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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(42): 1319-1326, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081111

ABSTRACT

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and CDC recommend that all health care personnel (HCP) receive annual influenza vaccination to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality among these personnel and their patients (1). ACIP also recommends that all persons aged ≥6 months, including HCP, be vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines and remain up to date (2,3). During March 29-April 19, 2022, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 3,618 U.S. HCP to estimate influenza vaccination coverage during the 2021-22 influenza season as well as receipt of the primary COVID-19 vaccination series and a booster dose. Influenza vaccination coverage was 79.9% during the 2021-22 season, and 87.3% of HCP reported having completed the primary COVID-19 vaccination series; among these HCP, 67.1% reported receiving a COVID-19 booster dose. Among HCP, influenza, COVID-19 primary series, and COVID-19 booster dose vaccination coverage were lowest among assistants and aides, those working in long-term care (LTC) or home health care settings, and those whose employer neither required nor recommended the vaccines. Overall, employer requirements for influenza and COVID-19 primary series vaccines were reported by 43.9% and 59.9% of HCP, respectively; among HCP who completed the primary series of COVID-19 vaccines, 23.5% reported employer requirements for COVID-19 booster vaccines. Vaccination coverage for all three vaccine measures was higher among HCP who reported employer vaccination requirements and ranged from 95.8% to 97.3% for influenza, 90.2% to 95.1% for COVID-19 primary series, and 76.4% to 87.8% for COVID-19 booster vaccinations among HCP who completed the primary series of COVID-19 vaccines, by work setting. Implementing workplace strategies demonstrated to improve vaccination coverage among HCP, including vaccination requirements or active promotion of vaccination, can increase influenza and COVID-19 vaccination coverage among HCP and reduce influenza and COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality among HCP and their patients (4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care
2.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6917-6923, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowing the settings where children ages 5-17 years received COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, and how settings changed over time and varied by socio-demographics, is of interest for planning and implementing vaccination programs. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Child COVID-19 Module (NIS-CCM) were analyzed to assess place of COVID-19 vaccination among vaccinated children ages 5-17 years. Interviews from July 2021 thru May 2022 were included in the analyses for a total of n = 39,286 vaccinated children. The percentage of children receiving their COVID-19 vaccine at each type of setting was calculated overall, by sociodemographic characteristics, and by month of receipt of COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Among vaccinated children ages 5-11 years, 46.9 % were vaccinated at a medical place, 37.1 % at a pharmacy, 8.1 % at a school, 4.7 % at a mass vaccination site, and 3.2 % at some other non-medical place. Among vaccinated children ages 12-17 years, 35.1 % were vaccinated at a medical place, 47.9 % at a pharmacy, 8.3 % at a mass vaccination site, 4.8 % at a school, and 4.0 % at some other non-medical place. The place varied by time among children ages 12-17 years but minimally for children ages 5-11 years. There was variability in the place of COVID-19 vaccination by age, race/ethnicity, health insurance, urbanicity, and region. CONCLUSION: Children ages 5-17 years predominantly received their COVID-19 vaccinations at pharmacies and medical places. The large proportion of vaccinated children receiving vaccination at pharmacies is indicative of the success in the United States of expanding the available settings where children could be vaccinated. Medical places continue to play a large role in vaccinating children, especially younger children, and should continue to stock COVID-19 vaccine to keep it available for those who are not yet vaccinated, including the newly recommended group of children < 5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Immunization
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S182-S192, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051351

ABSTRACT

The National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module used a random-digit-dialed phone survey during 22 April 2021-29 January 2022 to quantify coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, intent, attitudes, and barriers by detailed race/ethnicity, interview language, and nativity. Foreign-born respondents overall and within racial/ethnic categories had higher vaccination coverage (80.9%), higher intent to be vaccinated (4.2%), and lower hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccination (6.0%) than US-born respondents (72.6%, 2.9%, and 15.8%, respectively). Vaccination coverage was significantly lower for certain subcategories of national origin or heritage (eg, Jamaican [68.6%], Haitian [60.7%], Somali [49.0%] in weighted estimates). Respondents interviewed in Spanish had lower vaccination coverage than interviewees in English but higher intent to be vaccinated and lower reluctance. Collection and analysis of nativity, detailed race/ethnicity and language information allow identification of disparities among racial/ethnic subgroups. Vaccination programs could use such information to implement culturally and linguistically appropriate focused interventions among communities with lower vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Haiti , Humans , Intention , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(23): 757-763, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955140

