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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964028

ABSTRACT

Myocardial injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection may be attributed to the presence of the virus at the cellular level, however, it may also be secondary to other diseases, playing an essential role in the evolution of the disease. We evaluated 16 patients who died because of SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed the group from both clinical and pathological points of view. All autopsies were conducted in the Sibiu County morgue, taking into consideration all the national protocols for COVID-19 patients. Of the 16 autopsies we performed, two were complete, including an extensive examination of the cranial cavity. In our study, the cardiac injury was primarily cumulative. Chronic cardiac injuries included fatty infiltration of the myocardium in five cases, fibrosis in 11 cases, and coronary atherosclerosis in two cases. Among the cases with evidence of acute cardiovascular injuries, inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate was observed in nine cases, subepicardial or visceral pericardial neutrophil-rich vascular congestion in five cases, and venous thrombosis in three cases. Acute ischemia or myocytic distress was identified by vacuolar degeneration in four cases; areas of undulated and/or fragmented myocardial fibers, with eosinophilia and nuclear pyknosis with or without enucleation of the myocytes in nine cases; and in one case, we observed a large area of myocardial necrosis. Immunohistochemical criteria confirmed the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen at the level of the myocardium in only two cases. Comorbidities existing prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with systemic and local inflammatory, thrombotic, hypoxic, or immunological phenomena influence the development of cardiac lesions, leading to death.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(27): e29823, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927463

ABSTRACT

Beside the changes in the gut microbiota in context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the increased use of high-risk broad-spectrum antibiotics during the actual pandemic raises concerns about a possible increase of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs). We retrospectively analyzed 80 consecutive patients, with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and CDI. The mean length of hospitalization was 19.63 days. The mean time of the onset of the digestive symptoms related to CDI was 5.16 days. Patients with an onset of the digestive symptoms from hospital admission have a significantly lower median length in hospital stay. The recovered patients present a statistically significant decreased median age. coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cured patients present CDI symptoms much earlier than the deceased patients, when comparing the median days before the occurrence of any digestive symptoms regarding CDI. Among the patients that prior to their hospitalization for COVID-19 were exposed to antibiotics, 54.7% presented CDI digestive symptoms during their hospitalization and 65.6% had a severe or critical COVID-19 form. Although the incidence of CDI in the pandemic is lower compared to the period before the pandemic, the severity of cases and the death rate increased. In the actual setting clinicians need to be aware of possible CDI and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Microorganisms ; 10(7):1258, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894152

ABSTRACT

Myocardial injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection may be attributed to the presence of the virus at the cellular level, however, it may also be secondary to other diseases, playing an essential role in the evolution of the disease. We evaluated 16 patients who died because of SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed the group from both clinical and pathological points of view. All autopsies were conducted in the Sibiu County morgue, taking into consideration all the national protocols for COVID-19 patients. Of the 16 autopsies we performed, two were complete, including an extensive examination of the cranial cavity. In our study, the cardiac injury was primarily cumulative. Chronic cardiac injuries included fatty infiltration of the myocardium in five cases, fibrosis in 11 cases, and coronary atherosclerosis in two cases. Among the cases with evidence of acute cardiovascular injuries, inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate was observed in nine cases, subepicardial or visceral pericardial neutrophil-rich vascular congestion in five cases, and venous thrombosis in three cases. Acute ischemia or myocytic distress was identified by vacuolar degeneration in four cases;areas of undulated and/or fragmented myocardial fibers, with eosinophilia and nuclear pyknosis with or without enucleation of the myocytes in nine cases;and in one case, we observed a large area of myocardial necrosis. Immunohistochemical criteria confirmed the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen at the level of the myocardium in only two cases. Comorbidities existing prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with systemic and local inflammatory, thrombotic, hypoxic, or immunological phenomena influence the development of cardiac lesions, leading to death.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25832, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216697

