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Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576991


This study examined pre-pandemic (2017-early March 2020) to early-pandemic (Spring 2020) changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA), and sedentary behavior/sleep (SS), by weekday/weekend, and age (preschool, elementary, middle school). We re-enrolled children from two pre-pandemic obesity prevention trials and examined differences in accelerometer-measured PA from pre-pandemic to early-pandemic across age groups using linear mixed models. Children (n = 75) were 51% multiple race/ethnicities, 29% preschool, 28% elementary, 43% middle school, 65% suburban, 21% rural, and 13% urban. Pre-pandemic to early-pandemic changes in weekday MVPA (p = 0.006), LPA (p = 0.018), and SS (p = 0.003) differed by age. On weekdays, middle schoolers' MVPA decreased 15.36 min/day (p = 0.002) and SS increased 94.36 min/day (p < 0.001) with non-significant changes among preschoolers and elementary schoolers. Compared to elementary schoolers, middle schoolers' changes in weekday MVPA (b = -16.34, p = 0.036) and SS (b = 63.28, p = 0.039) significantly differed. Declines in weekday MVPA and increases in SS among middle schoolers suggest that, compared with younger children, middle schoolers are dependent on school and recreational facilities for PA, and in their absence engage in more sedentary activities and sleep.

Accelerometry , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Exercise , Humans , Policy , Sleep
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-23, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565094


OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine risk and protective factors associated with pre- to early-pandemic changes in risk of household food insecurity (FI). DESIGN: We re-enrolled families from two statewide studies (2017-2020) in an observational cohort (May-August 2020). Caregivers reported on risk of household FI, demographics, pandemic-related hardships, and participation in safety net programs (e.g. CARES stimulus payment, school meals). SETTING: Maryland, United States. PARTICIPANTS: Economically, geographically, and racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool to adolescent-age children. Eligibility included reported receipt or expected receipt of the CARES stimulus payment or a pandemic-related economic hardship (n=496). RESULTS: Prevalence of risk of FI was unchanged (pre-pandemic: 22%, early-pandemic: 25%, p=0.27). Risk of early-pandemic FI was elevated for non-Hispanic Black (aRR=2.1 [95% CI 1.1, 4.0]) and Other families (aRR=2.6 [1.3, 5.4]) and families earning ≤300% federal poverty level. Among pre-pandemic food secure families, decreased income, job loss, and reduced hours were associated with increased early-pandemic FI risk (aRR=2.1 [1.2, 3.6] to 2.5 [1.5, 4.1]); CARES stimulus payment (aRR=0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and continued school meal participation (aRR=0.2 [0.1, 0.9]) were associated with decreased risk. Among families at risk of FI pre-pandemic, safety net program participation was not associated with early-pandemic FI risk. CONCLUSIONS: The CARES stimulus payment and continued school meal participation protected pre-pandemic food secure families from early-pandemic FI risk but did not protect families who were at risk of FI pre-pandemic. Mitigating pre-pandemic FI risk and providing stimulus payments and school meals may support children's health and reduce disparities in response to pandemics.