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Nat Commun ; 13(1): 383, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636827


A single center open label phase 2 randomised control trial (Clinical Trial Registry of India No. CTRI/2020/05/025209) was done to assess clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy. At the Infectious Diseases and Beleghata General Hospital in Kolkata, India, 80 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 disease and fulfilling the inclusion criteria (aged more than 18 years, with either mild ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 200-300 or moderate ARDS having PaO2/FiO2 100-200, not on mechanical ventilation) were recruited and randomized into either standard of care (SOC) arm (N = 40) or the convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) arm (N = 40). Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality by day 30 of enrolment and immunological correlates of response to therapy if any, for which plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines was quantitated before and after intervention to assess the effect of CPT on the systemic hyper-inflammation encountered in these patients. The secondary outcomes were recovery from ARDS and time taken to negative viral RNA PCR as well as to report any adverse reaction to plasma therapy. Transfused convalescent plasma was characterized in terms of its neutralizing antibody content as well as proteome. The trial was completed and it was found that primary outcome of all-cause mortality was not significantly different among severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS randomized to two treatment arms (Mantel-Haenszel Hazard Ratio 0.6731, 95% confidence interval 0.3010-1.505, with a P value of 0.3424 on Mantel-Cox Log-rank test). No adverse effect was reported with CPT. In severe COVID-19 patients with mild or moderate ARDS no significant clinical benefit was registered in this clinical trial with convalescent plasma therapy in terms of prespecified outcomes.

COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Passive , India , Inflammation , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 565-574, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358458


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to significant morbidity and mortality. While most suffer from mild symptoms, some patients progress to severe disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: First, to characterize key cytokines and their dynamics in this hyperinflammatory condition, we assessed abundance and correlative expression of a panel of 48 cytokines in patients progressing to ARDS as compared to patients with mild disease. Then, in an ongoing randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), we analyzed rapid effects of CPT on the systemic cytokine dynamics as a correlate for the level of hypoxia experienced by the patients. RESULTS: We identified an anti-inflammatory role of CPT independent of its neutralizing antibody content. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies, as well as reductions in circulating interleukin-6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, contributed to marked rapid reductions in hypoxia in response to CPT. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY OF INDIA: CTRI/2020/05/025209.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
ISBT Sci Ser ; 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297953


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across 87 million people with more than 1·8 million deaths in the world. As there is no definite treatment modality, the use of convalescent plasma has become increasingly popular worldwide. This study aimed to identify an appropriate strategy of donor recruitment and to evaluate the appropriateness of pre-set plasma donation guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study conducted from May to September 2020, the donors were recruited under the following two circumstances: Group I, patients in the post-COVID-19 follow-up in the clinic, and Group II, patients recovered from COVID-19 recruited through mass and electronic media. A pre-set donor selection criteria and laboratory investigation was designed according to national and international guidelines. Approximately 500 ml of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was collected from recovered individuals in each group by two different cell separators. The overall donor's attendance rate, deferral rate, adverse events and donor compliance was analysed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in attendance in relation to registration between the groups (P < 0·0001). Donor deferral was significantly higher in group II compared with group I. The single most frequent cause of donor deferral was low antibody index (P = 0·0001). The total donor adverse event rate in CCP donation was significantly lower compared with routine plateletpheresis procedures. The donor's compliance to blood centre's protocol was satisfactory in both the groups. CONCLUSION: Recruitment of patients in the post-COVID-19 follow-up in the clinic was more effective than the general recruitment through mass and electronic media for convalescence plasma donation in a resource-constrained blood centre.