prises lors de COVID-19 ont été associées à un impact négatif sur les comportements de santé des enfants canadiens vivant dans une grande région métropolitaine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male
13.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 552-565, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether social determinants of health (SDOH) are predictive of adherence to public health preventive measures and to describe changes in adherence over time among parents and children. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted in children aged 0-10 years and their parents through the TARGet Kids! COVID-19 Study in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada (April-July 2020). This study included 335 parents (2108 observations) and 416 children (2632 observations). Parents completed weekly questionnaires on health, family functioning, socio-demographics, and public health practices. The outcome was adherence to public health preventive measures measured separately for parents and children. Marginal log-binomial models were fitted using repeated measures of the outcome and predictors. RESULTS: Unemployment (RR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.97), apartment living (RR 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.99), and essential worker in the household (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) were associated with decreased likelihood of adherence among parents; however, no associations were observed for other SDOH, including family income and ethnicity. Furthermore, there was no strong evidence that SDOH were associated with child adherence. The mean number of days/week that parents and children adhered at the start of the study was 6.45 (SD = 0.93) and 6.59 (SD = 0.86), respectively, and this decreased to 5.80 (SD = 1.12) and 5.84 (SD = 1.23) by study end. Children consistently had greater adherence than parents. CONCLUSION: SDOH were predictive of adherence to public health preventive measures among parents but less so in children among our sample of relatively affluent urban families. Adherence was high among parents and children but decreased over time. Equitable approaches to support the implementation of public health guidelines may improve adherence.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Voir si les déterminants sociaux de la santé (DSS) sont des prédicteurs de conformité aux mesures de prévention sanitaire et décrire l'évolution de la conformité des parents et des enfants au fil du temps. MéTHODE: Nous avons mené une étude longitudinale auprès d'enfants de 0 à 10 ans et de leurs parents dans le cadre de l'étude sur la COVID-19 menée par le groupe de recherche TARGet Kids! dans la région du Grand Toronto, au Canada (avril à juillet 2020). L'étude incluait 335 parents (2 108 observations) et 416 enfants (2 632 observations). Les parents ont rempli un questionnaire hebdomadaire sur la santé, le fonctionnement familial, le profil sociodémographique et les pratiques sanitaires. Le résultat était la conformité aux mesures de prévention sanitaire, mesurée séparément pour les parents et les enfants. Des modèles log-binomiaux marginaux ont été ajustés à l'aide de mesures répétées du résultat et des prédicteurs. RéSULTATS: Le chômage (RR 0,67, IC de 95 % : 0,47, 0,97), la vie en appartement (RR 0,72, IC de 95 % : 0,53, 0,99) et la présence d'un travailleur essentiel dans le ménage (RR 0,74, IC de 95 % : 0,55, 1,00) étaient associés à une probabilité réduite de conformité chez les parents; par contre, aucune association n'a été observée pour les autres DSS, dont le revenu familial et l'ethnicité. Il n'y avait pas non plus d'indications convaincantes d'une association entre les DSS et la conformité chez les enfants. Le nombre moyen de jours/semaine où parents et enfants s'étaient conformés aux mesures de prévention sanitaire au début de l'étude était de 6,45 (S = 0,93) et de 6,59 (S = 0,86), respectivement; ce nombre a diminué pour atteindre 5,80 (S = 1,12) et 5,84 (S = 1,23) à la fin de l'étude. La conformité des enfants était uniformément supérieure à celle des parents. CONCLUSION: Dans notre échantillon de familles urbaines relativement aisées, les DSS étaient des prédicteurs de conformité aux mesures de prévention sanitaire chez les parents, mais dans une moindre mesure chez les enfants. La conformité était élevée chez les parents comme chez les enfants, mais elle a diminué avec le temps. Des stratégies équitables d'appui à l'application des directives sanitaires pourraient améliorer le respect de ces directives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Public Health , Social Determinants of Health , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Male
14.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 31(4): 671-684, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103467

ABSTRACT

This large cross-sectional study examined the impact of COVID-19 emergency measures on child/adolescent mental health for children/adolescents with and without pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses. Using adapted measures from the CRISIS questionnaire, parents of children aged 6-18 (N = 1013; 56% male; 62% pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis) and self-reporting children/adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 385) indicated changes in mental health across six domains: depression, anxiety, irritability, attention, hyperactivity, and obsessions/compulsions. Changes in anxiety, irritability, and hyperactivity were calculated for children aged 2-5 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. COVID-19 exposure, compliance with emergency measures, COVID-19 economic concerns, and stress from social isolation were measured with the CRISIS questionnaire. Prevalence of change in mental health status was estimated for each domain; multinomial logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with mental health status change in each domain. Depending on the age group, 67-70% of children/adolescents experienced deterioration in at least one mental health domain; however, 19-31% of children/adolescents experienced improvement in at least one domain. Children/adolescents without and with psychiatric diagnoses tended to experience deterioration during the first wave of COVID-19. Rates of deterioration were higher in those with a pre-exiting diagnosis. The rate of deterioration was variable across different age groups and pre-existing psychiatric diagnostic groups: depression 37-56%, anxiety 31-50%, irritability 40-66%, attention 40-56%, hyperactivity 23-56%, obsessions/compulsions 13-30%. Greater stress from social isolation was associated with deterioration in all mental health domains (all ORs 11.12-55.24). The impact of pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis was heterogenous, associated with deterioration in depression, irritability, hyperactivity, obsession/compulsions for some children (ORs 1.96-2.23) but also with improvement in depression, anxiety, and irritability for other children (ORs 2.13-3.12). Economic concerns were associated with improvement in anxiety, attention, and obsessions/compulsions (ORs 3.97-5.57). Children/adolescents with and without pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses reported deterioration. Deterioration was associated with increased stress from social isolation. Enhancing social interactions for children/adolescents will be an important mitigation strategy for current and future COVID-19 waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics
15.
Res Involv Engagem ; 6(1): 69, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has uniquely affected children and families by disrupting routines, changing relationships and roles, and altering usual child care, school and recreational activities. Understanding the way families experience these changes from parents' perspectives may help to guide research on the effects of COVID-19 among children. MAIN BODY: As a multidisciplinary team of child health researchers, we assembled a group of nine parents to identify concerns, raise questions, and voice perspectives to inform COVID-19 research for children and families. Parents provided a range of insightful perspectives, ideas for research questions, and reflections on their experiences during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Including parents as partners in early stages of COVID-19 research helped determine priorities, led to more feasible data collection methods, and hopefully has improved the relevance, applicability and value of research findings to parents and children.

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