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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911436

ABSTRACT

Whether severe COVID-19 is by itself a significant risk factor for the development of candidemia currently remains an open question as conflicting results have been published. We aim to assess the occurrence of candidemia in patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We conducted a retrospective study on patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia admitted to 5 ICUs in France who were specifically screened for fungal complications between March 2020 and January 2021. The study population included a total of 264 patients; the median age was 56 years old and most of them were male (n = 186; 70.5%) and immunocompetent (n = 225; 87.5%), and 62.7% (n = 153/244) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Microbiological analysis included 4864 blood culture samples and beta-glucan test performed on 975 sera. Candidemia was diagnosed in 13 (4.9%) patients. The species involved were mainly C. albicans (n = 6) and C. parapsilosis (n = 5). Almost all patients (12/13; 92.3%) had a colonization by yeasts. ICU mortality was not significantly impacted by the occurrence of candidemia. Unrelated positive beta-glucan tests were observed in 49 patients (23.4%), including 6 with mold infections and 43 with false positive results. In our series, patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia seemed at low risk of developing invasive candidiasis.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 180-190, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 have emerged as a population at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of IFIs has not yet been assessed in large populations of mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and mortality associated with IFIs in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 under intensive care. METHODS: We performed a national, multicentre, observational cohort study in 18 French intensive care units (ICUs). We retrospectively and prospectively enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome, with all demographic and clinical and biological follow-up data anonymised and collected from electronic case report forms. Patients were systematically screened for respiratory fungal microorganisms once or twice a week during the period of mechanical ventilation up to ICU discharge. The primary outcome was the prevalence of IFIs in all eligible participants with a minimum of three microbiological samples screened during ICU admission, with proven or probable (pr/pb) COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) classified according to the recent ECMM/ISHAM definitions. Secondary outcomes were risk factors of pr/pb CAPA, ICU mortality between the pr/pb CAPA and non-pr/pb CAPA groups, and associations of pr/pb CAPA and related variables with ICU mortality, identified by regression models. The MYCOVID study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04368221. FINDINGS: Between Feb 29 and July 9, 2020, we enrolled 565 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. 509 patients with at least three screening samples were analysed (mean age 59·4 years [SD 12·5], 400 [79%] men). 128 (25%) patients had 138 episodes of pr/pb or possible IFIs. 76 (15%) patients fulfilled the criteria for pr/pb CAPA. According to multivariate analysis, age older than 62 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·34 [95% CI 1·39-3·92], p=0·0013), treatment with dexamethasone and anti-IL-6 (OR 2·71 [1·12-6·56], p=0·027), and long duration of mechanical ventilation (>14 days; OR 2·16 [1·14-4·09], p=0·019) were independently associated with pr/pb CAPA. 38 (7%) patients had one or more other pr/pb IFIs: 32 (6%) had candidaemia, six (1%) had invasive mucormycosis, and one (<1%) had invasive fusariosis. Multivariate analysis of associations with death, adjusted for candidaemia, for the 509 patients identified three significant factors: age older than 62 years (hazard ratio [HR] 1·71 [95% CI 1·26-2·32], p=0·0005), solid organ transplantation (HR 2·46 [1·53-3·95], p=0·0002), and pr/pb CAPA (HR 1·45 [95% CI 1·03-2·03], p=0·033). At time of ICU discharge, survival curves showed that overall ICU mortality was significantly higher in patients with pr/pb CAPA than in those without, at 61·8% (95% CI 50·0-72·8) versus 32·1% (27·7-36·7; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the high prevalence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidaemia and high mortality associated with pr/pb CAPA in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. These findings highlight the need for active surveillance of fungal pathogens in patients with severe COVID-19. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adolescent , Adult , Child, Preschool , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(3): 307-317, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041932

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Whether severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a significant risk factor for the development of invasive fungal superinfections is of great medical interest and remains, for now, an open question.Objectives: We aim to assess the occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with severe COVID-19.Methods: We conducted the study on patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related pneumonia admitted to five ICUs in France who had respiratory and serum sampling performed for specific screening of fungal complications.Measurements and Main Results: The study population included a total of 145 patients; the median age was 55 years old. Most of them were male (n = 104; 72%), were overweight (n = 99; 68%), and had hypertension (n = 83; 57%) and diabetes (n = 46; 32%). Few patients presented preexisting host risk factors for invasive fungal infection (n = 20; 14%). Their global severity was high; all patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation, and half (n = 73, 54%) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Mycological analysis included 2,815 mycological tests (culture, galactomannan, ß-glucan, and PCR) performed on 475 respiratory samples and 532 sera. A probable/putative invasive pulmonary mold infection was diagnosed in 7 (4.8%) patients and linked to high mortality. Multivariate analysis indicates a significantly higher risk for solid organ transplant recipients (odds ratio, = 4.66; interquartile range, 1.98-7.34; P = 0.004). False-positive fungal test and clinically irrelevant colonization, which did not require the initiation of antifungal treatment, was observed in 25 patients (17.2%).Conclusions: In patients with no underlying immunosuppression, severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia seems at low risk of invasive fungal secondary infection, especially aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1636-1637, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133160

ABSTRACT

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a complication in critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, especially those with severe influenza pneumonia. We report a fatal case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient in France who had severe coronavirus disease-associated pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Immunocompetence , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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