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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305618

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a novel etiologic agent of viral pneumonia. We aimed to compare clinical features of 165 Italian patients with laboratory confirmed or unconfirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Methods: : On March 31 2020, hospitalized patients who presented with fever and/or respiratory symptoms, exposures, and presence of lung imaging features consistent with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, were included. Before admission to a hospital ward, patients underwent RT-PCR based SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in their nasopharyngeal swab samples. Results: : Of 165 patients studied, 119 had positive RT-PCR results and 46 were RT-PCR negative for two days or longer (i.e., when the last swab sample was obtained). The median age was 70 years (IQR, 58–78), and 123 (74.6%) of 165 patients had at least one comorbidity. The majority of patients (101/165, 61.2%) had a mild pneumonia, and the remaining patients (64/165, 38.8%) a severe/critical pneumonia. We did not find any substantial difference in symptoms, incubation periods, and radiographic/CT abnormalities as well as in many of the biological abnormalities recorded. However, at multivariable analysis, higher concentrations of hemoglobin (OR, 1.34;95% CI, 1.11‒1.65;P = 0.003) and lower counts of leukocytes (OR, 0.81;95% CI, 0.72‒0.90;P <0.001) were statistically associated with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. While mortality rates were similar, patients with confirmed diagnosis were more likely to receive antivirals (95% vs 19.6%, P <0.001) and to develop ARDS (63% vs 37%, P = 0.003) than those with unconfirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. Conclusions: : Our findings suggest that unconfirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia cases may be actually COVID-19 cases and that clinicians should be cautious when managing patients with presentations compatible with COVID-19.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 338: 278-285, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease that is causing a public health emergency. Characteristics and clinical significance of myocardial injury remain unclear. METHODS: This retrospective single-center study analyzed 189 patients who received a COVID-19 diagnosis out of all 758 subjects with a high sensitive troponin I (Hs-TnI) measurement within the first 24 h of admission at the Policlinico A.Gemelli (Rome, Italy) between February 20th 2020 to April 09th 2020. RESULTS: The prevalence of myocardial injury in our COVID-19 population is of 16%. The patients with cardiac injury were older, had a greater number of cardiovascular comorbidities and higher values of acute phase and inflammatory markers and leucocytes. They required more frequently hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit (10 [32.3%] vs 18 [11.4%]; p = .003) and the mortality rate was significantly higher (17 [54.8%] vs. 15 [9.5%], p < .001). Among patients in ICU, the subjects with myocardial injury showed an increase need of endotracheal intubation (8 out of 9 [88%] vs 7 out of 19[37%], p = .042). Multivariate analyses showed that hs-TnI can significantly predict the degree of COVID-19 disease, the intubation need and in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we demonstrate that hs-Tn can significantly predict disease severity, intubation need and in-hospital death. Therefore, it may be reasonable to use Hs-Tn as a clinical tool in COVID-19 patients in order to triage them into different risk groups and can play a pivotal role in the detection of subjects at high risk of cardiac impairment during both the early and recovery stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Rome , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983342

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV], which started to spread from December 2019 onwards, caused a global pandemic. Besides being responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 [SARS-CoV-2], the virus can affect other organs causing various symptoms. A close relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the cardiovascular system has been shown, demonstrating an epidemiological linkage between SARS-CoV-2 and cardiac injury. There are emerging data regarding possible direct myocardial damage by 2019-nCoV. In this review, the most important available evidences will be discussed to clarify the precise mechanisms of cardiovascular injury in SARS-CoV-2 patients, even if further researches are needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 21(21):8141, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896209

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV], which started to spread from December 2019 onwards, caused a global pandemic. Besides being responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 [SARS-CoV-2], the virus can affect other organs causing various symptoms. A close relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the cardiovascular system has been shown, demonstrating an epidemiological linkage between SARS-CoV-2 and cardiac injury. There are emerging data regarding possible direct myocardial damage by 2019-nCoV. In this review, the most important available evidences will be discussed to clarify the precise mechanisms of cardiovascular injury in SARS-CoV-2 patients, even if further researches are needed.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 775, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a novel etiologic agent of viral pneumonia. We aimed to compare clinical features of 165 Italian patients with laboratory confirmed or unconfirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia. METHODS: On March 31, 2020, hospitalized patients who presented with fever and/or respiratory symptoms, exposures, and presence of lung imaging features consistent with 2019-nCoV pneumonia were included. Before admission to a hospital ward, patients underwent RT-PCR based SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in their nasopharyngeal swab samples. RESULTS: Of 165 patients studied, 119 had positive RT-PCR results and 46 were RT-PCR negative for 2 days or longer (i.e., when the last swab sample was obtained). The median age was 70 years (IQR, 58-78), and 123 (74.6%) of 165 patients had at least one comorbidity. The majority of patients (101/165, 61.2%) had a mild pneumonia, and the remaining patients (64/165, 38.8%) a severe/critical pneumonia. We did not find any substantial difference in symptoms, incubation periods, and radiographic/CT abnormalities as well as in many of the biological abnormalities recorded. However, at multivariable analysis, higher concentrations of hemoglobin (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.65; P = 0.003) and lower counts of leukocytes (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72-0.90; P < 0.001) were statistically associated with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. While mortality rates were similar, patients with confirmed diagnosis were more likely to receive antivirals (95% vs 19.6%, P < 0.001) and to develop ARDS (63% vs 37%, P = 0.003) than those with unconfirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that unconfirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia cases may be actually COVID-19 cases and that clinicians should be cautious when managing patients with presentations compatible with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Fever , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling
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