ABSTRACT

Some racial and ethnic minority groups have experienced disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19-related illness and mortality (1,2). Vaccination is highly effective in preventing severe COVID-19 illness and death (3), and equitable vaccination can reduce COVID-19-related disparities. CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM), a random-digit-dialed cellular telephone survey of adults aged ≥18 years, to assess disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage by race and ethnicity among U.S. adults during December 2020-November 2021. Asian and non-Hispanic White (White) adults had the highest ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage by the end of April 2021 (69.6% and 59.0%, respectively); ≥1-dose coverage was lower among Hispanic (47.3%), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) (46.3%), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NH/OPI) (45.9%), multiple or other race (42.6%), and American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (38.7%) adults. By the end of November 2021, national ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage was similar for Black (78.2%), Hispanic (81.3%), NH/OPI (75.7%), and White adults (78.7%); however, coverage remained lower for AI/AN (61.8%) and multiple or other race (68.0%) adults. Booster doses of COVID-19 vaccine are now recommended for all adults (4), but disparities in booster dose coverage among the fully vaccinated have become apparent (5). Tailored efforts including community partnerships and trusted sources of information could be used to increase vaccination coverage among the groups with identified persistent disparities and can help achieve vaccination equity and prevent new disparities by race and ethnicity in booster dose coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Minority Groups , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1633-1641, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924010

ABSTRACT

To identify demographic factors associated with delaying or not receiving a second dose of the 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccine series, we matched 323 million single Pfizer-BioNTech (https://www.pfizer.com) and Moderna (https://www.modernatx.com) COVID-19 vaccine administration records from 2021 and determined whether second doses were delayed or missed. We used 2 sets of logistic regression models to examine associated factors. Overall, 87.3% of recipients received a timely second dose (≤42 days between first and second dose), 3.4% received a delayed second dose (>42 days between first and second dose), and 9.4% missed the second dose. Persons more likely to have delayed or missed the second dose belonged to several racial/ethnic minority groups, were 18-39 years of age, lived in more socially vulnerable areas, and lived in regions other than the northeastern United States. Logistic regression models identified specific subgroups for providing outreach and encouragement to receive subsequent doses on time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , RNA, Messenger , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 847-851, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912314

