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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1281-1283, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862553

ABSTRACT

Bars and restaurants are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. A multistate outbreak after a bar gathering in Chicago, Illinois, USA, highlights Omicron variant transmissibility, the value of local genomic surveillance and interstate coordination, vaccination value, and the potential for rapid transmission of a novel variant across multiple states after 1 event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patterns of shedding replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 in severe or critical COVID-19 are not well-characterized. We investigated the duration of replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 shedding in upper and lower airway specimens from patients with severe or critical COVID-19. METHODS: We enrolled patients with active or recent severe or critical COVID-19 who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital intensive care unit (ICU) or long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) because of COVID-19. Respiratory specimens were collected at predefined intervals and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using virus culture and RT-qPCR. Clinical and epidemiologic metadata were reviewed. RESULTS: We collected 529 respiratory specimens from 78 patients. Replication-competent virus was detected in 4 of 11 (36.3%) immunocompromised patients up to 45 days after symptom onset, and in 1 of 67 (14.9%) immunocompetent patients 10 days after symptom onset (P = 0.001). All culture-positive patients were in the ICU cohort and had persistent or recurrent symptoms of COVID-19. Median time from symptom onset to first specimen collection was 15 days (range, 6-45) for ICU patients and 58.5 days (range, 34-139) for LTACH patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 40 of 50 (80%) ICU patients and 7 of 28 (25%) LTACH patients. CONCLUSIONS: Immunocompromise and persistent or recurrent symptoms were associated with shedding of replication-competent SARS-CoV-2, supporting the need for improving respiratory symptoms in addition to time as criteria for discontinuation of transmission-based precautions. Our results suggest that the period of potential infectiousness among immunocompetent patients with severe or critical COVID-19 may be similar to that reported for patients with milder disease.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(15): 446-450, 2020 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389842

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly around the world since it was first recognized in late 2019. Most early reports of person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission have been among household contacts, where the secondary attack rate has been estimated to exceed 10% (1), in health care facilities (2), and in congregate settings (3). However, widespread community transmission, as is currently being observed in the United States, requires more expansive transmission events between nonhousehold contacts. In February and March 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) investigated a large, multifamily cluster of COVID-19. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their close contacts were interviewed to better understand nonhousehold, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This report describes the cluster of 16 cases of confirmed or probable COVID-19, including three deaths, likely resulting from transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings (a funeral and a birthday party). These data support current CDC social distancing recommendations intended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. U.S residents should follow stay-at-home orders when required by state or local authorities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chicago/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Family , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1591-1594, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380140

ABSTRACT

Data on transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among college athletes are limited. In August 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of a cluster of COVID-19 cases among a university's men's and women's soccer teams. CDPH initiated an investigation, interviewed members of both teams, and collated laboratory data to understand transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the teams. Numerous social gatherings with limited mask use or social distancing preceded the outbreak. Transmission resulted in 17 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases across both teams (n = 45), likely from a single source introduction of SARS-CoV-2 (based on whole genome sequencing) and subsequent transmission during multiple gatherings. Colleges and universities are at risk for COVID-19 outbreaks because of shared housing and social gatherings where recommended prevention guidance is not followed. Improved strategies to promote mask use and social distancing among college-aged adults need to be implemented, as well as periodic repeat testing to identify asymptomatic infections and prevent outbreaks among groups at increased risk for infection because of frequent exposure to close contacts in congregate settings on and off campus.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Soccer , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(17): 632-638, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207942

