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1.
Viruses ; 14(5):957, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820419

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the immunoglobulin G response and neutralizing activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) among primary health care workers (PHCW) in France and assess the association between the neutralizing activity and several factors, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination scheme. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 10 May 2021 and 31 August 2021. Participants underwent capillary blood sampling and completed a questionnaire. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) protein and the S-1 portion of the spike (S) protein and neutralizing antibodies. In total, 1612 PHCW were included. The overall seroprevalences were: 23.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.6–25.7%) for antibodies against the N protein, 94.7% (93.6–95.7%) for antibodies against the S protein, and 81.3% (79.4–83.2%) for neutralizing antibodies. Multivariate regression analyses showed that detection of neutralizing antibodies was significantly more likely in PHCW with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection than in those with no such history among the unvaccinated (odds ratio (OR) 16.57, 95% CI 5.96–59.36) and those vaccinated with one vaccine dose (OR 41.66, 95% CI 16.05–120.78). Among PHCW vaccinated with two vaccine doses, the detection of neutralizing antibodies was not significantly associated with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.86–2.07), but was more likely in those that received their second vaccine dose within the three months before study entry than in those vaccinated more than three months earlier (OR 5.28, 95% CI 3.51–8.23). This study highlights that previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and the time since vaccination should be considered when planning booster doses and the design of COVID-19 vaccine strategies.

2.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726022

ABSTRACT

There is currently debate about human coronavirus (HCoV) seasonality and pathogenicity, as epidemiological data are scarce. Here, we provide epidemiological and clinical features of HCoV patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) examined in primary care general practice. We also describe HCoV seasonality over six influenza surveillance seasons (week 40 to 15 of each season) from the period 2014/2015 to 2019/2020 in Corsica (France). A sample of patients of all ages presenting for consultation for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ARI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles Network during this period. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of 21 respiratory pathogens by real-time RT-PCR. Among the 1389 ILI/ARI patients, 105 were positive for at least one HCoV (7.5%). On an annual basis, HCoVs circulated from week 48 (November) to weeks 14-15 (May) and peaked in week 6 (February). Overall, among the HCoV-positive patients detected in this study, HCoV-OC43 was the most commonly detected virus, followed by HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. The HCoV detection rates varied significantly with age (p = 0.00005), with the age group 0-14 years accounting for 28.6% (n = 30) of HCoV-positive patients. Fever and malaise were less frequent in HCoV patients than in influenza patients, while sore throat, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis were more associated with HCoV positivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HCoV subtypes appear in ARI/ILI patients seen in general practice, with characteristic outbreak patterns primarily in winter. This study also identified symptoms associated with HCoVs in patients with ARI/ILI. Further studies with representative samples should be conducted to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and clinical features of HCoVs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Primary Health Care , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690259

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within the staff and student populations of the University of Corsica (France) during the second wave of the epidemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 23 November 2020 to 31 January 2021. The participants underwent blood sampling using a fingerstick procedure and completed an anonymized questionnaire. Sera were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (ELISA-S) and, if positive, with an in-house virus neutralization test (VNT). RESULTS: A total of 418 persons were included in the study. The overall seroprevalence was 12.8% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.8-16.6%). A total of 15 (31%) of the 49 individuals who had a positive ELISA-S also had a positive VNT. Seropositivity was associated with living at the city campus during the week and on weekends (OR = 3.74 [1.40-12.00]), using public transportation/carpooling (OR = 2.00 [1.01-4.02]), and being in contact with a person who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 2.32 [1.20-4.40]). The main symptoms associated with seropositivity were "having had an acute respiratory infection" (OR = 3.05 [1.43-6.43]) and "experiencing loss of smell" (OR = 16.4 [5.87-50.7]). CONCLUSION: These results could be useful for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and control on university campuses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319860

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 in China has raised the spectre of a novel, potentially catastrophic pandemic in both scientific and lay communities throughout the world. In this particular context, people have been accused of being excessively pessimistic regarding the future consequences of this emerging health threat. However, consistent with previous research in social psychology, a large survey conducted in Europe in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic shows that the majority of respondents was actually overly optimistic about the risk of infection.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311636