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can lead to severe outcomes in children, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome, hospitalization, and death (1,2). On November 2, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued an interim recommendation for use of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in children aged 5-11 years for the prevention of COVID-19; however, vaccination coverage in this age group remains low (3). As of June 7, 2022, 36.0% of children aged 5-11 years in the United States had received ≥1 of COVID-19 vaccine (3). Among factors that might influence vaccination coverage is the availability of vaccine providers (4). To better understand how provider availability has affected COVID-19 vaccination coverage among children aged 5-11 years, CDC analyzed data on active COVID-19 vaccine providers and county-level vaccine administration data during November 1, 2021-April 25, 2022. Among 2,586 U.S. counties included in the analysis, 87.5% had at least one active COVID-19 vaccine provider serving children aged 5-11 years. Among the five assessed active provider types, most counties had at least one pharmacy (69.1%) or public health clinic (61.3%), whereas fewer counties had at least one pediatric clinic (29.7%), family medicine clinic (29.0%), or federally qualified health center (FQHC)* (22.8%). Median county-level vaccination coverage was 14.5% (IQR = 8.9%-23.6%). After adjusting for social vulnerability index (SVI)† and urbanicity, the analysis found that vaccination coverage among children aged 5-11 years was higher in counties with at least one active COVID-19 vaccine provider than in counties with no active providers (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.66). For each provider type, presence of at least one provider in the county was associated with higher coverage; the largest difference in vaccination coverage was observed between counties with and without pediatric clinics (aRR = 1.37). Ensuring broad access to COVID-19 vaccines, in addition to other strategies to address vaccination barriers, could help increase vaccination coverage among children aged 5-11 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Ambulatory Care Facilities , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
7.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(5): 760-771, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with certain medical conditions are at substantially increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to assess COVID-19 vaccination among U.S. adults with reported medical conditions. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module collected during August 1-September 25, 2021 were analyzed in 2022 to assess COVID-19 vaccination status, intent, vaccine confidence, behavior, and experience among adults with reported medical conditions. Unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs and APRs) were generated using logistic regression and predictive marginals. RESULTS: Overall, COVID-19 vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose was 81.8% among adults with reported medical conditions, and coverage was significantly higher compared with those without such conditions (70.3%) Among adults aged ≥18 years with medical conditions, COVID-19 vaccination coverage was significantly higher among those with a provider recommendation (86.5%) than those without (76.5%). Among all respondents, 9.2% of unvaccinated adults with medical conditions reported they were willing or open to vaccination. Adults who reported high risk medical conditions were more likely to report receiving a provider recommendation, often or always wearing masks during the last 7 days, concerning about getting COVID-19, thinking the vaccine is safe, and believing a COVID-19 vaccine is important for protection from COVID-19 infection than those without such conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 18.0% of those with reported medical conditions were unvaccinated. Receiving a provider recommendation was significantly associated with vaccination, reinforcing that provider recommendation is an important approach to increase vaccination coverage. Ensuring access to vaccine, addressing vaccination barriers, and increasing vaccine confidence can improve vaccination coverage among unvaccinated adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
8.
Public Health Rep ; 137(5): 988-999, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: National data on COVID-19 vaccination coverage among pregnant women are limited. We assessed COVID-19 vaccination coverage and intent, factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination, reasons for nonvaccination, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to COVID-19 illness and vaccination among pregnant women in the United States. METHODS: Data from an opt-in internet panel survey of pregnant women conducted March 31-April 16, 2021, assessed receipt of ≥1 dose of any COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy. The sample included 1516 women pregnant any time during December 1, 2020-April 16, 2021, who were not fully vaccinated before pregnancy. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine variables independently associated with receipt of COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: As of April 16, 2021, 21.7% of pregnant women had received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, 24.0% intended to receive a vaccine, 17.2% were unsure, and 37.1% did not intend to receive a vaccine. Pregnant women with (vs without) a health care provider recommendation (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 4.86), those who lived (vs not) with someone with a condition that could increase risk for serious medical complications of COVID-19 (aPR = 2.11), and those who had received (vs not) an influenza vaccination (aPR = 2.35) were more likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Common reasons for nonvaccination included concerns about safety risk to baby (37.2%) or self (34.6%) and about rapid vaccine development (29.7%) and approval (30.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a continued need to emphasize the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and to widely disseminate the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other clinical professional societies for all pregnant women to be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(16): 561-568, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811603

ABSTRACT

State and local school vaccination requirements serve to protect students against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected for the 2020-21 school year by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten in 47 states and the District of Columbia (DC), exemptions for kindergartners in 48 states and DC, and provisional enrollment or grace period status for kindergartners in 28 states. Vaccination coverage† nationally was 93.9% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); 93.6% for the state-required number of doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 93.6% for the state-required doses of varicella vaccine. Compared with the 2019-20 school year, vaccination coverage decreased by approximately one percentage point for all vaccines. Although 2.2% of kindergartners had an exemption from at least one vaccine,§ an additional 3.9% who did not have a vaccine exemption were not up to date for MMR. The COVID-19 pandemic affected schools' vaccination requirement and provisional enrollment policies, documentation, and assessment activities. As schools continue to return to in-person learning, enforcement of vaccination policies and follow-up with undervaccinated students are important to improve vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Child , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Pandemics , Schools , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(50): 1735-1739, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625175