ABSTRACT

Early studies suggest that COVID-19 vaccines protect against severe illness (1); however, postvaccination SARS-CoV-2 infections (i.e., breakthrough infections) can occur because COVID-19 vaccines do not offer 100% protection (2,3). Data evaluating the occurrence of breakthrough infections and impact of vaccination in decreasing transmission in congregate settings are limited. Skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents and staff members have been disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (4,5), and were prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination (6,7). Starting December 28, 2020, all 78 Chicago-based SNFs began COVID-19 vaccination clinics over several weeks through the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program (PPP).† In February 2021, through routine screening, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) identified a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a SNF resident >14 days after receipt of the second dose of a two-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. SARS-CoV-2 cases, vaccination status, and possible vaccine breakthrough infections were identified by matching facility reports with state case and vaccination registries. Among 627 persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection across 75 SNFs since vaccination clinics began, 22 SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified among 12 residents and 10 staff members across 15 facilities ≥14 days after receiving their second vaccine dose (i.e., breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated persons). Nearly two thirds (14 of 22; 64%) of persons with breakthrough infections were asymptomatic; two residents were hospitalized because of COVID-19, and one died. No facility-associated secondary transmission occurred. Although few SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated persons were observed, these cases demonstrate the need for SNFs to follow recommended routine infection prevention and control practices and promote high vaccination coverage among SNF residents and staff members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chicago/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
7.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1129-1135, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Correctional and detention facilities are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 due to shared space, contact between staff and detained persons, and movement within facilities. On March 18, 2020, Cook County Jail, one of the United States' largest, identified its first suspected case of COVID-19 in a detained person. METHODS: This analysis includes SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed by molecular detection among detained persons and Cook County Sheriff's Office staff. We examined occurrence of symptomatic cases in each building and proportions of asymptomatic detained persons testing positive, and timing of interventions including social distancing, mask use, and expanded testing and show outbreak trajectory in the jail compared to case counts in Chicago. RESULTS: During March 1-April 30, 907 symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were detected among detained persons (n = 628) and staff (n = 279). Among asymptomatic detained persons in quarantine, 23.6% tested positive. Programmatic activity and visitation stopped March 9, cells were converted into single occupancy beginning March 26, and universal masking was implemented for staff (April 2) and detained persons (April 13). Cases at the jail declined while cases in Chicago increased. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive intervention strategies coupled with widespread diagnostic testing of detained and staff populations can limit introduction and mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in correctional and detention facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Jails , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(5): e128-e135, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Correctional and detention facilities are at high risk of experiencing outbreaks. We aimed to evaluate cohort-based testing among detained persons exposed to laboratory-confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in order to identify presymptomatic and asymptomatic cases. METHODS: During 1-19 May 2020, 2 testing strategies were implemented in 12 tiers or housing units of the Cook County Jail, Chicago, Illinois. Detained persons were approached to participate in serial testing (n = 137) and offered tests at 3 time points over 14 days (day 1, days 3-5, and days 13-14). The second group was offered a single test and interview at the end of a 14-day quarantine period (day 14 group) (n = 87). RESULTS: 224 detained persons were approached for participation and, of these, 194 (87%) participated in ≥1 interview and 172 (77%) had ≥1 test. Of the 172 tested, 19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the serial testing group, 17 (89%) new cases were detected, 16 (84%) on day 1, 1 (5%) on days 3-5, and none on days 13-14; in the day 14 group, 2 (11%) cases were identified. More than half (12/19; 63%) of the newly identified cases were presymptomatic or asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the utility of cohort-based testing promptly after initiating quarantine within a housing tier. Cohort-based testing efforts identified new SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections that may have been missed by symptom screening alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Correctional Facilities , Chicago/epidemiology , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Minnesota , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa477, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People experiencing homelessness are at increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about specific risk factors for infection within homeless shelters. METHODS: We performed widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction testing and collected risk factor information at all homeless shelters in Chicago with at least 1 reported case of COVID-19 (n = 21). Multivariable, mixed-effects log-binomial models were built to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for SARS-CoV-2 infection for both individual- and facility-level risk factors. RESULTS: During March 1 to May 1, 2020, 1717 shelter residents and staff were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 472 (27%) persons tested positive. Prevalence of infection was higher for residents (431 of 1435, 30%) than for staff (41 of 282, 15%) (prevalence ratio = 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-3.58). The majority of residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection (293 of 406 with available information about symptoms, 72%) reported no symptoms at the time of specimen collection or within the following 2 weeks. Among residents, sharing a room with a large number of people was associated with increased likelihood of infection (aPR for sharing with >20 people compared with single rooms = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.11-2.80), and current smoking was associated with reduced likelihood of infection (aPR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.85). At the facility level, a higher proportion of residents leaving and returning each day was associated with increased prevalence (aPR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16), whereas an increase in the number of private bathrooms was associated with reduced prevalence (aPR for 1 additional private bathroom per 100 people = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in homeless shelters. Reducing the number of residents sharing dormitories might reduce the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection. When community transmission is high, limiting movement of persons experiencing homelessness into and out of shelters might also be beneficial.