ABSTRACT

Background: The knowledge of risk perceptions in primary care could help health authorities to manage epidemics. Methods A European multi-center study was conducted in France, Belgium and Spain to describe the perceptions, the level of anxiety and the feeling of preparedness of primary healthcare physicians towards the COVID-19 infection at the beginning of the pandemic. The factors associated with the feeling of preparedness were studied using multivariate logistic regressions. Results A total of 511 physicians participated to the study. Among them, only 16.3% (n = 82) were highly anxious about the pandemic, 50.6% (n = 254) had the feeling to have a high level of information, 80.5% (n = 409) found the measures taken by the health authorities suitable to limit the spread of COVID-19, and 45.2% (n = 229) felt prepared to face the epidemic. Factors associated with feeling prepared were: being a Spanish practitioner (adjusted OR = 4.34;95%CI [2.47;7.80]), being a man (aOR = 2.57, 95%CI [1.69;3.96]), finding the measures taken by authorities appropriate (aOR = 1.72, 95%CI [1.01;3.00]) and being highly informed (aOR = 4.82, 95%CI [2.62;9.19]). Conclusions Regarding the dramatic evolution of the pandemic in Europe in the weeks following the study, it appears that information available at this time and transmitted to the physicians could have given a wrong assessment of the spread and the severity of the disease. It seems essential to better integrate the primary care physicians into the information, training and protection channels. A comparison between countries could help to select the most effective measures in terms of information and communication.

6.
Life (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649724

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, several generic variants emerged, including the Alpha variant, with increased transmissibility compared to historical strains. We aimed to compare the evolution of the viral load between patients infected with the Alpha variant and those infected with the historical SARS-CoV-2 strains, while taking into account the time interval between the onset of symptoms and samples. We used data collected from patients with an acute respiratory infection (mild to moderate symptoms) and seen in consultation in primary care, included in a prospective longitudinal study, COVID-A. Patients performed four salivary samples during the follow-up. All patients who had at least one of the saliva samples test positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included in the analysis. Overall, 118 patients were included: 89 infected by the historical strain and 29 infected by the Alpha variant. Even though we tended to observe a higher viral load in the Alpha variant group, we found no significant difference in the evolution of the viral load in saliva samples between patients infected with the Alpha variant of the SARS-CoV-2 and those infected by historical strains when controlling for the time interval between the onset of symptoms and sampling.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580772

ABSTRACT

Unrealistic optimism, the underestimation of one's risk of experiencing harm, has been investigated extensively to understand better and predict behavioural responses to health threats. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a relative dearth of research existed in this domain regarding epidemics, which is surprising considering that this optimistic bias has been associated with a lack of engagement in protective behaviours critical in fighting twenty-first-century, emergent, infectious diseases. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating whether people demonstrated optimism bias during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, how this changed over time, and whether unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with protective measures. Taking advantage of a pre-existing international participative influenza surveillance network (n = 12,378), absolute and comparative unrealistic optimism were measured at three epidemic stages (pre-, early, peak), and across four countries-France, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Despite differences in culture and health response, similar patterns were observed across all four countries. The prevalence of unrealistic optimism appears to be influenced by the particular epidemic context. Paradoxically, whereas absolute unrealistic optimism decreased over time, comparative unrealistic optimism increased, suggesting that whilst people became increasingly accurate in assessing their personal risk, they nonetheless overestimated that for others. Comparative unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with the adoption of protective behaviours, which is worrying, given that these preventive measures are critical in tackling the spread and health burden of COVID-19. It is hoped these findings will inspire further research into sociocognitive mechanisms involved in risk appraisal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Optimism , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(5): 867-872, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdowns and physical distancing have dramatically limited the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 and other common communicable infections. However, little is known about their impact on head lice and scabies. AIM: To assess the impact of the 2020 French National lockdowns (17 March-11 May 2020, and 30 October-15 December 2020) and physical distancing recommendations (from February 2020) on the dynamics of head lice and scabies infestations. METHODS: The weekly sales of topical head lice treatments, topical scabies treatments and oral ivermectin were extracted from the database of the healthcare science company IQVIA (60% of all French retail pharmacies) and analysed over a 5-year period (March 2016-December 2020). A periodic regression model was fitted to drug sales before the COVID-19 period (2016-2019) and extrapolated to compare the observed sales in 2020 to the expected sales. RESULTS: A decrease of the sales of tracer topical treatments for head lice and scabies was observed from March 2020, synchronously with the first French national lockdown. For the period March-December 2020, the mean reduction in observed vs. expected sales for head lice and scabies topical treatments was 44% and 14%, respectively. By contrast, although there was an observed decrease in oral ivermectin sales after March 2020, it was much lower (4%), probably because of studies reporting the potential positive effects of this drug on COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 lockdown and physical distancing reduce circulation of head lice and scabies in France. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of these social behaviour changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lice Infestations , Pediculus , Scabies , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lice Infestations/drug therapy , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Scabies/drug therapy , Scabies/epidemiology , Scabies/prevention & control
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463319