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) is highly effective at preventing hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and booster and additional primary dose COVID-19 vaccinations increase protection (1-3). During August-November 2021, a series of Emergency Use Authorizations and recommendations, including those for an additional primary dose for immunocompromised persons and a booster dose for persons aged ≥18 years, were approved because of reduced immunogenicity in immunocompromised persons, waning vaccine effectiveness over time, and the introduction of the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant (4,5). Adults aged ≥65 years are at increased risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death and were one of the populations first recommended a booster dose in the U.S. (5,6). Data on COVID-19 vaccinations reported to CDC from 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and eight territories and freely associated states were analyzed to ascertain coverage with booster or additional primary doses among adults aged ≥65 years. During August 13-November 19, 2021, 18.7 million persons aged ≥65 years received a booster or additional primary dose of COVID-19 vaccine, constituting 44.1% of 42.5 million eligible* persons in this age group who previously completed a primary vaccination series.† Coverage was similar by sex and age group, but varied by primary series vaccine product and race and ethnicity, ranging from 30.3% among non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native persons to 50.5% among non-Hispanic multiple/other race persons. Strategic efforts are needed to encourage eligible persons aged ≥18 years, especially those aged ≥65 years and those who are immunocompromised, to receive a booster and/or additional primary dose to ensure maximal protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , United States/epidemiology
11.
Am J Prev Med ; 62(5): 705-715, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588374

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare personnel are at increased risk for COVID-19 from workplace exposure. National estimates on COVID-19 vaccination coverage among healthcare personnel are limited. METHODS: Data from an opt-in Internet panel survey of 2,434 healthcare personnel, conducted on March 30, 2021-April 15, 2021, were analyzed to assess the receipt of ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine and vaccination intent. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination and intent for vaccination. RESULTS: Overall, 68.2% of healthcare personnel reported a receipt of ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, 9.8% would probably/definitely get vaccinated, 7.1% were unsure, and 14.9% would probably/definitely not get vaccinated. COVID-19 vaccination coverage was highest among physicians (89.0%), healthcare personnel working in hospitals (75.0%), and healthcare personnel of non-Hispanic White or other race (75.7%-77.4%). Healthcare personnel who received influenza vaccine in 2020-2021 (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.92) and those aged ≥60 years (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.37) were more likely to report a receipt of ≥1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Non-Hispanic Black healthcare personnel (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.74), nurse practitioners/physician assistants (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.55), assistants/aides (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.73), and nonclinical healthcare personnel (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.79) were less likely to have received a COVID-19 vaccine. The common reasons for vaccination included protecting self (88.1%), family and friends (86.3%), and patients (69.2%) from COVID-19. The most common reason for nonvaccination was concern about side effects and safety of COVID-19 vaccine (59.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding vaccination status and intent among healthcare personnel is important for addressing barriers to vaccination. Addressing concerns on side effects, safety, and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines as well as their fast development and approval may help improve vaccination coverage among healthcare personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Intention , Vaccination
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1206-1213, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413204

ABSTRACT

Although severe COVID-19 illness and hospitalization are more common among adults, these outcomes can occur in adolescents (1). Nearly one third of adolescents aged 12-17 years hospitalized with COVID-19 during March 2020-April 2021 required intensive care, and 5% of those hospitalized required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (2). On December 11, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents aged 16-17 years; on May 10, 2021, the EUA was expanded to include adolescents aged 12-15 years; and on August 23, 2021, FDA granted approval of the vaccine for persons aged ≥16 years. To assess progress in adolescent COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, CDC assessed coverage with ≥1 dose* and completion of the 2-dose vaccination series† among adolescents aged 12-17 years using vaccine administration data for 49 U.S. states (all except Idaho) and the District of Columbia (DC) during December 14, 2020-July 31, 2021. As of July 31, 2021, COVID-19 vaccination coverage among U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 years was 42.4% for ≥1 dose and 31.9% for series completion. Vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose varied by state (range = 20.2% [Mississippi] to 70.1% [Vermont]) and for series completion (range = 10.7% [Mississippi] to 60.3% [Vermont]). By age group, 36.0%, 40.9%, and 50.6% of adolescents aged 12-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years, respectively, received ≥1 dose; 25.4%, 30.5%, and 40.3%, respectively, completed the vaccine series. Improving vaccination coverage and implementing COVID-19 prevention strategies are crucial to reduce COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality among adolescents and to facilitate safer reopening of schools for in-person learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(25): 922-927, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282751