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal recombinant antibody against IL-6 receptor, is currently used in managing the cytokine release syndrome (CRS) that occurred in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) selected cases. The primary objective of our study was to establish the effectiveness of TCZ in patients with severe or critical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia.We retrospectively analyzed 25 consecutive patients, admitted in the Academic Emergency Hospital Sibiu, Romania from April 1, 2020 until May 25, 2020, all with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe pneumonia. All patients were treated off-label with TCZ, beside their standard care. Adjuvant iron chelator was associated in 11 patients.Six female and 19 male patients admitted in our hospital all with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe pneumonia as defined by Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were enrolled in this study. Seventeen of the 25 enrolled patients (68%) were seriously ill requiring noninvasive ventilation or oxygen mask, and 8 cases (32%) were critically ill requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients received TCZ, and also received hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50 mg for 10 days. Adjuvant iron chelator (deferasirox - marketed as Exjade) was associated in 11 patients who had ferritin serum levels above 1000 ng/mL. No side effects were encountered during infusions or after TCZ. We observed a rapid increase in arterial oxygen saturation for 20 of the 25 cases (80%) with a favorable evolution toward healing. Survivors were younger than 60 years old (80%), had less comorbidities (10% no comorbidities, 70% with 1 or 2 comorbidities), lower serum ferritin levels (30% under 1000 ng/mL), and 50% had no serum glucose elevation. Our patients with CRS had no response to corticosteroid therapy. Five out of the 25 patients had an unfavorable evolution to death. The off-label use of TCZ in patients with severe or critically ill form of SARS-CoV-2 infection had good results in our study.Off-label use of TCZ in severe and critical cases of COVID-19 pneumonia is effective in managing the "cytokine storm." Better outcomes were noted in younger patients. Associated adjuvant iron chelators may contribute to a good outcome and needs to be confirmed in larger studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Deferasirox/therapeutic use , Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Off-Label Use , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Romania , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 72-77, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been covered insufficiently in the literature. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients admitted to the study hospital with confirmed COVID-19 who experienced various skin manifestations during hospitalization or in the convalescence period, were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with COVID-19, admitted to the study hospital between 23 March and 12 September 2020, had intra-infectious rash or lesions of cutaneous vasculitis during convalescence. The most common cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 were erythematous and erythematous papular rash. Twenty-seven of the 39 patients had anosmia (69.2%), 26 patients had ageusia (66.7%), 34 patients had pneumonia (87.2%) and 24 patients had intra-infectious enterocolitis (61.5%). Skin biopsies were rarely performed in these patients. This article reports the results of biopsies performed in two patients, showing histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in erythematous rash and erythema multiforme-like lesions. Both skin biopsies revealed early fibrous remodelling of the dermis, suggesting similarity with changes that occur in the lungs and other tissues in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between skin lesions and anosmia, ageusia and enteritis in patients with COVID-19 do not seem to be accidental, but are associated with a similar response to ACE2 receptor expression in these tissues.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Enteritis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25352, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174981

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pityriasis rosea Gibert is an erythematous-papulosquamous dermatosis that frequently occurs in young adults. The etiopathogenesis of PR is still unknown, but is frequently associated with episodes of upper respiratory tract infections. It is likely that a new viral trigger of pityriasis rosea is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a female patient in whom the diagnosis of pityriasis rosea led to the investigation and diagnosis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patient presented to the Department of Dermatology for a 3 week duration of an extremely pruritic erythematous-squamous lesion, initially on the trunk and upper limbs, with extension to the lower limbs in the last week and the lesion respected the cephalic extremity, palms, and soles. One week before the rash, respiratory tract infection symptomatology was observed by the patient. At home, she underwent systemic treatment with antihistamines and topical medication with dermatocorticosteroids. The evolution was unfavorable, with the spread of the lesions and the accentuation of the pruritus. DIAGNOSES: Considering the actual epidemiological context, we performed a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay from nasal and pharyngeal swabs for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to investigate the PR etiology. The patient had a positive RT-PCR result, and was confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment was initiated with systemic corticosteroid therapy - hydrocortisone hemisuccinate 200 mg/day for 7 days, and loratadine 10 mg 2 times a day. Also, topical medication with dermatocorticosteroids and emollients was associated. OUTCOME: Under the treatment that was initiated a partial remission of the lesions after 7 days was observed. LESSONS: Our reported case adds to the other findings regarding the association of PR with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the context of the pandemic, suggesting the need to test patients with PR skin lesions for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pityriasis Rosea/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pityriasis Rosea/drug therapy , Pityriasis Rosea/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21512, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695336

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Syncope is described as the loss of consciousness and postural muscle tone with a short duration and fast onset. Micturition syncope can be caused by abnormal vasovagal response or by the dysfunction of the blood pressure regulating mechanism, which occurs before, during, or immediately after urination. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present 4 cases of COVID-19 hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Academic Emergency Hospital Sibiu, Romania, cases that presented micturition syncope. DIAGNOSES: During hospitalization, patients confirmed with SARS-Cov-2 infection using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, presented micturition syncope in different stages of the infection (at the beginning and in the second week of evolution). INTERVENTIONS: Other causes of syncope such as adrenal insufficiency secondary to corticosteroids treatment, cardiac rhythm disorders, neurological impairment, dehydration, vasoactive medication, malignancies, pulmonary hypertension and coughing were excluded. The treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed following the local and national guidelines. OUTCOMES: The clinical course of all 4 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and micturition syncope was favorable. To our knowledge, micturition syncope in COVID-19 patients has yet not been reported by other authors. LESSONS: To our knowledge, micturition syncope associated with the evolution of COVID-19, has yet not been reported by other authors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Syncope/virology , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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