ABSTRACT

In France, social distancing measures have been adopted to contain the spread of COVID-19, culminating in national Lockdowns. The use of hand washing, hydro-alcoholic rubs and mask-wearing also increased over time. As these measures are likely to impact the transmission of many communicable diseases, we studied the changes in common infectious diseases incidence in France during the first year of COVID-19 circulation. We examined the weekly incidence of acute gastroenteritis, chickenpox, acute respiratory infections and bronchiolitis reported in general practitioner networks since January 2016. We obtained search engine query volume for French terms related to these diseases and sales data for relevant drugs over the same period. A periodic regression model was fit to disease incidence, drug sales and search query volume before the COVID-19 period and extrapolated afterwards. We compared the expected values with observations made in 2020. During the first lockdown period, incidence dropped by 67% for gastroenteritis, by 79% for bronchiolitis, by 49% for acute respiratory infection and 90% for chickenpox compared to the past years. Reductions with respect to the expected incidence reflected the strength of implemented measures. Incidence in children was impacted the most. Reduction in primary care consultations dropped during a short period at the beginning of the first lockdown period but remained more than 95% of the expected value afterwards. In primary care, the large decrease in reported gastroenteritis, chickenpox or bronchiolitis observed during the period where many barrier measures were implemented imply that the circulation of common viruses was reduced and informs on the overall effect of these measures.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Seasons , Young Adult
10.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The protocol study will focus on the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 achieved by vaccination and/or natural protection as well as the history, symptoms, and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 in four primary health-care workers (PHCWs) and their household contacts in metropolitan France. METHODS: Here, we propose a protocol for a nationwide survey to determine the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 achieved by vaccination and/or natural protection in four PHCW populations (general practitioners, pediatricians, pharmacists and assistants, and dentists and assistants) and their household contacts. Participants will be included from June to July 2021 (Phase 1) among PHCW populations located throughout metropolitan France. They will be asked to provide a range of demographic and behavioral information since the first SARS-CoV-2 wave and a self-sampled dried blood spot. Phase 1 will involve also a questionnaire and serological study of PHCWs' household contacts. Seroprevalence will be estimated using two ELISAs designed to detect specific IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in humoral fluid, and these results will be confirmed using a virus neutralization test. This study will be repeated from November to December 2021 (Phase 2) to evaluate the evolution of immune status achieved by vaccination and/or natural protection of PHCWs and to describe the history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(29)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323061