ABSTRACT

The U.S. COVID-19 vaccination program launched on December 14, 2020. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended prioritizing COVID-19 vaccination for specific groups of the U.S. population who were at highest risk for COVID-19 hospitalization and death, including adults aged ≥75 years*; implementation varied by state, and eligibility was gradually expanded to persons aged ≥65 years beginning in January 2021. By April 19, 2021, eligibility was expanded to all adults aged ≥18 years nationwide.† To assess patterns of COVID-19 vaccination coverage among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed data submitted on vaccinations administered during December 14, 2020-May 22, 2021, by age, sex, and community-level characteristics. By May 22, 2021, 57.0% of persons aged ≥18 years had received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose; coverage was highest among persons aged ≥65 years (80.0%) and lowest among persons aged 18-29 years (38.3%). During the week beginning February 7, 2021, vaccination initiation among adults aged ≥65 years peaked at 8.2%, whereas weekly initiation among other age groups peaked later and at lower levels. During April 19-May 22, 2021, the period following expanded eligibility to all adults, weekly initiation remained <4.0% and decreased for all age groups, including persons aged 18-29 years (3.6% to 1.9%) and 30-49 years (3.5% to 1.7%); based on the current rate of weekly initiation (as of May 22), younger persons will not reach the same levels of coverage as older persons by the end of August. Across all age groups, coverage (≥1 dose) was lower among men compared with women, except among adults aged ≥65 years, and lower among persons living in counties that were less urban, had higher social vulnerabilities, or had higher percentages of social determinants of poor health. Continued efforts to improve vaccination confidence and alleviate barriers to vaccination initiation, especially among adults aged 18-49 years, could improve vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(22): 818-824, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257246

ABSTRACT

Disparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which began during mid-December 2020 (1). As vaccine eligibility and availability continue to expand, assuring equitable coverage for disproportionately affected communities remains a priority. CDC examined COVID-19 vaccine administration and 2018 CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) data to ascertain whether inequities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage with respect to county-level SVI have persisted, overall and by urbanicity. Vaccination coverage was defined as the number of persons aged ≥18 years (adults) who had received ≥1 dose of any Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized COVID-19 vaccine divided by the total adult population in a specified SVI category.† SVI was examined overall and by its four themes (socioeconomic status, household composition and disability, racial/ethnic minority status and language, and housing type and transportation). Counties were categorized into SVI quartiles, in which quartile 1 (Q1) represented the lowest level of vulnerability and quartile 4 (Q4), the highest. Trends in vaccination coverage were assessed by SVI quartile and urbanicity, which was categorized as large central metropolitan, large fringe metropolitan (areas surrounding large cities, e.g., suburban), medium and small metropolitan, and nonmetropolitan counties.§ During December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021, disparities in vaccination coverage by SVI increased, especially in large fringe metropolitan (e.g., suburban) and nonmetropolitan counties. By May 1, 2021, vaccination coverage was lower among adults living in counties with the highest overall SVI; differences were most pronounced in large fringe metropolitan (Q4 coverage = 45.0% versus Q1 coverage = 61.7%) and nonmetropolitan (Q4 = 40.6% versus Q1 = 52.9%) counties. Vaccination coverage disparities were largest for two SVI themes: socioeconomic status (Q4 = 44.3% versus Q1 = 61.0%) and household composition and disability (Q4 = 42.0% versus Q1 = 60.1%). Outreach efforts, including expanding public health messaging tailored to local populations and increasing vaccination access, could help increase vaccination coverage in high-SVI counties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(11): 389-395, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140829