11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1625-1630, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914857

ABSTRACT

Correctional and detention facilities have been disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of shared space and movement of staff members and detained persons within facilities (1,2). During March 1-April 30, 2020, at Cook County Jail in Chicago, Illinois, >900 COVID-19 cases were diagnosed across all 10 housing divisions, representing 13 unique buildings.† Movement within the jail was examined through network analyses and visualization, a field that examines elements within a network and the connections between them. This methodology has been used to supplement contact tracing investigations for tuberculosis and to understand how social networks contribute to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (3-5). Movements and connections of 5,884 persons (3,843 [65%] detained persons and 2,041 [35%] staff members) at the jail during March 1-April 30 were analyzed. A total of 472 (12.3%) COVID-19 cases were identified among detained persons and 198 (9.7%) among staff members. Among 103,701 shared-shift connections among staff members, 1.4% occurred between persons with COVID-19, a percentage that is significantly higher than the expected 0.9% by random occurrence alone (p<0.001), suggesting that additional transmission occurred within this group. The observed connections among detained persons with COVID-19 were significantly lower than expected (1.0% versus 1.1%, p<0.001) when considering only the housing units in which initial transmission occurred, suggesting that the systematic isolation of persons with COVID-19 is effective at limiting transmission. A network-informed approach can identify likely points of high transmission, allowing for interventions to reduce transmission targeted at these groups or locations, such as by reducing convening of staff members, closing breakrooms, and cessation of contact sports.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prisons , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Data Visualization , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Networking
12.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1): 88-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Widespread global transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), continues. Many questions remain about asymptomatic or atypical infections and transmission dynamics. We used comprehensive contact tracing of the first 2 confirmed patients in Illinois with COVID-19 and serologic SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing to determine whether contacts had evidence of undetected COVID-19. METHODS: Contacts were eligible for serologic follow-up if previously tested for COVID-19 during an initial investigation or had greater-risk exposures. Contacts completed a standardized questionnaire during the initial investigation. We classified exposure risk as high, medium, or low based on interactions with 2 index patients and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Serologic testing used a SARS-CoV-2 spike enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on serum specimens collected from participants approximately 6 weeks after initial exposure to either index patient. The 2 index patients provided serum specimens throughout their illness. We collected data on demographic, exposure, and epidemiologic characteristics. RESULTS: Of 347 contacts, 110 were eligible for serologic follow-up; 59 (17% of all contacts) enrolled. Of these, 53 (90%) were health care personnel and 6 (10%) were community contacts. Seventeen (29%) reported high-risk exposures, 15 (25%) medium-risk, and 27 (46%) low-risk. No participant had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The 2 index patients had antibodies detected at dilutions >1:6400 within 4 weeks after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: In serologic follow-up of the first 2 known patients in Illinois with COVID-19, we found no secondary transmission among tested contacts. Lack of seroconversion among these contacts adds to our understanding of conditions (ie, use of PPE) under which SARS-CoV-2 infections might not result in transmission and demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is a useful tool to verify epidemiologic findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Lancet ; 395(10230): 1137-1144, 2020 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first detected in China in December, 2019. In January, 2020, state, local, and federal public health agencies investigated the first case of COVID-19 in Illinois, USA. METHODS: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were defined as those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Contacts were people with exposure to a patient with COVID-19 on or after the patient's symptom onset date. Contacts underwent active symptom monitoring for 14 days following their last exposure. Contacts who developed fever, cough, or shortness of breath became persons under investigation and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. A convenience sample of 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel contacts were also tested. FINDINGS: Patient 1-a woman in her 60s-returned from China in mid-January, 2020. One week later, she was hospitalised with pneumonia and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her husband (Patient 2) did not travel but had frequent close contact with his wife. He was admitted 8 days later and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 372 contacts of both cases were identified; 347 underwent active symptom monitoring, including 152 community contacts and 195 health-care personnel. Of monitored contacts, 43 became persons under investigation, in addition to Patient 2. These 43 persons under investigation and all 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred between two people with prolonged, unprotected exposure while Patient 1 was symptomatic. Despite active symptom monitoring and testing of symptomatic and some asymptomatic contacts, no further transmission was detected. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , China , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Illinois , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
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