ABSTRACT

We measured COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection at primary care/outpatient level among adults ≥ 65 years old using a multicentre test-negative design in eight European countries. We included 592 SARS-CoV-2 cases and 4,372 test-negative controls in the main analysis. The VE was 62% (95% CI: 45-74) for one dose only and 89% (95% CI: 79-94) for complete vaccination. COVID-19 vaccines provide good protection against COVID-19 presentation at primary care/outpatient level, particularly among fully vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Europe , Humans , Primary Health Care
12.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present study was set up to evaluate the efficacy of virological surveillance using posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic in general practice. METHODS: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples were collected without restriction on timing or alimentation by general practitioners from patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) seen in consultation. Saliva samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 other respiratory pathogens. Results for SARS-CoV-2 in saliva samples were compared to results obtained using a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) collected in a certified medical laboratory before or after the ARI consultation. RESULTS: Overall, 143 ARI patients were enrolled between 6 June 2020, and 19 January 2021. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 37.0% (n = 53) of saliva samples and in 39.0% (n = 56) of NPS. Both saliva and NPS were positive in 51 patients. Positive and negative results were concordant between saliva samples and NPS in 51 (96.2%) and in 85 (94.4%) patients, respectively, with a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.97, p < 0.001). Other respiratory viruses were detected in 28.0% (n = 40) of the 143 saliva samples. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that saliva samples could represent an attractive alternative to NPS for surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in patients consulting for an ARI in primary care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
13.
Nature ; 590(7844): 134-139, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065896

ABSTRACT

As countries in Europe gradually relaxed lockdown restrictions after the first wave, test-trace-isolate strategies became critical to maintain the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at low levels1,2. Reviewing their shortcomings can provide elements to consider in light of the second wave that is currently underway in Europe. Here we estimate the rate of detection of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 in France after lockdown through the use of virological3 and participatory syndromic4 surveillance data coupled with mathematical transmission models calibrated to regional hospitalizations2. Our findings indicate that around 90,000 symptomatic infections, corresponding to 9 out 10 cases, were not ascertained by the surveillance system in the first 7 weeks after lockdown from 11 May to 28 June 2020, although the test positivity rate did not exceed the 5% recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO)5. The median detection rate increased from 7% (95% confidence interval, 6-8%) to 38% (35-44%) over time, with large regional variations, owing to a strengthening of the system as well as a decrease in epidemic activity. According to participatory surveillance data, only 31% of individuals with COVID-19-like symptoms consulted a doctor in the study period. This suggests that large numbers of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 did not seek medical advice despite recommendations, as confirmed by serological studies6,7. Encouraging awareness and same-day healthcare-seeking behaviour of suspected cases of COVID-19 is critical to improve detection. However, the capacity of the system remained insufficient even at the low epidemic activity achieved after lockdown, and was predicted to deteriorate rapidly with increasing incidence of COVID-19 cases. Substantially more aggressive, targeted and efficient testing with easier access is required to act as a tool to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The testing strategy will be critical to enable partial lifting of the current restrictive measures in Europe and to avoid a third wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carrier State/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/prevention & control , Carrier State/transmission , Female , France/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization
14.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(5): 376-381, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 several countries implemented measures to reduce the number of contacts such as a national lockdown. We estimated the impact of the first lockdown on the burden of COVID-19 in the community in France. METHODS: Physicians participating in the French Sentinelles network reported the number of patients with an acute respiratory infection (ARI) seen in consultation and performed nasopharyngeal swabs in a sample of these patients (first patient of the week). The swabs were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Clinical and virological data were combined to estimate ARI incidence attributable to SARS-CoV-2 from 17 March to 10 May 2020. RESULTS: The incidence of ARI attributable to COVID-19 decreased after the second week of the lockdown period from 142 (95%CI [101; 183]) to 41 (95%CI [21; 60]) per 100,000 population. A decrease was observed in all areas in metropolitan France. The youngest age groups (<15-years-old) were least affected with a cumulated incidence estimated to 14 per 100,000 population during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The data collected in primary care suggests that the first lockdown implemented in France during spring 2020 significantly reduced the incidence of acute respiratory infections including COVID-19 in France and limited the geographic spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19/diagnosis , France/epidemiology , Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(14)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47747

ABSTRACT

Several French regions where coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported currently show a renewed increase in ILI cases in the general practice-based Sentinelles network. We computed the number of excess cases by region from 24 February to 8 March 2020 and found a correlation with the number of reported COVID-19 cases so far. The data suggest larger circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the French population than apparent from confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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