ABSTRACT

In December 2020, two COVID-19 vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) received Emergency Use Authorization from the Food and Drug Administration.*,† Both vaccines require 2 doses for a completed series. The recommended interval between doses is 21 days for Pfizer-BioNTech and 28 days for Moderna; however, up to 42 days between doses is permissible when a delay is unavoidable.§ Two analyses of COVID-19 vaccine administration data were conducted among persons who initiated the vaccination series during December 14, 2020-February 14, 2021, and whose doses were reported to CDC through February 20, 2021. The first analysis was conducted to determine whether persons who received a first dose and had sufficient time to receive the second dose (i.e., as of February 14, 2021, >25 days from receipt of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine or >32 days from receipt of Moderna vaccine had elapsed) had received the second dose. A second analysis was conducted among persons who received a second COVID-19 dose by February 14, 2021, to determine whether the dose was received during the recommended dosing interval, which in this study was defined as 17-25 days (Pfizer-BioNTech) and 24-32 days (Moderna) after the first dose. Analyses were stratified by jurisdiction and by demographic characteristics. In the first analysis, among 12,496,258 persons who received the first vaccine dose and for whom sufficient time had elapsed to receive the second dose, 88.0% had completed the series, 8.6% had not received the second dose but remained within the allowable interval (≤42 days since the first dose), and 3.4% had missed the second dose (outside the allowable interval, >42 days since the first dose). The percentage of persons who missed the second dose varied by jurisdiction (range = 0.0%-9.1%) and among demographic groups was highest among non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons (5.1%) and persons aged 16-44 years (4.0%). In the second analysis, among 14,205,768 persons who received a second dose, 95.6% received the dose within the recommended interval, although percentages varied by jurisdiction (range = 79.0%-99.9%). Public health officials should identify and address possible barriers to completing the COVID-19 vaccination series to ensure equitable coverage across communities and maximum health benefits for recipients. Strategies to ensure series completion could include scheduling second-dose appointments at the first-dose administration and sending reminders for second-dose visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(3): 75-82, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040191

ABSTRACT

State and local school vaccination requirements serve to protect students against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten (kindergartners) in 48 states, exemptions for kindergartners in 49 states, and provisional enrollment and grace period status for kindergartners in 28 states for the 2019-20 school year, which was more than halfway completed when most schools moved to virtual learning in the spring because of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nationally, vaccination coverage† was 94.9% for the state-required number of doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); 95.2% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); and 94.8% for the state-required number of varicella vaccine doses. Although 2.5% of kindergartners had an exemption from at least one vaccine,§ another 2.3% were not up to date for MMR and did not have a vaccine exemption. Schools and immunization programs can work together to ensure that undervaccinated students are caught up on vaccinations in preparation for returning to in-person learning. This follow-up is especially important in the current school year, in which undervaccination is likely higher because of disruptions in vaccination during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (2-4).


Subject(s)
Chickenpox Vaccine/administration & dosage , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization Schedule , United States , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1404-1409, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809623

ABSTRACT

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in more than 6,800,000 reported U.S. cases and more than 199,000 associated deaths.* Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 incidence was highest among older adults (1). CDC examined the changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during May-August by assessing three indicators: COVID-19-like illness-related emergency department (ED) visits, positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Nationwide, the median age of COVID-19 cases declined from 46 years in May to 37 years in July and 38 in August. Similar patterns were seen for COVID-19-like illness-related ED visits and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results in all U.S. Census regions. During June-August, COVID-19 incidence was highest in persons aged 20-29 years, who accounted for >20% of all confirmed cases. The southern United States experienced regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in June. In these regions, increases in the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among adults aged 20-39 years preceded increases among adults aged ≥60 years by an average of 8.7 days (range = 4-15 days), suggesting that younger adults likely contributed to community transmission of COVID-19. Given the role of asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (2), strict adherence to community mitigation strategies and personal preventive behaviors by younger adults is needed to help reduce their risk for infection and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to persons at higher risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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